The relation between interpersonal violence and substance use among a sample of university students: Examination of the role of victim and perpetrator substance use.
Reed E; Amaro H; Matsumoto A; Kaysen D. Addictive Behaviors 34(3): 316-318, 2009. (16 refs.)?
Objective: To examine the relation between interpersonal violence and substance use and to describe the role of victim and perpetrator substance use within such incidents among university students. Methods: A random sample of students (N = 1197) participating in this cross-sectional study completed an online survey. Logistic regression models assessed the relation between substance use and sexual and physical victimization. Victim and perpetrator substance use at the time of incident were described. Results: Females were more likely to report sexual violence compared to males. whereas males were more likely to report physical victimization (p's<0.05). In logistic regression models, all forms of substance use were significantly associated with physical victimization among males (OR's = 2.0-5.1). Among females, most forms of substance use were associated with sexual victimization (OR's = 2.4-4.7). Both males and females reported high rates of perpetrator and own substance use during victimization incidents. Conclusions: Findings suggest that previous documentation among victimization studies of a relation between substance use and subsequent risk for victimization may also be attributable to the substance use behavior of the perpetrator.
Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science.
Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand university students: Findings from a national web-based survey. ?
Kypri K; Paschall MJ; Langley J; Baxter J; Cashell-Smith M; Bourdeau B. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 33(2): 307-314, 2009. (44 refs.)?
Alcohol-related harm is pervasive among college students in the United States of America and Canada, where a third to half of undergraduates binge drink at least fortnightly. There have been no national studies outside North America. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking, related harms, and individual risk factors among undergraduates in New Zealand. A web survey was completed by 2,548 undergraduates (63% response) at 5 of New Zealand's 8 universities. Drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in the preceding 4 weeks were measured. Drinking diaries for the preceding 7 days were completed. Multivariate analyses were used to identify individual risk factors. A total of 81% of both women and men drank in the previous 4 weeks, 37% reported 1 or more binge episodes in the last week, 14% of women and 15% of men reported 2+ binge episodes in the last week, and 68% scored in the hazardous range (4+) on the AUDIT consumption subscale. A mean of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4, 2.3) distinct alcohol-related risk behaviors or harmful consequences were reported, e.g., 33% had a blackout, 6% had unprotected sex, and 5% said they were physically aggressive toward someone, in the preceding 4 weeks. Drink-driving or being the passenger of a drink-driver in the last 4 weeks was reported by 9% of women and 11% of men. Risk factors for frequent binge drinking included: lower age, earlier age of drinking onset, monthly or more frequent binge drinking in high school, and living in a residential hall or a shared house (relative to living with parents). These correlates were similar to those identified in U.S. and Canadian studies. Strategies are needed to reduce the availability and promotion of alcohol on and around university campuses in New Zealand. Given the high prevalence of binge drinking in high school and its strong association with later binge drinking, strategies aimed at youth drinking are also a priority. In universities, high-risk drinkers should be identified and offered intervention early in their undergraduate careers.
Copyright 2009, Research Society on Alcoholism.
Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Blanco C; Okuda M; Wright C; Hasin DS; Grant BF; Liu SM; Olfson M. Archives of General Psychiatry 65(12): 1429-1437, 2008. (73 refs.)?
Context: Although young adulthood is often characterized by rapid intellectual and social devel-opment, college-aged individuals are also commonly exposed to circumstances that place them at risk for psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders, socio-demographic correlates, and rates of treatment among individuals attending college and their non-college-attending peers in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions ( N=43 093). Analyses were done for the subsample of college-aged individuals, defined as those aged 19 to 25 years who were both attending ( n=2188) and not attending ( n=2904) college in the previous year. Main Outcome Measures: Sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of 12-month DSM-IV psychiatric dis-orders, substance use, and treatment seeking among college-attending individuals and their non-college-attending peers. Results: Almost half of college-aged individuals had a psychiatric disorder in the past year. The overall rate of psychiatric disorders was not different between college-attending individuals and their non-college-attending peers. The unadjusted risk of alcohol use disorders was significantly greater for college students than for their non-college-attending peers ( odds ratio=1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.50), although not after adjusting for background sociodemographic characteristics ( adjusted odds ratio=1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.44). College students were significantly less likely (unadjusted and adjusted) to have a diagnosis of drug use disorder or nicotine dependence or to have used tobacco than their non-college-attending peers. Bipolar disorder was less common in individuals attending college. College students were significantly less likely to receive past-year treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders than their non-college-attending peers. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol use disorders, are common in the college-aged population. Although treatment rates varied across disorders, overall fewer than 25% of individuals with a mental disorder sought treatment in the year prior to the survey. These findings underscore the importance of treatment and prevention interventions among college-aged individuals.
Copyright 2008, American Medical Association.
Identifying two potential mechanisms for changes in alcohol use among college-attending and non-college-attending emerging adults.
White HR; Fleming CB; Kim MJ; Catalano RF; McMorris BJ. Developmental Psychology 44(6): 1625-1639, 2008. (78 refs.)?
This study tested whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. The authors used structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For 4 groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicted more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predicted increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home was a protective factor against increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) was not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on (a) reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and (b) increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home.
Copyright 2008, American Psychological Association.
Pathological gambling: College students' perceived social support.
Weinstock J; Petry NM. Journal of College Student Development 49(6): 625-632, 2008. (31 refs.)?
Within a large sample of college students, we found a lifetime pathological gambling prevalence rate of 8.9%. This rate is elevated in comparison to the meta-analytic estimated lifetime prevalence rate of 5% in college students. Pathological gamblers perceived significantly lower social support than did non-pathological gamblers. Social support is an important factor related to many physical and mental health problems, including pathological gambling. In this study, pathological gamblers perceived lower social support in comparison to nonpathological gambling peers. Because the cause of this relationship is unclear, future studies may want to replicate and explore the etiology of this finding. Also, intervention efforts with this population ought to consider mechanisms for improving social support as having an accessible social network that provides psychological and material assistance may lessen pathological gambling behavior.
Copyright 2008, Johns Hopkins University.
College students' alcohol-related problems: A test of competing theories.
Sun IY; Longazel JG. Journal of Criminal Justice 36(6): 554-562, 2008. (58 refs.)?
This study examined binge drinking, drinking-driving, and other negative behaviors among college students. Specifically, this study tested the explanatory power of three criminological theories: self-control, social bonds, and routine activities. Data used in this research were collected from a survey of 558 students in a state university. Findings indicated that college students with low self-control were significantly more likely to engage in binge drinking, drinking-driving, and negative behaviors. Students who rarely participated in university-organized events or frequently attended parties were more likely to have problems of binge drinking, drinking-driving, and negative behaviors. Several control variables. such as gender and location of residence, were also predictive of alcohol-related problems among college students. Implications for future research are discussed.
Copyright 2008, Elsevier Science.
An ecological perspective on smoking among Asian American college students: The roles of social smoking and smoking motives.
?Otsuki M; Tinsley BJ; Chao RK; Unger JB. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 22(4): 514-523, 2008. (52 refs.)?
Using electronic diaries, the present study examined the roles of social smoking and smoking motives in relation to cigarette use patterns among Asian American college smokers. Multilevel modeling results showed that participants smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Participants' coping (but not social) motives moderated the within-person associations between smoking with peers and the cigarettes smoked during a smoking episode. The findings support the utility of an ecological perspective in examining the dynamic interaction between smoking motives and the social settings of cigarette use, and call for further research on the social smoking behaviors in diverse populations.
Copyright 2008, Educational Publishing Foundation
Sociodemographic and psychobehavioral characteristics of US college students who abstain from alcohol.
Huang JH; DeJong W; Towvim LG; Schneider SK. Journal of American College Health 57(4): 395-410, 2009. (31 refs.)?
Objective: The authors examined the sociode-mographics and psychobehavioral characteristics Of undergraduate US college students who abstain from alcohol. Participants: The respondents were 5,210 undergraduates from 32 colleges and universities. Methods: A survey was mailed to 300 randomly selected students per institution (spring 2000 or 2001). The response rate was 56.2%. Results: Overall, 20.5% of the students abstained. Predictors of abstention included the student's own negative attitude toward alcohol use; perception of friends' alcohol attitudes; male gender; being under age 21; abstaining in high school; non-Greek member or pledge; nonathlete; nonsmoker; non-marijuana user; participant in a religious group; working either 0 or 10+ hours per week for salary; having a mother who abstains; and having a close friend who abstains. Conclusion: Additional research on abstainers is warranted. Campus-based prevention programs should be grounded in a better understanding of how motives not to drink are developed and sustained in high school and college.
Copyright 2009, Heldref Publications.
Substance use and PTSD symptoms impact the likelihood of rape and revictimization in college women.
Messman-Moore TL; Ward RM; Brown AL. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(3): 499-521, 2009. (81 refs.)
?The present study utilized a mixed retrospective and prospective design with an 8-month follow-up period to test a model of revictimization that included multiple childhood (i.e., child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) and situational variables (i. e., substance use, sexual behavior) for predicting rape among 276 college women. It was of particular interest to determine whether traumatic responses (e.g., posttraumatic symptomatology or risky behavior) increased vulnerability for revictimization. During the 8-month follow-up period, 9% of participants were raped; 88% of assaults involved substance use by the victim. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology predicted rape, substance use, and sexual behavior. Substance use, but not sexual behavior, mediated the relation between PTSD symptomatology and rape during the follow-up period. Sexual behavior indirectly impacted risk for rape via substance use. Results suggest that college women with PTSD symptomatology may be at greater risk for rape if they use substances to reduce distress.
Copyright 2009, Sage Publications.