Harm reduction, students and pleasure: An examination of student responses to a binge drinking campaign.
Hutton F. International Journal of Drug Policy 23(3): 229-235, 2012. (34 refs.)
Background: Recent debates about 'binge drinking' in New Zealand have positioned alcohol consumption amongst young drinkers as of concern. Research notes that students drink more heavily than their peers and that they have a higher incidence of alcohol related harms. In response, a harm reduction campaign aimed at first year university students was developed at a New Zealand university. Methods: This mixed methods study used questionnaires (225) and a small number of semi-structured interviews (4) to elicit student responses to the harm reduction campaign. Results: The majority of students in this study can be characterised as binge drinkers, although their drinking does not appear to cause them concern. The term 'binge drinking' is explored in three developed categories; 'light', 'moderate' and 'heavy' bingeing. Results are considered within a discussion of pleasure as a hindrance to harm reduction campaigns. Conclusions: The concept of 'determined drunkenness' and the notion of pleasure are important in students' motivations for drinking and may contribute to the resistance they have in viewing their alcohol consumption as concerning. It is argued that students already felt that they exercised control over their drinking for pleasure and this produced contradictions in responses towards the campaign compared to actual behaviour.
Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science.
Brief motivational feedback and cognitive behavioral interventions for prevention of disordered gambling: A randomized clinical trial.
Larimer ME; Neighbors C; Lostutter TW; Whiteside U; Cronce JM; Kaysen D. Addiction 107(6): 1148-1158, 2012. (69 refs.)
Aims: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Design: Randomized clinical trial with assignment to a personalized feedback intervention (PFI), cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) or assessment-only control (AOC). PFI was delivered individually in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over four to six sessions and included functional analysis and brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. Setting College campus. Participants: At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (n = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Measurements: Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions and beliefs. Findings: Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = 0.48; CBI d = 0.39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d = 0.60; CBI d = 0.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = 0.48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. Conclusions: A single-session personalized feedback intervention and a multi-session cognitive behavioral intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students.
Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell.
Cigarette use among young adults: Comparisons between 2-year college students, 4-year college students, and those not in college.
Lenk K; Rode P; Fabian L; Bernat D; Klein E; Forster J. Journal of American College Health 60(4): 303-308, 2012. (20 refs.)
Objective: To examine cigarette smoking among young adults based on education status. Participants: Community-based sample of 2,694 young adults in the United States. Methods: The authors compared 3 groups -- those not in college with no college degree, 2-year college students/graduates, 4-year college students/graduates -- on various smoking measures: ever smoked, smoked in past month, smoked in past week, consider self a smoker, began smoking before age 15, smoked over 100 cigarettes in lifetime, ever tried to quit, and plan to quit in next year. Results: The authors found that for nearly all the smoking measures, the 4-year college group was at lowest risk, the noncollege group was at highest risk, and the 2-year college group represented a midpoint. Differences between groups remain after adjusting for parents' education and other potential confounding factors. Conclusions: Smoking behaviors clearly differ between the 2-year, 4-year, and no college groups. Interventions should be tailored for each group.
Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis.
The use of computer technology to reduce and prevent college drinking.
Wodarski JS; MacMaster S; Miller NK. Social Work in Public Health 27(3): 270-282, 2012. (20 refs.)
Underage drinking, or binge drinking, has become a major concern in U.S. society. At The University of Tennessee (UT) a computer-based intervention was put into place for the past 3 years with funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The intervention was provided to all college students via UT's computer network system and was completed mostly online. Students were given a computerized, standardized assessment of alcohol use, and then a brief intervention was given based on the students' information. The intervention targeted students who were at highest risk for developing unsafe alcohol behaviors and/or increasing prior alcohol consumption habits in their first year of college. More than 54,000 graduate and undergraduate students completed the program. Since the launch of the program binge drinking has dropped 27% on campus, frequent binge drinking dropped 44%, and the number of liquor law violations to 18- to 20-year-olds decreased from 542 in 2004 to approximately 158 in 2007. The use of a computer-based intervention was comprehensive, low cost, and required low maintenance.
Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Mobilizing for change: A case study of a campus and community coalition to reduce high-risk drinking.
Linowski SA; DiFulvio GT. Journal of Community Health 37(3): 685-693, 2012. (25 refs.)
Campus and community coalitions include a partnership between campus leaders and community stakeholders and can effectively address the environment that may promote high-risk drinking. Despite evidence suggesting that coalitions may be effective vehicles for producing sustainable changes in college drinking, few campuses work within such a structure. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a campus and community coalition to implement environmental changes and thereby reduce high-risk drinking and associated consequences. This study utilized a case study method to tell the story of a campus and community coalition (CCC) implemented on a large university campus in the Northeast. The study employed multiple methods including archival document review, review of campus and community level data (i.e. alcohol-related arrests and sanctions) and analysis of student level data. The case study discusses the strategies employed, the environmental changes that occurred and the impact these changes have had on student drinking and consequences. Since implementing the campus and community coalition, the campus has seen an increase in enforcement by campus and local police, changes in community by-laws, and significant reductions in student drinking and consequences. The data provide evidence that a comprehensive approach to reducing high-risk drinking can have an impact on the campus and community environment, which in turn impacts student drinking and associated consequences. The CCC utilized a strategic and comprehensive approach to substance abuse prevention, allowing all participants to have a shared understanding of the challenges and best practices. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
Copyright 2012, Springer.
"Liquor before beer, you're in the clear": Binge drinking and other risk behaviors among fraternity/sorority members and their non-Greek peers.
Ragsdale K; Porter JR; Mathews R; White A; Gore-Felton C; McGarvey EL. Journal of Substance Use 17(4): 323-339, 2012. (39 refs.)
Objective: To examine "college drinking culture" and explore alcohol use and other variables among a sample of US college students. Methods: Bivariate cross tabulation and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between alcohol use, gender, Greek membership and risk behaviours among a random sample of 823 undergraduates who completed a health behaviour survey. Results: Respondents who binged were significantly more likely to be male and belong to a fraternity/sorority. Fraternity bingers were significantly more likely to engage in physical fights (p < 0.05) than non-Greek male bingers. Sorority bingers were significantly more likely to be injured (p < 0.01), drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) (p < 0.001), be sexually victimised (p < 0.01) and engage in unwanted sex (p < 0.05) than non-Greek female bingers. Fraternity members who binged frequently (>= 3 times in 2 weeks) were significantly more likely to DUI (p < 0.01) and engage in unprotected sex (p < 0.05) than were those who binged intermittently. Sorority members who binged frequently were significantly more likely to DUI (p < 0.05) than were those who binged intermittently. Conclusion: Prevention efforts likely to be effective in changing binge drinking among college students should be gender specific, consider peer drinking norms, target "windows of risk" and be tailored to the campus' culture of drinking.
Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare.
A review of multicomponent interventions to prevent and control tobacco use among college students. (review).
Rodgers KC. Journal of American College Health 60(3): 257-261, 2012. (18 refs.)
Objective: Multicomponent tobacco control programs have been implemented at the state and community levels and have led to a reduction in tobacco use. The purpose was to review the public health research literature on tobacco prevention and control programs on college campuses and derive evidence-based implications for comprehensive program implementation. Methods: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and PubMed databases were used to search the research literature concerning tobacco prevention and control programs conducted on college campuses published between 2000 and 2009. Results: No studies were found that implemented all 5 recommended components of a comprehensive program. Tobacco control programs containing policy and prevention education were used the most and promotion of tobacco-free environments and banning sales of tobacco products were used the least. Conclusion: The review suggests that despite the recommendation of comprehensive tobacco control programs to reduce tobacco use on college campuses, few institutions have implemented and evaluated programs consisting of multiple components.
Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis.
Structuring a college alcohol prevention program on the low level of response to alcohol model: A pilot study.
Schuckit MA; Kalmijn JA; Smith TL; Saunders G; Fromme K. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(7): 1244-1252, 2012. (62 refs.)
Background: New approaches are needed to bolster the modest effects of campus drinking prevention programs. However, more definitive research on new paradigms is very expensive, and in the current economic climate, progress can be made by evaluating smaller pilot studies. This study describes one such approach. Methods A sample of 18-year-old or older, healthy, drinking freshmen at our university was assigned to 2 groups stratified to be similar on demography, drinking histories, and their level of response (LR) to alcohol. In the spring quarter of the school year, the 32 subjects in each of 2 groups viewed four 45-minute Internet-based videotapes as part of 4 prevention sessions. All 8 modules were based on the same techniques and general content, but the 4 videos for the first group were structured around the validated model of how a low LR affects heavy drinking (the low level of response-based [LRB] Group), with partial mediation by heavier drinking peers, positive alcohol expectancies, and drinking to cope with stress. Videos for the state-of-the-art (SOTA) comparison group did not place the similar prevention messages into the low LR framework. Changes in drinking were evaluated at 3 times: before Module 1, before Module 4, and 1 month after Module 4. Results: Usual and maximum drinks per occasion decreased over time for both high and low LR subjects in both LRB and SOTA groups. As predicted, the low LR students showed greater decreases in the LRB Group, while high LR students showed greater decreases in the more generic SOTA Group. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that tailoring prevention efforts to address specific predisposing factors, such as a low LR, may be associated with beneficial effects on drinking quantity. We hope that these data will encourage additional efforts to validate the low LR-based prevention paradigm and test other interventions that are targeted toward predisposing phenotypes such as impulsivity and negative affect.
Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism.
Magnitude of the problem of drinking alcohol on college campuses. Commentary on "structuring a college alcohol prevention program on the low level of response to alcohol model: A pilot model".
Scott DM. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(7): 1126-1130, 2012. (30 refs.)
Background: The objective of this commentary is to discuss the significance of the study entitled, Structuring a College Alcohol Prevention Program on the Low Level of Response to Alcohol Model: A Pilot Model by Schuckit and colleagues (2012) published in this issue of the Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. The work by Schuckit and colleagues emphasizes the importance of personalizing an alcohol prevention program for college students. Methods: This pilot model is the result of over 30 years of clinical translational research on an individual's level of response to alcohol. The prevention program is efficient, simple, safe, cost-effective and self-directed. Results: The results indicate the computerized intervention was associated with decreases in drinking overall and students with a low level of response to alcohol showed greater decreases when the prevention program is personalized to focus on how level of response is affected by peer influence, alcohol expectancies, and stress management. It concludes that college students with a low level of response to alcohol will benefit from a prevention program that is personalized to this well documented endophenotype. Conclusions: The findings provide the foundation for developing future longitudinal studies of the proposed prevention program with a larger sample size on diverse campuses. In addition, as mentioned in the Discussion section, future studies could also evaluate the effectiveness of other easily measured clinical endophenotypes known to be associated with alcohol use such as impulsivity, negative effect, and maximum number of drinks per occasion.
Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism.
Quantifying littered cigarette butts to measure effectiveness of smoking bans to building perimeters.
Seitz CM; Strack RW; Orsini MM; Rosario C; Haugh C; Rice R. Journal of American College Health 60(4): 331-334, 2012. (10 refs.)
Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a 30-day period inside the prohibited smoking area of 7 campus buildings (large residential hall, small residential hall, administrative building, 2 academic buildings, campus cafeteria, and student union). Results: Investigators found a total of 7,861 cigarette butts (large residential hall: 1,198; small residential hall: 344; administrative building: 107; 2 academic buildings: 1,123 and 806; campus cafeteria: 2,651; and student union: 1,632). Conclusions: Findings suggest that there is low compliance with the university's smoking policy. The described project may be repeated by students at other universities as a method to advocate for policy change.
Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis.
Psychiatric medication-seeking beliefs and behaviors among college students.
Stone AM; Merlo LJ. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 38(4): 314-321, 2012. (34 refs.)
Background: Misuse of prescription psychiatric medications is increasing on college campuses. Sources of medications include friends or family, obtaining prescriptions fraudulently or from multiple physicians, and buying drugs online. Objective: This study assessed psychosocial correlates of medication-seeking behaviors in college students to identify characteristics of potential prescription drug misusers. Methods: The sample included 383 participants (59.2% female) recruited from various campus locations and online classes of a Division I university in the southeastern region of the United States, with an enrollment of approximately 50,000 students. Participants anonymously completed self-report questionnaires. Results: Misusers of prescription psychiatric medication were more likely to have health insurance and to know someone else who had misused that medication. They were more likely to endorse positive attitudes regarding medication-seeking. There was a significant correlation between positive medication-seeking beliefs and reported medication-seeking behaviors. The most common and most accepted form of medication-seeking was asking for the medication from a peer. Conclusions: Results suggest the need for further education regarding the dangers of psychiatric medication-seeking, particularly related to seeking medication from peers. Scientific Significance: This study is the first to assess psychosocial characteristics of college students who seek prescription psychiatric medications for misuse. The information obtained may be used for risk assessment and preventive efforts.
Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare.