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CORK Bibliography: Violence

106 citations. September 2011 to present

Prepared: September 2012

Abbey A. Alcohol's role in sexual violence perpetration: Theoretical explanations, existing evidence and future directions. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 481-489, 2011. (68 refs.)

Issues. There is controversy regarding the extent to which alcohol plays a causal role in sexual assault perpetration. Approach. This paper critically reviews the relevant alcohol administration and survey research literature. Key Findings. Alcohol administration researchers have randomly assigned male participants to drink conditions prior to exposure to an acquaintance rape scenario. As compared to sober participants, intoxicated participants find the male character's use of force to obtain sex more acceptable and express greater willingness to act in a similar manner. In several studies, these effects are strongest for intoxicated men with hostile attitudes toward women. Survey researchers have asked male participants to describe incidents in which they behaved in a sexually aggressive manner. Men who commit sexual assault when drinking report having traits, attitudes and experiences similar to those of other perpetrators except in the alcohol domain. Perpetrators who commit sexual assault when drinking tend to drink more than other perpetrators in sexual situations and have stronger expectancies regarding alcohol's effects on sexual behaviour. Implications. Overall, research suggests that alcohol interacts with personality and aspects of the situation, adding to the risk of perpetration among men already predisposed to engaging in sexual aggression. Conclusions. Although there are no simple answers to questions about alcohol's role in sexual assault, research suggests that intoxication may be a more important determinant of when some men commit sexual aggression, rather than who becomes sexually aggressive.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Abeya SG; Afework MF; Yalew AW. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: Prevalence, patterns, and associated factors. BMC Public Health 11: 913, 2011. (62 refs.)

Background: Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results: Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion: In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate the situation.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central

Alderete E; Monteban M; Gregorich S; Kaplan CP; Mejia R; Perez-Stable EJ. Smoking and exposure to racial insults among multiethnic youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Cancer Causes & Control 23, 2012. (37 refs.)

Exposure to racial insults among youth in Jujuy, Argentina, was examined as a factor associated with smoking behavior. Youth sampled from eighth-grade classes in 27 randomly selected middle schools completed annual surveys in the ninth and tenth grades. Demographics, race/ethnicity (Indigenous/Amazonian, Indigenous/Andean, Indigenous unspecified group, Mixed European-Indigenous, European), cigarette smoking, and other attitudinal and behavioral factors were measured. Exposure to racial insults, measured in the ninth grade, was modeled to predict cigarette smoking in the previous 30 days (defined as current) in the tenth grade conditional on ninth grade smoking. Of the 3, 122 respondents, 35.5% reported exposure to racial insults and 33.8% were current smokers. Factors associated with racial insults were being male, indigenous language spoken at home, ever and current smoking, smoking in a ceremonial context, exposure to second-hand smoke at home, number of friends who smoke, having low expectations for the future, low identification with conforming role models, high identification with defiant role models, and depressive symptoms. Reported exposure to racial insults increased the risk of current smoking in the 10th grade among Indigenous Amazonian respondents (OR = 3.8; 95% CI 1.4-10.4) and among the Indigenous-unspecified group (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.8), but not among European or Indigenous Andean youth. Exposure to racial insults is commonplace among youth in Jujuy. Evidence of a longitudinal effect of ninth-grade racial insults on tenth-grade smoking rates provides support for an association of racial insults with smoking behavior.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Ayres TC; Treadwell J. Bars, drugs and football thugs: Alcohol, cocaine use and violence in the night time economy among English football firms. Criminology & Criminal Justice 12(1): 83, 2012. (65 refs.)

This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork, the aim of which was to explore the functionality of cocaine (used in conjunction with alcohol and on its own) in the subcultural milieu of the English football firm. The study was originally concerned with the use of violence associated with cocaine use among football fans on match days but, like much ethnography, the research evolved beyond its original remit to include the extension of football firm violence within the night time economy (NTE). The study is unique in giving a voice to this group of individuals and permitting them to be active interpreters of their own world. It included 20 interviews with members of football firms who habitually took part in violent exchanges and found that concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol fulfilled three main functions: the facilitation of extreme violence; the acquisition of 'time out'; and the construction of a (hyper-)masculine identity. These functions were not confined to the subcultural context of the football firm, but had also become an integral component of their mainstream leisure pursuits within the NTE. The findings from this explorative study also contribute answers to the under researched question of whether those 'who are violent in the NTE are also violent in other contexts' (Finney, 2004: 5).

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Bekele AB; van Aken MAG; Dubas JS. Sexual violence victimization among female secondary school students in Eastern Ethiopia. Violence and Victims 26(5): 608-630, 2011. (79 refs.)

Behavioral, lifestyle, and relationship factors have all been identified as risk factors that increase a woman's vulnerability to sexual violence victimization. However, it remains unclear which risk factors most strongly increase young women's vulnerability to sexual violence victimization because most studies only examine a few factors simultaneously. Using a cross-sectional sample of 764 female secondary school students from eastern Ethiopia, multivariate analyses revealed that high-rejection sensitivity, having multiple sexual partners, the frequent watching of pornography, and use of alcohol or other soft drugs (Khat or shisha) are factors associated with higher levels of sexual violence victimization. The overall rates of victimization is high in this group, with 68% of the young women studied having experienced at least one instance of sexual violence victimization. Based on type of sexual perpetration, 52% of the young women were victimized by at least one instance of sexual offence, 56% by sexual assault, 25% by sexual coercion, and 15% by sexual aggression. Qualitative data gathered from interviews of extracurricular club members and school officials and focus group discussion with students were used to further augment and illustrate results from the quantitative data. Several suggestions for intervention are presented in light of these results.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Bennett DJ; Ogloff JRP; Mullen PE; Thomas SDM; Wallace C; Short T. Schizophrenia disorders, substance abuse and prior offending in a sequential series of 435 homicides. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124(3): 226-233, 2011. (35 refs.)

Objective: To examine the relationship between committing homicide, the presence of schizophrenia, substance misuse and past criminality. Method: The study employed a data linkage design, using contacts recorded on two statewide databases, one of which recorded public mental health services contacts and the second of which recorded contacts with the police. The estimated rates of schizophrenia disorders, substance abuse and criminal convictions found among a population of 435 homicide offenders were contrasted with estimated rates in two composite comparison samples. Results: Of the 435 offenders, 38 (8.7%) had been diagnosed with a schizophrenia disorder, which was RR 13.11 (95% CI 9.14-18.80) times more likely than a comparison sample. Rates of known substance abuse between homicide offenders with and without schizophrenia and community-dwelling residents with schizophrenia did not differ significantly. However, these rates were higher than those found in the general community. A similar pattern emerged for comparisons regarding offending histories between these same groups. Conclusion: The association between homicidal violence and having a schizophrenia disorder cannot be explained away simply on the basis of either comorbid substance abuse or prior criminal offending.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Blosnich JR; Horn K. Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: Differences by gender and sexual orientation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 13(12): 1284-1295, 2011. (80 refs.)

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

Blume A; Standerwick K; Tucker L; Harris S; Sheron N. Sexual assault and coincident alcohol use in attendees at a genitourinary medicine clinic in the south of England. International Journal of STD & AIDS 23(2): 115-119, 2012. (17 refs.)

To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the experience of sexual assault, either as victim or perpetrator, among genitourinary (GU) medicine department attendees in Portsmouth, UK, we carried out a cross-sectional survey of consecutive patients attending the walk-in service when a researcher was available. Self-completed questionnaires were used and anonymized data were collected from 1186 participants (response rate 34%). Responses showed that 15.6% of female and 3.7% of male participants had ever being sexually assaulted. Women who reported sexual assault drank more on a heavy night out than those who did not report sexual assault (mean 21.3 versus 17.0 units, P = 0.041). Over half of the victims had been drinking prior to the relevant assault. Twenty-seven participants (2.3%) admitted to having sex with a person who was not fully willing. Of these, 59% had been drinking prior to the assault, and the majority believed alcohol had contributed to the assault. Any strategies aiming to reduce the incidence of sexual assault must address hazardous drinking as a high priority.

Copyright 2012, Royal Society of Medicine Press

Boden JM; Fergusson DM; Horwood LJ. Alcohol misuse and violent behavior: Findings from a 30-year longitudinal study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 122(1-2): 135-141, 2012. (46 refs.)

Background: This study examined the associations between measures of alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD) and violent offending and intimate partner violence (IPV) to age 30 in a New Zealand birth cohort. Methods: Outcomes included: measures of violent offending, violence victimization, and physical IPV perpetration and victimization. The study also used measures of AAD symptoms; and time-dynamic covariate factors including life stress, other substance use, mental health status, peer and partner substance use and offending, and unemployment. Data were analysed using conditional fixed effects regression modelling augmented by time-dynamic covariate factors to control for confounding. Results: Those with five or more AAD symptoms had unadjusted rates of violence outcomes that ranged from 4.10 to 11.85 times higher than those with no symptoms, but these associations did not differ by gender. Adjustment of the associations for both unobserved fixed effects and time-dynamic covariate factors reduced the magnitude of the associations for violent offending, violence victimization and IPV perpetration, with those with five or more AAD symptoms having rates of violence outcomes that were 1.91-3.58 times higher than those with no symptoms. However, control for both fixed effects and time-dynamic covariate factors reduced the associations between AAD symptoms and physical IPV victimization to statistical non-significance (IRR = 0.73, 95% Cl: 0.51-1.06). Conclusions: The results suggest a causal association between alcohol misuse and violent offending/victimization and IPV perpetration, with estimates suggesting that alcohol use disorder accounted for approximately 4.6-9.3% of the reported violent offending/victimization and IPV perpetration in the cohort.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Bogstrand ST; Normann PT; Rossow I; Larsen M; Morland J; Ekeberg O. Prevalence of alcohol and other substances of abuse among injured patients in a Norwegian emergency department. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117(2-3): 132-138, 2011. (28 refs.)

Background: Studies have found a high prevalence of both alcohol and other impairing psychoactive drugs in injured patient populations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potentially impairing psychoactive substances in all patients admitted to a hospital emergency department with injuries from accidents, assault or deliberate self harm. Methods: A total of 1272 patients over 18 years of age, admitted to the hospital within 12 h of injury, were included. Presence of alcohol was determined by an enzymatic method and other drugs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), both highly specific analytical methods for determining recent intake. Results: There were 510(40%) women in the sample. Of the patients, 38% of the women and 48% of the men had a positive blood sample for psychoactive substances on admission. The most prevalent psychoactive substance was alcohol (27%) with an average concentration of 1.5 g/kg. A further 21% of patients tested showed use of medicinal drugs, and 9% showed use of illicit substances. Cannabis was the most prevalent illicit drug (6.2%). Diazepam (7.4%) and zopiclone (5.3%) were the most prevalent medicinal drugs. In road traffic accidents, 25% of the car drivers had positive findings, about half of them for alcohol. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances were found in nearly half the patients admitted with injuries. The most common substance was alcohol. Alcohol was particularly related to violence, whereas medicinal drugs were most prevalent in accidents at home.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Bosman IJ; Verschraagen M; Lusthof KJ. Toxicological findings in cases of sexual assault in the Netherlands. Journal of Forensic Sciences 56(6): 1562-1568, 2011. (24 refs.)

Reports on cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) have increased since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study was to identify the extent and types of drugs found in cases of alleged sexual assault (DFSA) in the Netherlands. In total, 135 cases of alleged DFSA were identified. Most of the victims were women (94%), and the mean age of the victims was 25 years. Blood and urine samples were tested for the presence of alcohol, drugs (drugs of abuse and prescription drugs), or both. In 27% of the cases, no alcohol and/or drugs were found. With increasing time delay, more cases were found to be negative. Alcohol is the most commonly found drug followed by non-opiate analgesics, illicit drugs, and benzodiazepines. In some cases, the absence of alcohol and drugs may represent false-negative results owing to the time delay between alleged sexual assault and sampling.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Brahms E; Ahl M; Reed E; Amaro H. Effects of an alcohol intervention on drinking among female college students with and without a recent history of sexual violence. Addictive Behaviors 36(12): 1325-1328, 2011. (24 refs.)

Objective: Alcohol misuse among college students is a significant public health problem that can have negative long-term implications. One important correlate of problem drinking among college female populations is sexual violence. The current study investigated: (1) past year sexual violence and its association with alcohol consumption and related psychosocial variables (stress, coping, and mental health); and (2) whether the impact of an alcohol intervention was different for college women with a history of sexual violence compared to those without such a history. Methods: Female undergraduate students (N = 351) who participated in the Brief Alcohol Screen in College Students (BASICS) completed web-based surveys measuring alcohol and drug use, psychosocial factors, and sexual violence at baseline and six-month follow-up. Results: At baseline, women who experienced sexual violence reported less use of protective alcohol strategies, more positive coping skills, and more mental health symptoms. Following the intervention, alcohol consumption decreased significantly among the entire sample; however no significant differences in consumption were identified based on a history of sexual violence. Yet, compared to women not reporting sexual violence, women who reported recent sexual violence showed greater improvements in mental health outcomes (p<0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggest that brief alcohol interventions may have a differential impact on alcohol-related outcomes based on whether or not women have experienced recent sexual violence.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Branas CC; Richmond TS; Ten Have TR; Wiebe DJ. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Substance Use & Misuse 46(13): 1592-1603, 2011. (80 refs.)

A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Brasfield H; Febres J; Shorey R; Strong D; Ninnemann A; Elmquist J et al. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies 28(1): 77-88, 2012. (62 refs.)

Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The DAWN Report: Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Intentional Poisoning. (November 3, 2011). Rockville MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 2011. (7 refs.)

Based on information from the DAWN network, in 2009, there were an estimated 14,720 emergency department (ED) visits attributed to intentional drug poisoning. Three quarters (73%) of drug-related ED visits attributed to intentional poisoning were made by patients aged 21 or older. Females accounted for nearly two thirds of drug-related ED visits attributed to intentional poisoning (63%). Approximately 60 percent of these ED visits in 2009 involved unidentified drugs, and a similar percentage involved alcohol in combination with other drugs. Detecting intentional poisoning is difficult because a victim often is unable to recall what took place, and the intent of the suspect cannot be confirmed. Research has shown that victims often have been drinking alcohol, which impairs their ability to recognize dangerous situations and suspicious behavior of other individuals. Depending on the drug or combination of drugs taken, victims may experience drowsiness and loss of consciousness, leaving them vulnerable to crimes such as robbery, physical assault, or sexual assault. In 2009, poison control centers in the United States received more than 7,700 reports of intentional poisoning by another person, and in 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control reported 85 homicide poisoning deaths. While information for other drug-facilitated crimes is sparse, it has been estimated that approximately 3 million American women have experienced drug-facilitated rape in their lifetime.

Public Domain

Chartier KG; Caetano R. Intimate partner violence and alcohol problems in interethnic and intraethnic couples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(9): 1780-1801, 2012. (42 refs.)

Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including Black-White, Hispanic-White, and Black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), Black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intraethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analysis showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intraethnic White, Black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared with male partners in intraethnic couples. Past-year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intraethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples' age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high-risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking, and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Chauhan P; Cerda M; Messner SF; Tracy M; Tardiff K; Galea S. Race/ethnic-specific homicide rates in New York City: Evaluating the impact of broken windows policing and crack cocaine markets. Homicide Studies 15(3): 268-290, 2011. (68 refs.)

The current study evaluated a range of social influences including misdemeanor arrests, drug arrests, cocaine consumption, alcohol consumption, firearm availability, and incarceration that may be associated with changes in gun-related homicides by racial/ethnic group in New York City (NYC) from 1990 to 1999. Using police precincts as the unit of analysis, we used cross-sectional, time series data to examine changes in Black, White, and Hispanic homicides, separately. Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term indicated that an increase in cocaine consumption was associated with an increase in Black homicides. An increase in firearm availability was associated with an increase in Hispanic homicides. Last, there were no significant predictors for White homicides. Support was found for the crack cocaine hypotheses but not for the broken windows hypothesis. Examining racially/ethnically disaggregated data can shed light on group-sensitive mechanisms that may explain changes in homicide over time.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Cherpitel CJ; Ye Y; Bond J; Room R; Borges G. Attribution of alcohol to violence-related injury: Self and other's drinking in the event. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(2): 277-284, 2012. (33 refs.)

Objective: Alcohol can result in harm (including injury) not only to the drinker but also to others; however, little research exists on the additional proportion of violence-related injuries that can be attributed to the perpetrator. Method: Data are reported from emergency department studies in 14 countries on the prevalence of patients' self-report of drinking within the 6 hours before the violence-related injury event, patients' belief that the event would not have happened if they had not been drinking at the time, and patients' perception that the perpetrator had been drinking. Alcohol-attributable fraction was calculated based on the patients' perception that their own drinking was causally related to the event and on their perception that the perpetrator had been drinking. Results: Across all countries, 62.9% of the violence-related injuries involved alcohol use on the part of the victim, the perpetrator, or both. Rates of others definitely drinking, as perceived by the victim, ranged from 14% to 73% across countries and was positively associated with patients' own drinking in the event and with attributing a causal association between their drinking and the event. Estimates of alcohol-attributable fraction were 38.8% when the victim and perpetrator were considered together compared with 23.9% when only the patient was considered and varied by country-level drinking pattern. Conclusions: These findings suggest adjustments that could be made to global burden of disease estimates because of violence-related injury morbidity to better reflect alcohol-attributable fraction when drinking by others and country-level drinking patterns are taken into account.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Crawford DM; Whitbeck LB; Hoyt DR. Propensity for violence among homeless and runaway adolescents: An event history analysis. Crime & Delinquency 57(6): 950-968, 2011. (43 refs.)

Little is known about the prevalence of violent behaviors among homeless and runaway adolescents or the specific behavioral factors that influence violent behaviors across time. In this longitudinal study of 300 homeless and runaway adolescents aged 16 to 19 at baseline, the authors use event history analysis to assess the factors associated with acts of violence over 3 years, controlling for individual propensities and time-varying behaviors. Results indicate that females, nonminorities, and nonheterosexuals were less likely to engage in violence across time. Those who met criteria for substance abuse disorders (i.e., alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse) were more likely to engage in violence. A history of caretaker abuse was associated with violent behaviors, as were street survival strategies such as selling drugs, participating in gang activity, and associating with deviant peers. Simply having spent time directly on the streets at any specific time point also increased the likelihood for violence.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

DeBeck K; Wood E; Zhang R; Buxton J; Montaner J; Kerr T. A dose-dependent relationship between exposure to a street-based drug scene and health-related harms among people who use injection drugs. Journal of Urban Health 88(4): 724-735, 2011. (47 refs.)

While the community impacts of drug-related street disorder have been well described, lesser attention has been given to the potential health and social implications of drug scene exposure on street-involved people who use illicit drugs. Therefore, we sought to assess the impacts of exposure to a street-based drug scene among injection drug users (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Data were derived from a prospective cohort study known as the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Four categories of drug scene exposure were defined based on the numbers of hours spent on the street each day. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with varying levels of drug scene exposure (2-6, 6-15, over 15 hours) during the period of December 2005 to March 2009. Among our sample of 1,486 IDU, at baseline, a total of 314 (21%) fit the criteria for high drug scene exposure (> 15 hours per day). In multivariate GEE analysis, factors significantly and independently associated with high exposure included: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 9.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.36-14.20); daily crack use (AOR = 2.70; 95% CI, 2.07-3.52); encounters with police (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.75); and being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.49; 95 % CI, 1.14-1.95). Regular employment (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and engagement with addiction treatment (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.75) were negatively associated with high exposure. Our findings indicate that drug scene exposure is associated with markers of vulnerability and higher intensity addiction. Intensity of drug scene exposure was associated with indicators of vulnerability to harm in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings highlight opportunities for policy interventions to address exposure to street disorder in the areas of employment, housing, and addiction treatment.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Decker MR; Wirtz AL; Baral SD; Peryshkina A; Mogilnyi V; Weber RA. Injection drug use, sexual risk, violence and STI/HIV among Moscow female sex workers. Sexually Transmitted Infections 88(4): 278-283, 2012. (31 refs.)

Background/objectives The HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia continues to increase. While injection drug use (IDU) is leading factor, heterosexual transmission is on the rise. Little is known about female sex workers (FSWs) in the region despite the central role of commercial sex in heterosexual sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV transmission globally. The authors evaluated the prevalence of STI/HIV among Moscow-based FSWs and potential risk factors including IDU, sexual risks and violence victimisation. Methods: Moscow-based FSWs (n=147) completed a clinic-based survey and STI/HIV testing over an 8-month period in 2005. Results: HIV prevalence was 4.8%, and 31.3% were infected with at least one STI including HIV. Sexual behaviours significantly associated with STI/HIV included anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.48), high client volume (three or more clients daily, AOR 2.71), recent subbotnik (sex demanded by police; AOR 2.50) and regularly being presented with more clients than initially agreed to (AOR 2.45). Past year experiences of physical violence from clients and threats of violence from pimps were associated with STI/HIV (AOR 3.14 and AOR 3.65, respectively). IDU was not significantly associated with STI/HIV. Anal sex and high client volume partially mediated the associations of abuse with STI/HIV. Conclusions: Findings illustrate substantial potential for heterosexual STI/HIV transmission in a setting better known for IDU-related risk. Many of the STI/HIV risks observed are not modifiable by FSWs alone. STI/HIV prevention efforts for this vulnerable population will benefit from reducing coercion and abuse perpetrated by pimps and clients.

Copyright 2012, BMJ Publishing

Dickerson DL; Johnson CL. Mental health and substance abuse characteristics among a clinical sample of urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youths in a large California metropolitan area: A descriptive study. Community Mental Health Journal 48(1): 56-62, 2012. (40 refs.)

This study analyzes descriptive data among a clinical sample of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths receiving mental health services in a large California metropolitan area. Among 118 urban AI/AN youths, mood disorders (41.5%) and adjustment disorder (35.4%) were the most common mental health diagnoses. Alcohol (69.2%) and marijuana (50.0%) were the most commonly used substances. Witnessing domestic violence (84.2%) and living with someone who had a substance abuse problem (64.7%) were reported. The majority of patients demonstrated various behavior and emotional problems. Enhancing culturally relevant mental health and substance abuse treatment and prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is suggested.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Eaton LA; Kalichman SC; Sikkema KJ; Skinner D; Watt MH; Pieterse D et al. Pregnancy, alcohol intake, and intimate partner violence among men and women attending drinking establishments in a Cape Town, South Africa township. Journal of Community Health 37(1): 208-216, 2012. (49 refs.)

The highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome worldwide can be found in South Africa. Particularly in impoverished townships in the Western Cape, pregnant women live in environments where alcohol intake during pregnancy has become normalized and interpersonal violence (IPV) is reported at high rates. For the current study we sought to examine how pregnancy, for both men and women, is related to alcohol use behaviors and IPV. We surveyed 2, 120 men and women attending drinking establishments in a township located in the Western Cape of South Africa. Among women 13.3% reported being pregnant, and among men 12.0% reported their partner pregnant. For pregnant women, 61% reported attending the bar that evening to drink alcohol and 26% reported both alcohol use and currently experiencing IPV. Daily or almost daily binge drinking was reported twice as often among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (8.4% vs. 4.2%). Men with pregnant partners reported the highest rates of hitting sex partners, forcing a partner to have sex, and being forced to have sex. High rates of alcohol frequency, consumption, binge drinking, consumption and binge drinking were reported across the entire sample. In general, experiencing and perpetrating IPV were associated with alcohol use among all participants except for men with pregnant partners. Alcohol use among pregnant women attending shebeens is alarmingly high. Moreover, alcohol use appears to be an important factor in understanding the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. Intensive, targeted, and effective interventions for both men and women are urgently needed to address high rates of drinking alcohol among pregnant women who attend drinking establishments.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Fagan AA; Wright EM. Gender differences in the effects of exposure to intimate partner violence on adolescent violence and drug use. Child Abuse & Neglect 35(7): 543-550, 2011. (37 refs.)

Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the effects of IPV on adolescents have been rarely assessed using longitudinal data. Methods: Longitudinal data was obtained from 1,315 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The sample was 51% female and ethnically diverse (45% Hispanic, 37% African-American, and 14% Caucasian). Two waves of data were assessed to examine the effects of exposure to IPV, reported by caregivers when their children were aged 12 and 15, on violence and drug use, reported by adolescents 3 years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, family, and neighborhood risk factors. Results: Exposure to IPV did not significantly predict subsequent violence among males or females in multivariate analyses. IPV exposure was significantly related to the frequency of drug use for females but did not predict drug use among males. This gentler difference was not statistically significant, however, which suggests more similarities than differences in the relationship between exposure to IPV and subsequent violence and drug use. Conclusions: This study supports prior research indicating that exposure to IPV can negatively impact adolescent development, but it suggests that these effects may be more likely to influence some outcomes (e.g., drug use) than others (e.g., interpersonal violence). The findings also emphasize the need for additional research examining the overall impact of IPV on adolescent problem behaviors and gender differences in these relationships, including longitudinal studies and investigations that control for a range of other important predictors. A better understanding of these relationships can help inform intervention efforts aimed at ensuring that adolescents living in violent households receive timely and appropriate services to help prevent the occurrence of future problem behaviors.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science Ltd

Feseha G; Mariam AG; Gerbaba M. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 12: article 125, 2012. (32 refs.)

Background: Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results: The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5%) and 131(31.0%) respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6%) and throwing objects 32(19.5%). Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95% CI: 1.7, 5.5]), knowing women in neighborhood whose husband too beat them (AOR = 1.87[95% CI: 1.0, 3.5]), being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95% C. I: 1.107, 5.5]), and having a drunkard partner (AOR = 2.1[95% C. I: 1.0, 4.5]). Conclusions: Intimate partner physical violence was found to be high and a serious problem among women in Shimelba refugee camp. Multifaceted interventions such as male counseling, increasing awareness on the consequences of intimate partner violence and the effect of substance use like alcohol will help to reduce intimate partner violence.

Copyright 2012, BioMed Central

Flowe HD; Stewart J; Sleath ER; Palmer FT. Public house patrons' engagement in hypothetical sexual assault: A test of alcohol myopia theory in a field setting. Aggressive Behavior 37(6): 546-557, 2011. (55 refs.)

Previous research has found that drinking establishments are often antecedent to sexual aggression outcomes. In this study, male participants were randomly selected from public houses (i.e., "pubs") and asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical intimate encounter in which the female in the scenario stops consenting to sexual contact. Participants were given the option to continue making sexual advances up to and including sexual intercourse against the woman's will. It was hypothesized based on Alcohol Myopia Theory that participant blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels would be associated with hypothetical sexual aggression when stereotypical cues of a woman's sexual availability (revealing clothing and alcohol use) were present in the scenario. Men's engagement in hypothetical sexual aggression was associated with BAC levels, but only when the woman was wearing revealing clothing. The sobriety of the female actor was not associated with sexual aggression. Results indicate that Alcohol Myopia Theory generalizes to a field setting.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Forsyth AJM; Khan F; Mckinlay B. Diazepam, alcohol use and violence among male young offenders: 'The devil's mixture'. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 18(6, special issue): 468-476, 2011. (41 refs.)

Background: Diazepam is a benzodiazepine which has a history of usage among problem drug using groups. It has also been linked to aggression in laboratory settings. This article will examine illicit diazepam use and violence amongst predominantly alcohol-orientated offenders. Methods: A self-complete survey of male Young Offenders (n = 172) recruited during their induction into Scotland's only Young Offender's Institution was carried out during 2007. Qualitative interviews (n = 30) were conducted during 2008 on another sample recruited in the same way. Results: Survey respondents tended to report alcohol, rather than illegal drugs as being related to their offending behaviour. The exception to this pattern was diazepam, which when used in conjunction with alcohol was associated with violence, including weapon use. The 2008 interviews confirmed this and raised further concerns about the way in which diazepam was being mixed with alcohol, in relation to its mode of action, source of supply, dosage and users' beliefs. Conclusion: Although it receives little dedicated research, education or media attention, diazepam was a factor in more (violent) crime among this population than any/all other illegal drugs.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Fowler DN; Faulkner M. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 41(4): 386-398, 2011. (72 refs.)

In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Fulde G; Preisz P. Managing aggressive and violent patients. Australian Prescriber 34(4): 115-118, 2011. (8 refs.)

All healthcare workers, especially general practitioners and staff in emergency departments, are likely to encounter aggression and violence. This behaviour may be caused by a medical illness, a psychiatric illness or drug intoxication or withdrawal. These problems can occur in combination. It is important that a diagnosis is made, but in some cases the patient may need sedation before they can be examined. If non-drug management, such as de-escalation techniques, does not work, a benzodiazepine or antipsychotic can be considered. It is essential that sedated patients are monitored for signs of oversedation. Practice design and policies as well as staff training can help to reduce the risk of violence.

Copyright 2011, National Prescribing Service Ltd

Ghanem A; Little SJ; Drumright L; Liu L; Morris S; Garfein RS. High-risk behaviors associated with injection drug use among recently HIV-infected men who have sex with men in San Diego, CA. AIDS & Behavior 15(7): 1561-1569, 2011. (38 refs.)

The contribution of injection drug use to HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is understudied. MSM infected with HIV within the prior 12 months completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic, sexual, drug use, and social factors. Analyses were performed to identify factors associated with lifetime history of injection drug use. Among 212 participants, the mean age was 33.8 years, 72% were White, 89% had attended college, and 9.4% reported ever injecting drugs. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ever trading sex and using methamphetamine during sex with at least one of their last three partners were associated with injection drug use. Adjusting for these variables, in separate models, ever perpetrating violence against others (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.16), having physically abusive sexual partners (AOR = 3.08), or physically abusing sexual partners (AOR = 10.17) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with injection drug use. These findings suggest that violence is more common among MSM who inject drugs, which should be considered in HIV prevention efforts.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Gilbert L; El-Bassel N; Chang MW; Wu EW; Roy L. Substance use and partner violence among urban women seeking emergency care. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 26(2): 226-235, 2012. (58 refs.)

Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bidirectional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low-income urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for sociodemographics and potentially confounding multilevel risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior 6 months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as nonheroin-using women to indicate any physical, injurious, or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low-income urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

Gilbert AR; Morrissey JP; Domino ME. Service utilization patterns as predictors of response to trauma-informed integrated treatment for women with co-occurring disorders. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 7(3): 117-129, 2011. (35 refs.)

Objective: The current study examined whether clinical responses to an integrated treatment intervention among women with co-occurring disorders and histories of abuse varied according to their service use patterns at baseline. Methods: Data were from a national multisite integrated treatment intervention study conducted 1998 to 2003. Analyses included 999 study participants assigned to the integrated treatment group who were symptomatic at baseline. Participants' baseline service use was characterized according to five distinct baseline service use clusters. Logistic regression models estimated study participants' odds of having good clinical responses to integrated treatment at 12 months across the five service clusters. Results: Participants with high levels of psychotropic medication and medical care use at baseline had significantly lower odds than low-intensity service users of having a good response to integrated treatment at 12 months on mental health, alcohol addiction, and posttraumatic stress measures. A majority of women in this group had serious medical problems and were more likely than their counterparts with other service use patterns to have used homeless or domestic violence shelters. Conclusions: Women who used high levels of medication and medical services appear to have faced especially difficult barriers in responding well to integrated treatment. Careful assessments of their mental health, trauma, and medical treatment needs may be required as part of integrated treatment to improve their response to integrated treatment, clinical outcomes, and well-being. This information can also be used to target integrated treatment to women who are likely to respond positively and achieve meaningful improvements in their functioning.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Graham K; Bernards S; Wells S; Osgood DW; Abbey A; Felson RB et al. Behavioural indicators of motives for barroom aggression: Implications for preventing bar violence. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 554-563, 2011. (45 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high-risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivations for prevention. Design and Methods. The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results. Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor's focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives that are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and therefore prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion and Conclusions. Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Graham K; Livingston M. The relationship between alcohol and violence: Population, contextual and individual research approaches. (editorial). Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 453-457, 2011. (48 refs.)

Green KM; Doherty EE; Zebrak KA; Ensminger ME. Association between adolescent drinking and adult violence: Evidence from a longitudinal study of urban African Americans. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72(5): 701-710, 2011. (69 refs.)

Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use.

Copyright 2011, Alcohol Research Documentation

Hakansson A; Bradvik L; Schlyter F; Berglund M. Variables associated with repeated suicide attempt in a criminal justice population. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 41(5): 517-531, 2011. (81 refs.)

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with younger age, opioid analgesics, somatic medication, overdose, maternal psychiatric problems, delirium tremens, cognitive problems, and violent behavior. As in other settings, factors associated with repetition differed from those associated with suicide attempts in general. In this setting, substance use complications and cognitive problems were connected to repetition and should be addressed in risk assessments.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Herschl LC; Highland KB; McChargue DE. Prenatal exposure to testosterone interacts with lifetime physical abuse to predict anger rumination and cognitive flexibility among incarcerated methamphetamine users. American Journal on Addictions 21(4): 363-369, 2012. (56 refs.)

The present pilot study hypothesized that degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with a history of lifetime physical abuse (LPA) to predict the cognitive (anger rumination) and behavioral (intimate partner and interpersonal violence) components of aggression within incarcerated methamphetamine (MA) users. In addition, we hypothesized that the degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with LPA to predict cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word performance). Male inmate MA users (N = 60) completed neuropsychological and paper/pencil tests. Hand photocopies were also obtained to index prenatal testosterone exposure. Five covariate-adjusted moderation models were tested using anger rumination, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, interpersonal violence perpetration (before and while incarcerated), and Stroop Color-Word T-score as the criteria, prenatal testosterone exposure as the predictor, and LPA as the moderator. Results indicated that, in individuals with a history of LPA, exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure predicted greater anger rumination, lower Stroop Color-Word test T-scores, and lower frequencies of IPV perpetration. Findings were not significant in individuals without a history of LPA. This research suggests that biochemical and psychosocial vulnerabilities influence anger rumination and cognitive flexibility, which may render incarcerated MA users at greater risk to relapse or recidivate upon release from prison.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Hines DA; Douglas EM. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence. Aggressive Behavior 38(1): 31-46, 2012. (61 refs.)

Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Hirschel D; Hutchison I. Unraveling the relative contributions of his, her, and their drinking to the likelihood of arrest in intimate partner violence cases. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(15): 3050-3079, 2011. (74 refs.)

The nexus between substance abuse and intimate partner violence has been studied in depth. The interrelationship between drinking, intimate partner violence, and an officer's decision to make an arrest has not received as much attention. The issue is complicated by the fact that either or both of the involved parties may have been drinking and the effects may vary depending on who has been drinking. In this article, the authors examine the relative contributions of his, her, and their drinking to the likelihood of arrest.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Jogerst GJ; Daly JM; Galloway LJ; Zheng SM; Xu YH. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 38(1): 63-69, 2012. (30 refs.)

Background: Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Methods: Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Results: Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. Conclusion: It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Scientific Significance: Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

Copyright 2012, Informa HealthCare

Kachadourian LK; Taft CT; O'Farrell TJ; Doron-LaMarca S; Murphy CM. Correlates of intimate partner psychological aggression perpetration in a clinical sample of alcoholic men. Journal of Family Psychology 26(2): 206-214, 2012. (38 refs.)

This study longitudinally examined correlates of intimate partner psychological aggression in a sample of 178 men seeking treatment for alcoholism and their partners, building on a previous investigation examining correlates of intimate partner physical aggression (Taft et al., 2010). The men were largely Caucasian; average age was 41.0 years. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed distal and proximal predictors of psychological aggression perpetration. Distal factors, assessed at baseline, included initial alcohol problem severity, beliefs about alcohol, and antisocial personality characteristics. Proximal factors, assessed at baseline and at follow-ups 6 and 12 months later, included alcohol and drug use, relationship adjustment, and anger. Psychological aggression was assessed at all three time points. Findings showed that both groups of variables were associated with psychological aggression perpetration. Beliefs that drinking causes relationship problems and variables related to alcohol consumption exhibited the strongest associations with psychological aggression. The findings are consistent with theoretical models that emphasize both distal and proximal effects of drinking on intimate partner aggression. Implications for clinical interventions and directions for future research are discussed.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

Kaplan LM; Hill TD; Mann-Deibert GR. Does alcohol consumption exacerbate the mental health consequences of interpersonal violence? Violence Against Women 18(3): 289-308, 2012. (70 refs.)

Although studies show that interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health, few studies specify the conditions under which victimization can be more or less detrimental to psychological well-being. Building on previous research, the authors test whether the association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress is moderated by alcohol consumption. Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project suggests that interpersonal violence is more strongly associated with psychological distress in the context of more frequent intoxication. Programs designed to treat the combination of victimization and heavy alcohol consumption may make unique contributions to the well-being of women.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Kaysen D; Atkins DC; Moore SA; Lindgren KP; Dillworth T; Simpson T. Alcohol use, problems, and the course of posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective study of female crime victims. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 7(4, special issue): 262-279, 2011. (58 refs.)

Objective: In this study the authors examine whether alcohol use disorder status and consequences of drinking moderate the course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over the first 6 months following trauma exposure in a sample of female victims of interpersonal violence. Methods: Female sexual and physical assault victims (N = 64) were recruited through police, hospital, and victim service agencies. Women completed structured clinical interviews and self-report measures within the first 5 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months post-trauma with 73% retention across all three time points (n = 47). Analyses were conducted using Hierarchical Linear Modeling using alcohol abuse/dependence, peak alcohol use, and consequences during the 30 days prior to assault as moderators of the course of PTSD over time. Results: Women with alcohol use disorder at baseline had lower initial PTSD symptoms but also less symptom recovery over time than women without alcohol use disorder. This pattern of results was also found for those with high negative drinking consequences during the month prior to the assault. Baseline alcohol use was not found to significantly moderate PTSD course over the 6 months. Conclusions: Findings suggest that negative consequences associated with alcohol use may be a risk factor for PTSD. Incorporating assessment of drinking problems for women presenting early post-trauma may be useful for identifying PTSD risk.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Keller PS; Gilbert LR; Koss KJ; Cummings EM; Davies PT. Parental problem drinking, marital aggression, and child emotional insecurity: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72(5): 711-722, 2011. (49 refs.)

Objective: Marital aggression plays an important role in relations between parental problem drinking and child maladjustment. The purpose of the current study was to apply emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the role of marital aggression. Method: A community sample of 235 children in kindergarten participated once a year for 3 years. Parents completed measures of parental problem drinking and marital aggression, and children were interviewed about their emotional security reactions to marital conflict vignettes. Results: Greater parental problem drinking was directly associated with children's more negative emotional reactions to conflict. Maternal problem drinking predicted increased sad reactions and negative expectations for the future. Paternal problem drinking predicted increases in child anger reactions and negative expectations for the future. Parental problem drinking was also indirectly associated with child reactions via marital aggression. Conclusions: Results confirmed hypotheses that parental problem drinking would be related to child emotional insecurity and that associations would be indirect via greater marital conflict. Findings are interpreted in terms of emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the effects of parental problem drinking on marital aggression and child development.

Copyright 2011, Alcohol Research Documentation

Kivimies K; Repo-Tiihonen E; Tiihonen J. Substance use among forensic psychiatric patients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 38(4): 273-277, 2012. (24 refs.)

Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to examine the relative differences in the use of illegal substances (i.e., amphetamine, cannabis, opiates) among forensic patients who have committed a violent crime compared with the general population. The aim was also to find out if there were differences in substance use among forensic versus nonforensic patients with psychosis diagnosis. Methods: The study population consisted of 190 persons, who were involuntarily ordered to hospital treatment as forensic patients in Finland. The information was compared with data from the national hospital discharge register. These results were also compared with national statistics from the general population. Results: Among forensic patients, the lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 2-fold, amphetamine use 40-fold, and opiate use over 60-fold higher than estimated from the general population in Finland. Cannabis use was 1.5-fold more common than amphetamine use among forensic patients and 1.3-fold more common among nonforensic patients. The prevalences of cannabis-related diagnoses were 4.7- and 3.7-fold more common than opiate use among forensic and nonforensic patients, respectively. Conclusions: Cannabis, amphetamine, and opiate use are associated with an increased risk of becoming a forensic psychiatric patient, but no substantial differences were observed among patients with psychosis diagnosis in the relative risk increase for cannabis versus amphetamine versus opiate use, indicating that none of these drugs are uniquely associated with violent offending among mentally ill.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Klostermann K; Mignone T; Kelley ML; Musson S; Bohall G. Intimate partner violence in the military: Treatment considerations. Aggression and Violent Behavior 17(1): 53-58, 2012. (66 refs.)

While considerable research has examined the prevalence of IPV in civilian couples, much less information is available on married or cohabitating couples in which one or both parents are active duty soldiers or veterans of foreign wars. In this review, we explore various aspects of the partner violence phenomena among military personnel (i.e., active duty and veterans) and their implications for intervention. We highlight (a) the scope of the problem, (b) discuss domestic violence as defined by the Department of Defense (DoD), (c) list prevalence rates of IPV among military families, (d) identify correlates of IPV, and (e) discuss treatment options for providers working with these couples. We also discuss the barriers to intervention and their implications for victims, perpetrators, and providers. Conclusions and recommendations for future research directions are also briefly discussed.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Kosten TR; Newton TF; De La Garza R; Halle CN, eds. Cocaine and Methamphetamine Dependence: Advances in Treatment. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2011. (Chapter refs.)

This book sets forth the dimensions of cocaine and methamphetamine use and problems and describes treatment approaches. In this context it describes the epidemiology of use patterns as well as geographic variation. There is also a review of the associated medical problems and mortality resulting. For example cocaine dependence-related medical problems account for a third of all drug-related emergency visits. The book also reviews the rates of co-occurring psychiatric illness. There is also discussion of issues which are now gain attention. These include the changes anticipated in the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria (DSM-V) which will drop the distinction between abuse and dependence, and introduce craving as a diagnostic criterion. There is also a review of the changes in patterns of use and the increasing abuse of stimulant prescription drugs. In respect to treatment, the emphasis is upon behavioral therapies in conjunction with drug therapy, There is also discussion of amphetamine-induced psychosis and its potential emergence even after periods of abstinence, as well as the need for assessment which includes planning for problematic behaviors associated with abuse/dependence, including intoxication, violence, suicide, impaired cognitive function, and uncontrolled display of affect.

Copyright 2011, Project Cork

La Flair LN; Bradshaw CP; Storr CL; Green KM; Alvanzo AAH; Crum RM. Intimate partner violence and patterns of alcohol abuse and dependence criteria among women: A latent class analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3): 351-360, 2012. (64 refs.)

Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health issue, yet little is known about the association between IPV victimization and problem drinking among women. Study objectives were to (a) identify subtypes of problem drinking among women according to abuse and dependence criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV); (b) examine the association between recent IPV and the problem drinking classes; and (c) evaluate major depressive disorder (MDD) as a mediator of the IPV alcohol relationship. Method: Data come from a cohort of 11,782 female current drinkers participating in Wave 2(2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Latent class analysis was used to group participants into problem drinking classes according to 11 DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria. The IPV measure was derived from six questions regarding abusive behaviors perpetrated by a romantic partner in the past year. Past-year MDD was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. Latent class regression was used to test the association between drinking class and IPV. Results: Three classes of problem drinkers were identified: Severe (Class 1: 1.9%; n = 224), moderate (Class 2: 14.2%; n 1,676), and nonsymptomatic (Class 3: 83.9%; n = 9,882). Past-year IPV was associated with severe and moderate classes (severe: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.70, 95% CI [3.70, 8.77]; moderate: aOR = 1.92, 95% CI [1.43, 2.57]). Past-year MDD was a possible mediator of the IPV drinking class relationship. Conclusions: Results indicate a strong association between recent IPV and problem drinking class membership. This study offers preliminary evidence that programs aimed at preventing problem drinking among women should take IPV and MDD into consideration.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Latt N; Jurd S; Tennant C; Lewis J; Macken L; Joseph A et al. Alcohol and substance use by patients with psychosis presenting to an emergency department: Changing patterns. Australasian Psychiatry 19(4): 354-359, 2011. (14 refs.)

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of alcohol and other substance use in patients presenting to an emergency department with acute psychiatric illnesses and to clarify the role of urine drug screens. Method: This was an unblinded prospective (observational) cohort study incorporating retrospective review of patient medical records, history of alcohol and substance use, results of urine drug screens and blood alcohol concentrations. Results: Of 196 acute psychotic patients, 104 were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 92 with "other psychosis". Results of urine drug screens were consistent with self-reported use of substances and only identified an additional 5% of substance users. Cannabis was the commonest illicit substance used by both groups of patients, followed by psychostimulants, mainly amphetamines. Younger males were more likely to use psychostimulants and to present with violence. Conclusions: Patients with co-existing mental health problems and substance use present a major problem for our emergency departments. Cannabis was the most common substance used. Youth, male gender and psychostimulant use are associated with violent presentations. A comprehensive history of alcohol and substance use is important to implement appropriate dual diagnosis treatment. Urine drug screening is recommended for patients who do not admit to substance use.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Lee JP; Battle RS; Soller B; Brandes N. Thizzin': Ecstasy use contexts and emergent social meanings. Addiction Research & Theory 19(6): 528-541, 2011. (113 refs.)

The drug "Ecstasy" has been most commonly associated with raves, or electronic music dance events, and attributed with sexual disinhibition. In an ethnographic investigation of drug use among second-generation Southeast Asian youth in Northern California conducted in 2003, respondents described little use of or interest in using Ecstasy; yet in a second study, Ecstasy was the fourth most commonly used substance. This article investigates the social contexts for this change in use patterns. Respondents were second-generation Southeast Asian youths and young adults between the ages of 15 and 26 who were currently or recently drug-involved. We compared qualitative data from the two studies and found emerging patterns of meaning and context related to the observed change in use patterns. Ecstasy use among co-resident African American youth within the context of the local "hyphy" hip-hop music subculture had influenced Southeast Asian youths' uptake of the drug, known as "thizz." Respondents referred to the effects of the drug as "thizzin'," described as energizing, disinhibiting, numbing, and emotion enhancing. Reported consequences of "thizzin'" included violence and aggression as well as fun, while sexual disinhibition was rarely mentioned. The meanings assigned to drugs, including the effects ascribed to them, may be relative to the social contexts within which users are exposed to and consume drugs. The findings indicate the susceptibility of youths to local trends in drug use, particularly associated with popular cultural movements and music. Second-generation youths may be particularly susceptible relative to the conditions of their immigration and processes of identity formation unique to them.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Lee R. Community violence exposure and adolescent substance use: Does monitoring and positive parenting moderate risk in urban communities? Journal of Community Psychology 40(4): 406-421, 2012. (38 refs.)

This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge drinking. Independent variables were CVE, perceptions of parental monitoring, and positive parenting. Sixty-four percent of the sample witnessed beatings, 16.5% witnessed stabbings or shootings; 45% and 19.5% reported AOD consumption and binge drinking, respectively. After controlling for confounders, logistic regression models indicated that CVE was significantly and positively related to AOD and binge drinking. Parental monitoring was inversely related to AOD and binge drinking. Significant interactions between CVE and parenting variables were not found. Additional research is needed to identify factors at multiple levels of the social ecology that buffer the impact of community violence on adolescent substance use.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Leech TGJ. Subsidized housing, public housing, and adolescent violence and substance use. Youth & Society 44(2): 217-235, 2012. (46 refs.)

This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author use stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each group-subsidized housing residents and public housing residents-to a matched control group of teens receiving no housing assistance. The results reveal no significant relationship between public housing residence and violence, heavy alcohol/marijuana use, or other drug use. However, subsidized housing residents have significantly lower rates of violence and hard drug use, and marginally lower rates of heavy marijuana/alcohol use. The results indicate that the consistent, positive effect of vouchers in the current literature is not due to a lower standard among the typical comparison group: public housing. Future studies should focus on conceptualizing and analyzing the protective effect of vouchers beyond comparisons to public housing environments.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Liang WB; Chikritzhs T. Revealing the link between licensed outlets and violence: Counting venues versus measuring alcohol availability. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 524-535, 2011. (30 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Associations between alcohol-related harms and numbers of outlets at the neighbourhood level have been demonstrated; however, the degree to which alcohol consumption or sales plays a part in levels of violence is not clear. This has contributed to uncertainty regarding the actual mechanisms by which outlet density may influence levels of violence. This ecological cross-sectional study investigated the effect of outlet numbers and alcohol sales on the risk of assault in Western Australia. Design and Methods. For 2000/2001, information on type, number and wholesale alcohol purchases of all licensed outlets in operation, police-reported assault offences, socioeconomic/demographic data were obtained from official sources. Multivariate negative binomial regression was applied to at local government area level in order to assess associations between outlet density, alcohol sales and violence occurring in both licensed and domestic settings. Results. Average alcohol sales volume per off-site outlet was significantly associated with all measures of assault. Numbers of on-site outlets significantly predicted violence with the exception of assaults occurring at residential premises. Alcohol sales from off-site outlets predicted violence occurring at on-site outlets. Discussion and Conclusions. The link between on-site outlets and violence may be primarily underpinned by negative amenity effects while off-site outlet effects occur via increased availability. Alcohol sales volumes from off-site outlets influence levels of violence, which occur at both licensed and residential settings. The substantial and wide-ranging effects of liquor stores on alcohol-related harms may have been underestimated in the literature and by policy makers.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Lipscomb JA; London M; Chen YM; Flannery K; Watt M; Geiger-Brown J et al. Safety climate and workplace violence prevention in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. Work 42(1): 47-56, 2012. (35 refs.)

Objective: To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. Methods: In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. Results: The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR = 4.30 and OR = 2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. Conclusions: We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low management commitment to violence prevention as a significant predictor of staff reported violence.

Copyright 2012, IOS Press

Lipsky S; Caetano R; Roy-Byrne P. Triple jeopardy: Impact of partner violence perpetration, mental health and substance use on perceived unmet need for mental health care among men. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 46(9): 843-852, 2011. (86 refs.)

Objectives To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, serious mental illness, and substance use and perceived unmet need for mental health treatment in the past year among men in the general population using the behavioral model for health-care use (Aday and Anderson in Health Services Research 9: 208-220, 1974; Andersen in A behavioral model of families' use of health services, 1968; Andersen in Medical Care 46:647-653, 2008). Methods Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white males aged 18-49 years and cohabiting with a spouse/partner were included in this analysis of the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results: The proportion of men reporting unmet treatment need was greater among IPV perpetrators than nonperpetrators (12.1 vs. 3.4%, respectively). Hazardous drinking, illicit drug use, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and SMI were also more common among perpetrators. Perpetrators were twice as likely to report unmet need for treatment after taking predisposing, enabling, and need factors into account (AOR 2.00, CI 1.13-3.55). Alcohol abuse/dependence (AOR 2.96, CI 1.79-4.90), drug abuse/dependence (AOR, 1.79, CI 1.01-3.17), substance abuse treatment (AOR 3.09, CI 1.18-8.09), and SMI (AOR 8.46, CI 5.53-12.94) were independently associated with perceived unmet need for treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that men who perpetrate IPV are at increased risk of perceived unmet need for mental health care. This study also emphasizes the need to identify substance use disorders and mental health problems among IPV perpetrators identified in health, social service, or criminal justice settings. Further research should address barriers to care specific to men who perpetrate IPV beyond economic factors.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Livingston M. Alcohol outlet density and harm: Comparing the impacts on violence and chronic harms. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 515-523, 2011. (60 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. A number of studies have previously identified relationships between the density of alcohol outlets and rates of violence, with different types of outlets related to violence in different locations. The previous work in Australia has been limited to studies based on police data, which are subject to numerous biases. This study extends the previous work by utilising hospital admissions as a less biased outcome measure, incorporating a 14 year longitudinal design and by developing comparative models for violence and rates of alcohol use disorders. Design and Methods. The study examines trends in postcode-level hospital admission data for assault and for alcohol use disorders over a 14 year period (n = 186) and their relationship with the density of three kinds of alcohol outlets. Fixed-effects models are developed to control for the differences between postcodes and for the overall trends in outlet density and morbidity rates. Results. The results of this study suggest that the density of alcohol outlets where the main activity is alcohol consumption (i.e. pubs) is positively related to rates of assault-related hospital admissions, while the density of off-premise alcohol outlets is related to the rate of alcohol use disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. These findings have significant implications for alcohol policies in Victoria, in particular pointing to the significant contribution of packaged alcohol outlets to both acute and chronic alcohol-related harm.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Logan JE; Crosby AE; Hamburger ME. Suicidal ideation, friendships with delinquents, social and parental connectedness, and differential associations by sex findings among high-risk pre/early adolescent population. Crisis 32(6): 299-309, 2011. (32 refs.)

Background: The association between suicidal ideation, friendships with delinquents, and social/parental connectedness among pre/early adolescents who reside in high-risk communities is poorly understood. Aims: This study examined among high-risk youths: (1) the association between suicidal ideation and having delinquent friends, school connectedness, social support, and different parenting styles (i.e., caring only, supervision only, caring with supervision); and, (2) the differential associations by sex. Methods: The associations were assessed among 2, 598 pre/early adolescents using logistic regression. The analyses were adjusted for demographic, mental distress, illicit substance use, and peer/date violence victimization factors. The interaction terms determined differences by sex. Results: After adjusting for demographic factors and mental distress, suicidal ideation was positively associated with having delinquent friends; however, after factoring in illicit substance use and violence victimization, this association was negative for males. After adjusting for all factors, suicidal ideation was negatively associated with school connectedness and all parenting styles; however, the association between suicidal ideation and having parental caring with supervision was stronger for females. Conclusions: The results suggest the potential benefits of increasing school connectedness and improving parent-child interactions, particularly among females, and the potential benefits of violence and substance-abuse prevention strategies for youths, particularly males, connected with delinquent peers.

Copyright 2011, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers

Louw J; Peltzer K; Matseke G. Prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors in pregnant antenatal care attendees in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Journal of Psychology In Africa 21(4): 567-572, 2011. (21 refs.)

We sought to identify the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among pregnant women who were patients at antenatal primary care clinics in a South Africa health district. A cross-sectional study using systematic sampling was conducted among 1497 pregnant women (age range=18 to 47 years; mean age=26.6 years, SD=6.1; Black African=98%), with a mean gestational age of 6.5 months (SD=1.6). They completed a shortened version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire to measure alcohol use and misuse. Results showed that overall 6.6% of women reported current alcohol use, of which 21.6% reported having 5 or 6 drinks or more containing alcohol on a typical day, 15.1% reported weekly or daily binge drinking of four or more drinks on one occasion, and 17.2% were hazardous or harmful drinkers. Current alcohol use among pregnant women was in multivariate analysis associated with having more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months and intimate partner violence in the past 6 months. Identification of pregnant women with alcohol misuse in public health clinics is crucial for effective and appropriate targeted interventions.

Copyright 2011, Elliott & Fitzpatrick

Mattson RE; O'Farrell TJ; Lofgreen AM; Cunningham K; Murphy CM. The role of illicit substance use in a conceptual model of intimate partner violence in men undergoing treatment for alcoholism. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 26(2): 255-264, 2012. (67 refs.)

Illicit substance use (ISU) predicts intimate partner violence (IPV) above and beyond alcohol use and other known IPV correlates. Stuart and colleagues (2008) provided evidence for a theoretical framework by which ISU contributes both directly and indirectly to IPV. We sought to replicate and extend their findings using data from 181 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples in which the male had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and met criteria for alcohol dependence (97%) or abuse (3%). Using SEM, we found that (a) Stuart et al.'s model provided a good fit to the data; (b) men's cocaine use and women's sedative use emerged as particularly relevant to their respective perpetration of IPV; (c) a positive association between men's antisociality and physical aggression was mediated by increased stimulant use; and (d) the specific pattern of IPV predicted by women's sedative use differed across levels of aggression severity. These findings not only highlight the direct role of ISU in relationship aggression, but also support a larger theory-driven model comprising various proximal and distal precursors of IPV.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

Mazerolle L; White G; Ransley J; Ferguson P. Violence in and around entertainment districts: A longitudinal analysis of the impact of late-night lockout legislation. Law & Policy 34(1): 55-79, 2012. (89 refs.)

Violence in entertainment districts is a major problem across urban landscapes throughout the world. Research shows that licensed premises are the third most common location for homicides and serious assaults, accounting for one in ten fatal and nonfatal assaults. One class of interventions that aims to reduce violence in entertainment districts involves the use of civil remedies: a group of strategies that use civil or regulatory measures as legal levers to reduce problem behavior. One specific civil remedy used to reduce problematic behavior in entertainment districts involves manipulation of licensed premise trading hours. This article uses generalized linear models to analyze the impact of lockout legislation on recorded violent offences in two entertainment districts in the Australian state of Queensland. Our research shows that 3 a.m. lockout legislation led to a direct and significant reduction in the number of violent incidents inside licensed premises. Indeed, the lockouts cut the level of violent crime inside licensed premises by half. Despite these impressive results for the control of violence inside licensed premises, we found no evidence that the lockout had any impact on violence on streets and footpaths outside licensed premises that were the site for more than 80 percent of entertainment district violence. Overall, however, our analysis suggests that lockouts are an important mechanism that helps to control the level of violence inside licensed premises but that finely grained contextual responses to alcohol-related problems are needed rather than one-size-fits-all solutions.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

McGregor K; Castle D; Dolan M. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance misuse, and the four-facet model of psychopathy: The relationship to violence. Schizophrenia Research 136(1-3): 116-121, 2012. (60 refs.)

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the four-facet model of PCL-R psychopathy and violence in a community-based sample of Australian men with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Method: A community sample of 94 males with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was recruited from mental health services within Victoria, Australia. Psychopathy was measured using the PCL-R. Measures of substance misuse and lifetime violence were also administered. Results: PCL-R-total, Facets 2, 3, and 4 scores and substance misuse (DAST) scores were predictive of Violent versus Non-Violent group membership. The regression equation indicated that the predictive validity of PCL-R scores remained significant after controlling for substance misuse. An additional regression indicated that only Facets 3 and 4 were significant in predicting violence group membership. Conclusion: Psychopathy (particularly the antisocial and behavioural components) was associated with lifetime violence, even after controlling for substance misuse. These findings have implications for the assessment, treatment, and management of health clients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

McMurran M. Individual-level interventions for alcohol-related violence: A rapid evidence assessment. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 22(1): 14-28, 2012. (48 refs.)

Background: Alcohol-related violence is of major concern to society. Around half of all violent crimes are alcohol related, and yet interventions for alcohol-related violence are under-developed. Often, offenders receive treatment for substance use or violence, but not the two in nexus. Aim: My aim was to conduct a Rapid Evidence Assessment of interventions with a focus on treating established nonsexual violence in the context of alcohol use, to describe the content of these interventions, where they take place and their effectiveness in reducing alcohol problems and/or violence. Methods: The electronic databases Embase, Medline, National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched together with the Campbell Collaboration; Cochrane Reviews and selected government websites using terms for alcohol, violence and treatment/interventions. The search excluded sexual and intimate partner violence. The focus was on psychosocial interventions with people already in difficulties, not prevention. All empirical study types with people of any age and in any setting (criminal justice, health, social services or education) were included. The principal outcomes of interest were change in alcohol use, violence and alcohol-related violence. Results: Only four studies of two different interventions were identified. Control of Violence for Angry Impulsive Drinkers has been evaluated with small samples using a nonequivalent comparison group and a single case methodology. Changes were evident on measures of alcohol-related aggression. In a randomised controlled trial, SafERteens participants showed greater improvements in attitudes to alcohol and violence compared with a leaflet only condition. Discussion: Directions for developing interventions based on alcohol and aggression research are discussed. Interventions targeting primarily alcohol consumption, primarily violence and alcohol-related violence in nexus should be compared. In evaluating these interventions, robust outcome measures should be used across studies to allow comparisons to be made.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Meyer JP; Springer SA; Altice FL. Substance abuse, violence, and HIV in women: A literature review of the syndemic. Journal of Women's Health 20(7): 991-1006, 2011. (80 refs.)

Women in the United States are increasingly affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAVA syndemic-synergistic epidemics of substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS-is highly prevalent among impoverished urban women and potentially associated with poor HIV outcomes. A review of the existing literature found 45 articles that examine SAVA's impact on (1) HIV-associated risk-taking behaviors, (2) mental health, (3) healthcare utilization and medication adherence, and (4) the bidirectional relationship between violence and HIV status. Overall, results confirm the profound impact of violence and victimization and how it is intertwined with poor decision making, increased risk taking and negative health consequences, particularly in the context of substance abuse. Among current findings, there remain diverse and inconsistent definitions for substance abuse, violence, mental illness, adherence, and healthcare utilization that confound interpretation of data. Future studies require standardization and operationalization of definitions for these terms. Development and adaptation of evidence-based interventions that incorporate prevention of violence and management of victimization to target this vulnerable group of women and thereby promote better health outcomes are urgently needed.

Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert

Murray M; Hogg RS; Lima VD; May MT; Moore DM; Abgrall S et al. The effect of injecting drug use history on disease progression and death among HIV-positive individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy: collaborative cohort analysis. HIV Medicine 13(2): 89-97, 2012. (34 refs.)

Background: We examined whether determinants of disease progression and causes of death differ between injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: The ART Cohort Collaboration combines data from participating cohort studies on cART-naive adults from cART initiation. We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios for death and AIDS among IDUs and non-IDUs. The cumulative incidence of specific causes of death was calculated and compared using methods that allow for competing risks. Results: Data on 6269 IDUs and 37 774 non-IDUs were analysed. Compared with non-IDUs, a lower proportion of IDUs initiated cART with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/mu L or had a prior diagnosis of AIDS. Mortality rates were higher in IDUs than in non-IDUs (2.08 vs. 1.04 per 100 person-years, respectively; P<0.001). Lower baseline CD4 cell count, higher baseline HIV viral load, clinical AIDS at baseline, and later year of cART initiation were associated with disease progression in both groups. However, the inverse association of baseline CD4 cell count with AIDS and death appeared stronger in non-IDUs than in IDUs. The risk of death from each specific cause was higher in IDUs than non-IDUs, with particularly marked increases in risk for liver-related deaths, and those from violence and non-AIDS infection. Conclusion: While liver-related deaths and deaths from direct effects of substance abuse appear to explain much of the excess mortality in IDUs, they are at increased risk for many other causes of death, which may relate to suboptimal management of HIV disease in these individuals.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Navarro JR; Cohen J; Arechaga ER; Zuniga E. Physical and sexual violence, mental health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Pan American Journal of Public Health 31(5, special issue): 388-395, 2012. (54 refs.)

Objective. To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. Methods. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Results. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Conclusions. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.

Copyright 2012, Pan American Health Organization

Nayak MB; Lown EA; Bond JC; Greenfield TK. Lifetime victimization and past year alcohol use in a U.S. population sample of men and women drinkers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 123(1-3): 213-219, 2012. (71 refs.)

Background: Research on alcohol use among victims of physical and sexual violence has focused mostly on women and alcohol use disorders. It is also limited by the relative lack of consideration of victimization over the lifetime and of population data on both men and women. We critically examined associations between lifetime victimization and diverse past year alcohol use patterns and problems and whether these associations differ for men and women. Methods: Population data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (NAS11, n = 6919) are reported for 4256 adult men and women drinkers. Logistic regressions assessed associations between physical only or any sexual victimization experienced over the lifetime and past year heavy episodic drinking, drinking to intoxication, alcohol-related consequences and any alcohol use disorder. Models controlled for demographics and parental history of alcohol abuse and examined interactions of gender with victimization. Results: Associations between victimization experienced over the lifetime and all past year alcohol measures were significant for both men and women. These associations did not differ by type of lifetime victimization (physical only vs any sexual). The association of physical only victimization with drinking to intoxication was stronger for victimized vs non-victimized women compared to victimized vs non-victimized men. This gender difference ceased to be significant when specific victimization characteristics were controlled for. Conclusions: Lifetime victimization is associated with increased risk for diverse alcohol use problems for both men and women. All prevention and treatment programs should screen men and women for lifetime victimization and diverse alcohol use problems.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Nebbitt VE; Lombe M; Yu M; Vaughn MG; Stokes C. Ecological correlates of substance use in African American adolescents living in public housing communities: Assessing the moderating effects of social cohesion. Children and Youth Services Review 34(2): 338, 2012. (65 refs.)

Adolescence is a stage of development when young people explore the larger social world. Accordingly, exposure to violence and other risk factors increase during adolescence. Exposure to community and domestic violence in addition to other contextual and individual correlates have been found associated with substance use. Using a sample of 663 African American adolescents living in urban public housing, this study assesses how multiple risk factors, including for example violence and peers' behavior, are related to adolescents' alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use. This paper also assesses how, or whether, these relationships are moderated by social cohesion. The model explained 28% of the variance in substance use. Mental health symptoms in addition to violence were significantly associated with substance use. These effects, however, were dependent upon levels of social cohesion. Implications to practice are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Noffsinger S; Clements-Nolle K; Bacon R; Lee W; Albers E; Yang W. Substance use and fighting among male and female high school youths: A brief report. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 21(2): 105-116, 2012. (42 refs.)

While previous studies have investigated the relationship between substance use and violent behaviors among youths, the individual influence of specific drugs among males and females is poorly understood. Using the Nevada 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) Survey (N = 1,556), weighted logistic regression was used to assess the independent substance use correlates of physical fighting among males and females. Final models controlled for sociodemographics, gang membership, parental monitoring, and other drugs. Our data suggest that there are gender differences in the individual drugs that are correlated with fighting among high school students. For males, binge drinking was independently associated with fighting, while for females, marijuana and methamphetamine were independent correlates.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Ostrowsky MK. Does marijuana use lead to aggression and violent behavior? Journal of Drug Education 41(4): 369-389, 2011. (88 refs.)

Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible reasons for these contradictory findings and provides suggestions for future research. In particular, more research is needed on the different subtypes of aggressive behavior. Further research is also needed to elucidate the associations between gender, marijuana use, and violent behavior. Likewise, an important task for future research is to continue to tease apart the complex relations between gang involvement, marijuana use, and violent behavior. Longitudinal studies also warrant further investigation. Moreover, future research should control for several potentially confounding variables.

Copyright 2011, Baywood Publishing

Parker RN; Mccaffree KJ; Skiles D. The impact of retail practices on violence: The case of single serve alcohol beverage containers. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 496-504, 2011. (31 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. This paper examines the role that sales of single serve alcoholic beverages plays in violent crime in surrounding areas. Increasingly a target of regulatory measures, this is the first study to systematically assess the impact of single serve containers on neighbourhood violence. Design and Methods. The relative proportion of shelf space in each liquor establishment in San Bernardino, CA devoted to single serve alcohol containers was surveyed. Assuming that this is a rough indicator of the amount of sales derived from single serve containers, we use this indicator as a measure of the impact of specific retail practice on violence around the outlet. Results. Results show that the average proportion of shelf space devoted to single serve containers in the unit of analysis, the US Census Bureau block group, was positively related to violent crime, net of overall retail availability of alcohol and relevant social and economic indicators often used to predict violent crime rates in such units. Discussion and Conclusions. These findings suggest that if the city were to make the voluntary ban on single serve container sales mandatory, violence in the surrounding areas would decline, all other things being equal. This study provides a much more grounded and specific justification for enacting such policy changes and once again shows the utility of alcohol policy for the reduction of crime and violence.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Parrott DJ; Gallagher KE; Zeichner A. Liquid courage or liquid fear: Alcohol intoxication and anxiety facilitate physical aggression. Substance Use & Misuse 47(7): 774-786, 2012. (94 refs.)

Participants were 138 male social drinkers between 18 and 30 years of age from a university community in the southeastern United States in 2000. Trait and state anxiety was measured using the Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Facial Action Coding System, respectively. Participants consumed an alcoholic or nonalcoholic control beverage and completed a shock-based aggression task. Regression analysis indicated that alcohol-facilitated elevations in anxiety mediated the relation between alcohol consumption and aggression and that trait anxiety and physical provocation moderated this effect. Implications and limitations of this study are noted and future research directions are suggested.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Passini S. The delinquency-drug relationship: The influence of social reputation and moral disengagement. Addictive Behaviors 37(4): 577-579, 2012. (21 refs.)

A large number of studies have focused on the relationship between drug use and violent delinquency in adolescence. Most of these studies underline that even if substance use and delinquency often co-occur, they may result from common causes that increase the risk for both outcomes. In particular, the delinquency-drug relationship may be mediated both by the type of drug and the incidence of other variables. In this article, social reputation and moral disengagement are studied as predictors of both drug use and violent delinquency in a 336 adolescent participants. Results confirm the hypotheses that social reputation and moral disengagement predict drug use and delinquency and that heavy drug use predicts delinquency.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Perez-Diaz C; Hure MS. Heavy drinking and the disposition of intimate partner violence cases in French courts. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 490-495, 2011. (9 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. In 1992, France passed a specific penal law on intimate partner violence. The present study explores the functioning of this new law by examining the characteristics of perpetrators in cases that were tried rather than dismissed. Additionally, the characteristics of heavy drinkers were compared with those of non-heavy drinkers. Design and Methods. We analysed all cases of intimate partner violence processed in the years 1999-2000 by a major court of the Paris metropolitan area. Data were collected on 223 perpetrators (all 166 tried perpetrators and 10% of the 570 perpetrators whose case was dismissed) and how cases were handled institutionally. Logistic regression was used to identify perpetrator characteristics significantly associated with being tried (vs. dismissed) and being a heavy drinker. Results. Being tried was significantly more likely if the perpetrator had inflicted an injury, engaged in prior aggression and was a heavy drinker. Heavy drinking perpetrators were significantly more likely than non-heavy drinkers to have been drinking before the act. They were less likely to be under 40, more likely to be French, part of a stable couple and to have engaged in various types of prior aggression. Discussion and Conclusions. In 2000, heavy drinking was associated with increased risk of being tried and with drinking before the act. Heavy drinkers are more likely to have committed all forms of aggression, but only verbal aggression is significant. In 2000, judges gave heavy drinkers harsher sentences and a 2007 law sanctioned them even more severely. Our results suggest that treatment focused on problem drinking could be a helpful response-perhaps more so than harsher sentences-to intimate partner violence.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Perra O; Fletcher A; Bonell C; Higgins K; McCrystal P. School-related predictors of smoking, drinking and drug use: Evidence from the Belfast Youth Development Study. Journal of Adolescence 35(2): 315-324, 2012. (44 refs.)

Objective: To examine whether students' school engagement, relationships with teachers, educational aspirations and involvement in fights at school are associated with various measures of subsequent substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from the Belfast Youth Development Study (n = 2968). Multivariate logistic models examined associations between school-related factors (age 13/14) and substance use (age 15/16). Results: The two factors which were consistently and independently associated with regular substance use among both males and females were student-teacher relationships and fighting at school: positive teacher-relationships reduced the risk of daily smoking by 48%, weekly drunkenness by 25%, and weekly cannabis use by 52%; being in a fight increased the risk of daily smoking by 54%, weekly drunkenness by 31%, and weekly cannabis use by 43%. School disengagement increased the likelihood of smoking and cannabis use among females only. Conclusion: Further research should focus on public health interventions promoting positive relationships and safety at school.

Copyright 2012, The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents

Ranney ML; Whiteside L; Walton MA; Chermack ST; Zimmerman MA; Cunningham RM. Sex differences in characteristics of adolescents presenting to the emergency department with acute assault-related injury. Academic Emergency Medicine 18(10): 1027-1035, 2011. (74 refs.)

Objectives: Adolescents with a history of peer assault are known to report high rates of other risky behaviors. The characteristics of adolescents seeking care in the ED for acute assault-related injury are less well established. This knowledge deficit is particularly noticeable for adolescent female victims of peer assault. This study's objectives were: 1) to characterize the demographics and risk behaviors of youths presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute assault-related injury and 2) to compare assaulted youths' demographic characteristics, past experiences with violence, and other risk behaviors by sex. Methods: A systematic sample of adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years) presenting to an urban ED with acute assault-related injury (excluding dating violence, sexual assault, and child abuse) was recruited. Consenting participants self-administered a computerized survey about demographics, history of peer and dating aggression, and theoretical correlates of violence (e. g., alcohol and other drug use, depressive symptoms, weapon carriage). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that were differentially associated with presentation to the ED for acute assault-related injury for females versus males. Results: Of 3,338 adolescents completing a screening survey during the 36-month study period, 197 had presented to the ED with acute assault-related injuries; seven of these were excluded from this study due to being victims of dating violence. Most (n = 179, 94.2%) of these 190 acutely assaulted participants were discharged home. The majority reported a history of past-year peer aggression (n = 160, 84.2%) and past-year violent injury (n = 106, 55.8%). Similar rates of past-year peer aggression, past-year violent injury, alcohol use, and weapon carriage were observed for adolescent males and females presenting with acute assault-related injury. Males and females also reported similar age, race, socioeconomic status, and education levels. Compared to males, females were less likely to report living with a parent (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08 to 0.84) and were more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.23 to 5.48) and past-year dating aggression (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.04 to 4.82). Conclusions: Male and female adolescents with acute assault-related injuries were very similar. Both reported extremely high rates of past year peer violence, assault-related injury, and substance use. The greater prevalence of some risk factors among adolescent females, such as depressive symptoms, dating aggression, and independent living status, should be further investigated.

Copyright 2011, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Resnick HS; Walsh K; McCauley JL; Schumacher JA; Kilpatrick DG; Acierno RE. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault. Addictive Behaviors 37(8): 914-921, 2012. (42 refs.)

Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post-assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post-sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) <3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault was a fairly sensitive and specific indicator respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Rosenkranz SE; Muller RT; Henderson JL. Psychological maltreatment in relation to substance use problem severity among youth. Child Abuse & Neglect 36(5): 438-448, 2012. (85 refs.)

Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment experiences, examining the extent to which emotional abuse and emotional neglect predict substance use problem severity among youth. The current study also sought to examine whether a cumulative model fit the data, in which the experience of multiple forms of maltreatment would be related most strongly to severity of substance use problems, or whether there was a distinct effect of psychological maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected through self-report questionnaires from 216 youth (144 males, 72 females) entering an outpatient treatment program for youth with substance use concerns. Results: Results indicated that, when considering all forms of abuse together, only emotional abuse and emotional neglect emerged as significant predictors of substance use problem severity. Furthermore, the association between psychological maltreatment and substance use problem severity was unaltered by the consideration of concurrent experiences of interpersonal violence. Conclusions: The results of the current study are consistent with those of a body of research describing the detrimental effects of psychological maltreatment. The findings have potential implications for the development and provision of trauma-informed youth substance use treatment services. The findings suggest that attending to the sequelae of psychological maltreatment may be important in assisting these youth in achieving successful treatment outcomes.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Rothman EF; Reyes LM; Johnson RM; LaValley M. Does the alcohol make them do it? Dating violence perpetration and drinking among youth. Epidemiologic Reviews 34(1): 103-119, 2012. (89 refs.)

Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985-2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol-DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals' gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Schumm JA; O'Farrell TJ; Murphy CM; Murphy M; Muchowski P. Test of a conceptual model of partner aggression among women entering substance use disorder treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72(6): 933-942, 2011. (47 refs.)

Objective: Despite extensive intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in substance use disorder treatment, few studies have investigated IPV risk factors within this population. Conceptual models, which have received support in other populations, propose that antisociality and generalized violence, alcohol and drug use, and relationship adjustment may be interrelated pathways that influence IPV. The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model that integrates these individual and relationship pathways to explain IPV among women entering substance use disorder treatment. Method: Women entering substance use disorder treatment (N = 277) who had a male relationship partner completed measures of the following domains about themselves and their male partners: antisociality/generalized violence, heavy alcohol use, drug use, relationship adjustment, and psychological and physical IPV. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses showed that the antisociality/generalized violence of each partner had direct and indirect effects on IPV. Each partner's antisociality/generalized violence was directly related to her or his physical IPV. Female antisociality/ generalized violence was indirectly related to female physical IPV via female drug use and female psychological IPV. Male antisociality/generalized violence was indirectly associated with male physical IPV via male drinking, relationship adjustment, and male psychological IPV. A reciprocal relationship was found between partners' psychological IPV but not physical IPV. When accounting for other individual and relational IPV predictors, male partners' physical IPV influenced women's physical IPV, but women's physical IPV did not influence their male partner's physical IPV. Conclusions: Both partners' antisociality/generalized violence, substance use, and overall relationship adjustment are important in understanding IPV among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

Copyright 2011, Alcohol Research Documentation

Shetgiri R; Kataoka S; Lin H; Flores G. A randomized, controlled trial of a school-based intervention to reduce violence and substance use in predominantly Latino high school students. Journal of the National Medical Association 103(9-10): 932-940, 2011. (43 refs.)

Purpose: Few studies have rigorously evaluated school-based interventions to reduce violence and substance use in high school students, especially Latinos. This study assessed the effects of a school-based program on reducing violence and substance use among primarily Latino high school students. Methods: Ninth-grade students at risk for violence and substance use were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention was based on an existing program developed for white and African American youth. Data on smoking, alcohol and drug use, fighting, and grades were collected at baseline and 4 and 8 months post enrollment. Results: There were 55 students in the control and 53 in the intervention group; 74% of controls and 78% of intervention students were Latino. There were no significant changes in fighting, smoking, or alcohol or drug use, from baseline to 8-month follow-up, between the intervention and control group. Pre and post grade point average (GPA) decreased from 2.3 at baseline to 1.8 at follow-up (p <.01) in the intervention group, with no significant between-group changes in GPA from baseline to follow-up. Conclusions: This school-based program showed no reduction in violence or substance use. The findings suggest that a program targeting non-Latino youth may not be optimal for reducing violence and substance use in Latinos; greater attention to cultural appropriateness and racial/ethnic differences may be needed. There was a decrease in intervention-group GPA but no significant change compared with controls. Further studies of the impact of school-based substance use and violence prevention programs on academics, and the effectiveness of afterschool or community-based programs compared to school-based programs are needed.

Copyright 2011, National Medical Association

Shorey RC; Stuart GL; Cornelius TL. Dating violence and substance use in college students: A review of the literature. (review). Aggression and Violent Behavior 16(6): 541-550, 2011. (82 refs.)

Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem among college-aged dating couples. Although substance use has been shown to be associated with dating violence among college students in empirical studies, the use of substances as they relate to dating violence has yet to be systematically reviewed. The purpose of the present manuscript is to review research on dating violence (perpetration and victimization) and substance use (alcohol and drugs). First, theoretical explanations for the association between substances and dating violence are presented. Second, the literature on substance use and dating violence is reviewed. The literature suggests a consistent association between alcohol and dating violence perpetration and victimization, although the association between drug use and dating violence is less clear. Implications of this review for dating violence prevention programming and future research are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Singh JP; Grann M; Lichtenstein P; Langstrom N; Fazel S. A novel approach to determining violence risk in schizophrenia: Developing a stepped strategy in 13,806 discharged patients. PLoS ONE 7(2): e-article 31727, 2012. (72 refs.)

Clinical guidelines recommend that violence risk be assessed in schizophrenia. Current approaches are resource-intensive as they employ detailed clinical assessments of dangerousness for most patients. An alternative approach would be to first screen out patients at very low risk of future violence prior to more costly and time-consuming assessments. In order to implement such a stepped strategy, we developed a simple tool to screen out individuals with schizophrenia at very low risk of violent offending. We merged high quality Swedish national registers containing information on psychiatric diagnoses, socio-demographic factors, and violent crime. A cohort of 13,806 individuals with hospital discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia was identified and followed for up to 33 years for violent crime. Cox regression was used to determine risk factors for violent crime and construct the screening tool, the predictive validity of which was measured using four outcome statistics. The instrument was calibrated on 6,903 participants and cross-validated using three independent replication samples of 2,301 participants each. Regression analyses resulted in a tool composed of five items: male sex, previous criminal conviction, young age at assessment, comorbid alcohol abuse, and comorbid drug abuse. At 5 years after discharge, the instrument had a negative predictive value of 0.99 (95% CI = 0.98-0.99), meaning that very few individuals who the tool screened out (n = 2,359 out of original sample of 6,903) were subsequently convicted of a violent offence. Screening out patients who are at very low risk of violence prior to more detailed clinical assessment may assist the risk assessment process in schizophrenia.

Copyright 2012, Public Library of Science

Smith PH; Homish GG; Leonard KE; Cornelius JR. Intimate partner violence and specific substance use disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 26(2): 236-245, 2012. (37 refs.)

The association between substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) is robust. It is less clear how the use of specific substances relates to relationship violence. This study examined IPV perpetration and victimization related to the following specific substance use disorders: alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opioid. The poly substance use of alcohol and cocaine, as well as alcohol and marijuana, were also examined. Data were analyzed from wave two of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Associations between substance use disorders and IPV were tested using logistic regression models while controlling for important covariates and accounting for the complex survey design. Alcohol use disorders and cocaine use disorders were most strongly associated with IPV perpetration, while cannabis use disorders and opioid use disorders were most strongly associated with IPV victimization. A diagnosis of both an alcohol use disorder and cannabis use disorder decreased the likelihood of IPV perpetration compared to each individual substance use disorder. A diagnosis of both an alcohol use disorder and cocaine use disorder increased likelihood of reporting IPV perpetration compared with alcohol use disorders alone but decreased likelihood of perpetration compared with a cocaine use disorder diagnosis alone. Overall, substance use disorders were consistently related to intimate partner violence after controlling for important covariates. These results provide further evidence for the important link between substance use disorders and IPV and add to our knowledge of which specific substances may be related to relationship violence.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

Smith SG; Breiding MJ. Chronic disease and health behaviours linked to experiences of non-consensual sex among women and men. Public Health 125(9): 653-659, 2011. (42 refs.)

Objectives: Few studies have examined the association between non-consensual sex and health indicators for both women and men. The current study examined this relationship as part of a large public health survey that collected information on a range of health behaviours and health risks. Methods: The Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an annual random-digit-dialled telephone survey providing surveillance of health behaviours and health risks among US adults. In 2005, an optional module on sexual violence was available for use at the discretion of each US state/territory. Over 115,000 respondents in 25 states/territories were administered the sexual violence module within the BRFSS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted from January to December 2008. Results: Among both women and men, previous non-consensual sex was associated with health conditions such as high cholesterol, stroke and heart disease, and risk behaviours such as human immunodeficiency virus risk factors, smoking and excessive drinking. Sexually victimized women were more likely to report having had a heart attack or heart disease than non-victims. Conclusions: The experience of non-consensual sex is associated with a number of chronic disease outcomes and risk factors. The development and implementation of effective sexual violence prevention strategies may reduce the risk of chronic conditions among persons who have experienced sexual victimisation.

Copyright 2011, The Royal Society for Public Health

Stayton C; McVeigh KH; Olson EC; Perkins K; Kerker BD. Victimization and health risk factors among weapon-carrying youth. American Journal of Health Behavior 35(6): 654-663, 2011. (27 refs.)

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization. Both subgroups were more likely than non-weapon carriers to binge drink, use marijuana, smoke, fight, and have multiple sex partners; weapon carriers with victimization also experienced persistent sadness and attempted suicide. Conclusions: Subgroups of weapon carriers have distinct profiles. Optimal response should pair disciplinary action with screening for behavioral and mental health concerns and victimization.

Copyright 2011, PNG

Stenbacka M; Moberg T; Romelsjo A; Jokinen J. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 12: e-article 38, 2012. (45 refs.)

Background: Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods: Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substancerelated cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR), respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted.

Copyright 2012, BioMed Central

Stickley A; Razvodovsky Y. The effects of beverage type on homicide rates in Russia, 1970-2005. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(3): 257-262, 2012. (48 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Previous research from Western Europe and North America has suggested that consuming different types of alcoholic beverage may have differing effects on homicide rates both within and between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and homicide rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Design and Methods. Age-standardised male and female homicide data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained from the Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time series analysis (autoregressive integrated moving average modelling) was used to examine the relation between the sale (consumption) of different alcoholic beverages and homicide rates. Results. Total alcohol consumption and vodka consumption as measured by sales were significantly associated with both male and female homicide rates: a 1 L increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 5.9% increase in the male homicide rate and a 5.1% increase in the female homicide rate. The respective figures for vodka were 16.4% and 14.3%. The consumption of beer and wine was not associated with changes in homicide rates. Discussion and Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the consumption of distilled spirits has had an especially detrimental impact on lethal violence in Russia from at least 1970 onwards. In order to reduce homicide rates in this context, alcohol policy should focus on reducing overall consumption as well as attempting to shift the beverage preference away from distilled spirits.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Suarez LM; Belcher HME; Briggs EC; Titus JC. Supporting the need for an integrated system of care for youth with co-occurring traumatic stress and substance abuse problems. American Journal of Community Psychology 49(3-4): 430-440, 2012. (44 refs.)

Adolescents are at high risk for violence exposure and initiation of drug use. Co-occurring substance use and trauma exposure are associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, school underachievement, and involvement with multiple systems of care. Coordination and integration of systems of care are of utmost importance for these vulnerable youth. This study delineates the negative sequelae and increased service utilization patterns of adolescents with a history of trauma, substance abuse, and co-occurring trauma and substance abuse to support the need for integrated mental health and substance abuse services for youth. Data from two national sources, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment demonstrate the increased clinical severity (measured by reports of emotional and behavioral problems), dysfunction, and service utilization patterns for youth with co-occurring trauma exposure and substance abuse. We conclude with recommendations for an integrated system of care that includes trauma-informed mental health treatment and substance abuse services aimed at reducing the morbidity and relapse probability of this high-risk group.

Copyright 2012, Springer Publishing

Sullivan TP; Ashare RL; Jaquier V; Tennen H. Risk factors for alcohol-related problems among victims of partner violence. Substance Use & Misuse 47(6): 673-685, 2012. (65 refs.)

Despite the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems and disorders among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV), factors related to current alcohol use are understudied. We examined current risk factors for alcohol-related problems among 143 substance-using, IPV-exposed women recruited from an urban community from 2007 to 2010. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity was associated with alcohol-related problems and a positive alcohol screen; physical IPV severity was related to alcohol dependence. Post hoc analyses revealed that PTSD symptom severity mediated relationships between physical IPV severity and hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking. Focusing on managing PTSD symptoms and physical IPV in community-based interventions may halt the progression from alcohol use to dependence.

Copyright 2012, Informa HealthCare

Sunday S; Kline M; Labruna V; Pelcovitz D; Salzinger S; Kaplan S. The role of adolescent physical abuse in adult intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(18): 3773-3789, 2011. (29 refs.)

This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with other risk factors) a significant predictor of intimate partner physical and emotional violence perpetration or victimization. In this longitudinal study, 67 abused and 78 nonabused adults (of an original sample of 198 adolescents) completed the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and the Jealousy and Emotional Control Scales. Nonabused comparison adolescents were matched for age, gender, and community income. As adults, participants with abuse histories had significantly higher rates of intimate partner physical violence and verbal aggression than did comparison participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that adults with histories of physical abuse were more than twice as likely to be physically violent and almost six times more likely to be verbally aggressive to their intimate partners than were comparison participants. Having had an alcohol use disorder, being married to or living with a partner, and perceiving one's partner as controlling were also significantly associated with physical violence. Jealousy and feeling controlled by one's partner were also significant predictors of verbal aggression. These findings underscore the importance of preventing adolescent abuse as a means of decreasing the incidence of intimate partner physical violence in adulthood.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Surratt HL; Kurtz SP; Chen MX; Mooss A. HIV risk among female sex workers in Miami: The impact of violent victimization and untreated mental illness. AIDS Care 24(5): 553-561, 2012. (38 refs.)

Street-based female sex workers constitute a vulnerable population for HIV, as they are often enmeshed in chronic patterns of substance use, sexual risk, homelessness, and violent victimization. This study examined the specific contributions of victimization history and abuse-related traumagenic factors to mental health functioning and sexual risk behaviors, while considering the impact of environmental risk factors as well. Using targeted sampling strategies, we enrolled 562 Miami-based female sex workers into an intervention trial testing the relative effectiveness of two alternative case management conditions in establishing linkages with health services and reducing risk for HIV. Lifetime prevalence of abuse was extremely elevated at 88%. Nearly half reported abuse before the age of 18, while 34% reported violent encounters with "dates" or clients in the past 90 days. Serious mental illness (SMI) was quite common, with 74% reporting severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, or traumatic stress. For those with histories of abuse, SMI appeared to mediate the association between abuse-related trauma and unprotected sex behaviors. Mental health treatment would appear to be an important component of effective HIV prevention among this vulnerable group, and should form part of a compendium of services offered to female sex workers.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Tartakovsky E; Mezhibovsky S. Female immigrant victims of domestic violence: A comparison between immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and Israeli-Born women. Journal of Family Violence 27(6): 561-572, 2012. (50 refs.)

This study aimed to understand patterns of physical and psychological violence and the system of social support among female immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel who are suffering from domestic violence. Immigrant women receiving help in Centers for the Treatment and Prevention of Domestic Violence and in shelters for battered women (n = 74) were compared with Israeli-born women receiving help in the same Centers and shelters (n = 107). Immigrant and Israeli-born women reported similar levels of physical and psychological violence, and the immigrants' utilization of formal and informal systems of social support was similar to that among Israeli-born women. However, immigrant women were threatened more frequently with expulsion from Israel, and their partners were alcoholically intoxicated more often than the partners of Israeli-born women. Non-Jewish women were more frequently threatened with expulsion from Israel, and they reported a lower level of social support received from parents and friends.

Copyright 2012, Springer Publishing

Testa M; Kubiak A; Quigley BM; Houston RJ; Derrick JL; Levitt A et al. Husband and wife alcohol use as independent or interactive predictors of intimate partner violence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(2): 268-276, 2012. (42 refs.)

Objective: Men's heavy drinking has been established as a risk factor for their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV); however, the role of women's drinking in their perpetration of IPV is less clear. The current study examined the relative strength of husbands' and wives' alcohol use and alcohol dependence symptoms on the occurrence and frequency of husbands' and wives' IPV perpetration. Method: Married and cohabiting community couples (N = 280) were identified and recruited according to their classification in one of four drinking groups: heavy episodic drinking occurred in both partners (n = 79), the husband only (n = 80), the wife only (n = 41), and neither (n = 80). Husband and wife alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence symptoms, and IPV perpetration were assessed independently for both partners. Results: Husband and wife consumption and alcohol dependence symptoms contributed to the likelihood and frequency of husband IPV, both independently and interactively. Husband, but not wife, alcohol dependence symptoms contributed to the occurrence of any wife IPV, although both partners' alcohol dependence symptoms predicted the frequency of wife aggression. Couples with discrepant drinking were not more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions: Findings for husband IPV support previous research identifying alcohol use of both partners as a predictor. However, for wives, alcohol appears to play less of a role in IPV perpetration, perhaps reflecting that women experience less inhibition against physical aggression in their intimate relationships than do men.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Thompson MP; Koss MP; Kingree JB; Goree J; Rice J. A prospective mediational model of sexual aggression among college men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(13): 2716-2734, 2011. (74 refs.)

Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the authors examined prospective associations of attitudes, norms, and control with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration 1 year later among male college students. Data were collected from 652 males via confidential, self-report surveys at the end of their 1st and 2nd years in college. Results: indicated that attitudes conducive to SA and perceived norms supportive of SA were associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in SA 1 year later, and mediated the associations of some established risk factors for SA. The findings identify potentially changeable risk factors for perpetrating SA and can thus contribute to the foundation on which to build theoretical and empirically based prevention programs. [Note: There is discussion of heavy alcohol use is a major risk factor for sexual aggression.]

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Thrane LE; Yoder KA; Chen XJ. The influence of running away on the risk of female sexual assault in the subsequent year. Violence and Victims 26(6): 816-829, 2011. (46 refs.)

This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Torok M; Darke S; Kaye S. Predisposed violent drug users versus drug users who commit violence: Does the order of onset translate to differences in the severity of violent offending? Drug and Alcohol Review 31(4): 558-565, 2012. (47 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. To determine whether there were differences in drug use profiles, psychopathology, and severity of violence among regular illicit drug users in respect to the order of onset of drug use and violence. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional survey utilising self-report data was administered to 327 regular illicit drug users in Sydney, Australia. Results. Those who first committed violent crime prior to illicit drug use were found to have more serious offending patterns (greater frequency, arrest for more serious violence, earlier age of onset, and more weapon use). Being male, having a history of child abuse and greater severity of conduct disorder were independent predictors of committing violence before drug use. Discussion and Conclusions. Whilst the nature of the data does not permit causative conclusions, it appears that the order of onset of illicit drug use and violent crime is associated with heterogeneous offending patterns. Early onset violence was associated with more severe violent crimes in later adulthood, whereas violence which proceeded drug use was more strongly linked to systemic risks. The findings have implications for early intervention among children with conduct disorder and also for using drug and alcohol treatment services to reduce specific risks associated with violence.[Torok M, Darke S, Kaye S. Predisposed violent drug users versus drug users who commit violence: Does the order of onset translate to differences in the severity of violent offending?

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Vinkers DJ; De Beurs E; Barendregt M; Rinne T; Hoek HW. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 21(5): 307-320, 2011. (26 refs.)

Background: Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective: To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and types of crime in pre-trial defendants. Method: Data were extracted from 21,424 pre-trial forensic psychiatric reports made between 2000 and 2006 in the Netherlands. We compared the prevalence of axis I disorders, personality disorders, intellectual functioning and substance abuse in defendants charged with a range of crimes (homicide, attempted/threatened homicide, assault, battery, rape, sexual crimes, arson and/or property crimes) using chi-square tests. Relationships with diminished accountability, reflecting a direct relationship with underlying mental disorder, were calculated using multivariate regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and history of judicial contact. Results: Arson had the strongest relationship with mental disorders in our sample, then assaults, then homicidal attempts or threats. Sexual and property crimes had the weakest relationship with diminished or absent accountability. Diminished accountability had the strongest relationship with psychotic disorders, followed by organic psychosyndromes and developmental disorders, whereas other axis I disorders, personality disorders or an IQ score of < 85 points were only moderately related. These relationships varied little according to the type of crime, although tended to be weaker for defendants in property crimes. Cannabis and hard drugs were significantly associated with decreased accountability only in respect of arson. Discussion: Mental disorders are related to all types of crimes but especially to arson, battery and homicidal attempts or threats, with a court finding of diminished accountability providing some validation for perceived links between the disorder and crime in this study.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Walters KL; Beltran R; Evans-Campbell T; Simoni JM. Keeping our hearts from touching the ground: HIV/AIDS in American Indian and Alaska Native women. Women's Health Issues 21(6(supplement)): S261-S265, 2011. (32 refs.)

HIV/AIDS is a critical and growing challenge to American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women's health. Conceptually guided by the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model, this paper explores the historical and contemporary factors implicated in the HIV epidemic among AIAN women and the co-occurring epidemics of sexual violence and substance abuse. The authors also outline multiple indicators of resiliency in AIAN communities and stress the need for HIV prevention interventions for AIAN women to capitalize on cultural and community strengths.

Copyright 2011, Jacobs Institute of Women's Health

White HR; Lee C; Mun EY; Loeber R. Developmental patterns of alcohol use in relation to the persistence and desistance of serious violent offending among African American and Caucasian young men. Criminology 50(2): 391-426, 2012. (94 refs.)

This study examined the association of alcohol use with the persistence and desistance of serious violent offending among African American and Caucasian young men from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Five violence groups were defined: nonviolent, late-onsetters, desisters, persisters, and one-time offenders. We examined alcohol use trajectories for these groups spanning 12 through 24/25 years of age using a four-piecewise linear growth model s 1214, 1418, 1821, and 2124/25 years of age. The persisters and desisters reported the highest levels of drinking at 13 years of age. From 14 to 18 years old, however, the late-onsetters showed a higher rate of increase in drinking, compared with the persisters and desisters. Starting at 18 years of age, the desisters drinking trajectory started to resemble that of the nonviolent group, who showed the highest rate of increase in drinking during emerging adulthood. By 24/25 years of age, the persisters could not be distinguished from the late-onsetters, but they were lower than the nonviolent and one-timer groups in terms of their drinking. At 24/25 years old, the desisters were not significantly different from the other violence groups, although they seemed most similar to the nonviolent and one-timer groups. We found no evidence that the association between drinking and violence differed for African Americans and Caucasians. The findings suggest that yearly changes in alcohol use could provide important clues for preventing violent offending.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Widome R; Kehle SM; Carlson KF; Laska MN; Gulden A; Lust K. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and health risk behaviors among Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans attending college. American Journal of Health Behavior 35(4): 387-392, 2011. (24 refs.)

Objective: To determine if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method: Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors (n=406). Results: We found PTSD diagnosis to be significantly associated with reporting involvement in a physical fight in the past year (ARR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2, 4.4) and marginally associated with high-risk drinking (ARR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6). However, no association was seen between PTSD and the tobacco use and other safety behaviors that we examined. Conclusion: PTSD is likely a factor that contributes to the relationship between military service and certain health risk behaviors.

Copyright 2011, PNG Publications

Windlin B; Kuntsche E. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence. Journal of Health Psychology 17(4): 509-519, 2012. (28 refs.)

Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Yang C; German D; Webster D; Latkin C. Experiencing violence as a predictor of drug use relapse among former drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Journal of Urban Health 88(6): 1044-1051, 2011. (30 refs.)

The purpose of this study was to examine experiencing violence as a predictor of subsequent drug relapse among a sample of former crack, cocaine, and heroin users in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample consists of 228 former drug users in Baltimore who were recruited through street outreach. Mixed-effects models were used to examine experiencing violence as a predictor of drug relapse at follow-up after adjusting for clustering of responses among participants living in the same census block. Using longitudinal data, we found that experiencing violence in the past year predicted drug relapse at 2-year follow-up among former drug users. Results indicate experiencing violence is a determinant of drug use relapse and highlight the importance of addressing the fundamental issues of violence experienced in inner-city communities. Addressing the extent of recent violence among drug treatment participants, providing coping skills, and reducing community violence are strategies that may address the link between violence and drug relapse.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Yang S; Mulvey EP; Loughran TA; Hanusa BH. Psychiatric symptoms and alcohol use in community violence by persons with a psychotic disorder or depression. Psychiatric Services 63(3): 262-269, 2012. (40 refs.)

Objective: Prior studies have shown a significant but modest association between mental disorders and violence and an increased risk in the presence of co-occurring substance use disorders. Categorical diagnoses, however, have limited utility when assessing dynamic risk state over time. This study used data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment: Study to examine the relationship of symptom levels and alcohol use to violence in repeated observations within two diagnostic groups. Methods: Participants with a primary categorical diagnosis of depression (N=386) or a psychotic disorder (N=201) were identified. Subscale scores for affective or positive symptoms from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and self-reported alcohol consumption were tested in panel logistic models over five ten-week intervals for their concurrent and lagged relationship to violence. An interaction term between each type of symptom and alcohol use was also tested. Results: In models including the amount of alcohol consumed and symptom levels, a high level of affective symptoms was associated with violence during the next follow-up period only for participants with depression. There was a significant interaction between alcohol use and affective symptoms for participants with depression. Conclusions: The relationship of symptoms and alcohol use to community violence should be considered in the context of the individual's primary diagnosis. Further characterization of interactions between symptoms and substance use in relation to violent behavior may allow for more effective assessment of risk state and interventions for violence prevention.

Copyright 2012, American Psychiatric Publishing

Yeater EA; Lenberg KL; Bryan AD. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(7): 1242-1258, 2012. (30 refs.)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Zahradnik M; Stewart SH; Sherry SB; Stevens D; Wekerle C. Posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood exposure to violence and subsequent alcohol misuse in Mi'kmaq youth. Journal of Traumatic Stress 24(5, special issue): 566-574, 2011. (70 refs.)

This study was part of a school-based collaborative research project with a Canadian Mi'kmaq community that examined the potential role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom clusters in mediating the relationship between childhood exposure to violence (EV) and alcohol misuse in a sample of Mi'kmaq adolescents (N = 166). The study employed a cross-sectional design and used several well-validated self-report questionnaires. Path analytic results showed that when each PTS symptom cluster was independently investigated for mediating effects while controlling for depressive symptoms, age, and gender, only the PTS hyperarousal symptom cluster fully mediated the EV-alcohol misuse relationship. Results are discussed within the context of previous theory and research on the topic of PTS as a mediator between EV and alcohol misuse.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Zinzow HM; Resnick HS; McCauley JL; Amstadter AB; Ruggiero KJ; Kilpatrick DG. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: Results from a national survey of women. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47(6): 893-902, 2012. (27 refs.)

Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories.

Copyright 2012, Springer Heidelberg