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CORK Bibliography: Media

62 citations. January 2012 to present

Prepared: December 2012

Baum F. From Norm to Eric: Avoiding lifestyle drift in Australian health policy. (editorial). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 35(5): 404-406, 2011. (22 refs.)

There is no doubt that the Australian Labor Party Government has made a strong commitment to preventing disease, as shown by the Council of Australian Governments' (COAG) National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH), the commissioning of the National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) and the Commonwealth Government's response to that Taskforce report. Each of these initiatives stresses the importance of preventing chronic disease by encouraging people to adopt appropriate lifestyles. These lifestyles involve not smoking, drinking in moderation, eating a healthy diet and taking enough exercise. Similar messages were evident in the lifestyle push of the 1980s when the 'Life be in it' campaign promoted Norm as a model of a coach potato who did not heed the lifestyle advice. The face of the lifestyle campaign this time around is Eric, an obese-looking balloon man, and his family who urge people to swap an unhealthy lifestyle habit for a more healthy one. The large lifestyle campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s have been shown to have had little, if any, impact on population health, and if anything act to increase inequities. The programs that did work were those that were implemented alongside a program of policy and structural change (such as changing the food supply), the Finnish North Karelia experiment being an example. In the past decade the power of the social determinants of health in shaping overall population health and the distribution of health within populations has received considerable attention, most prominently in the work of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Why haven't we learned from this evidence? A crucial reason for the failure to learn from the evidence is that, politically, action on the social determinants of health is generally less palatable than instituting a lifestyle advice program.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Conroy A; Kemp R; Legosz M; Wells H; Henderson S; Najman JM. How do young adults respond to media coverage and education campaigns concerned with methamphetamine and ecstasy use? Drug and Alcohol Review 29(Supplement 1): 15, 2010. (0 refs.)

Aim: The use of methamphetamine and ecstasy has been subject to intensive episodes of media coverage in recent years. At the same time, recent education campaigns have used broadcast media and billboard advertising in an attempt to reduce the uptake and use of these substances, particularly among young adults. This presentation explores the likely impacts of such coverage and campaigns. Methods: The Natural History Study is a retrospective/prospective longitudinal study examining the natural history of ATS use during early adulthood (ages 18 to 23 at baseline). A group of ATS users (N = 352) and a comparison group of non-users (N = 204) were recruited randomly using population screening methods. ATS group participants had used ecstasy or amphetamines 3+ times in the last 12 months and the comparison group had never used either drug at the time of screening. Results: A majority of participants recalled observing news stories or advertisements during 2009 about ecstasy and/or amphetamine use, with recall highest among the ATS group. For the comparison group, news stories had discouraged 59% (N = 102) from ever using ecstasy and 62% (N = 109) from ever using amphetamines. Advertising discouraged 56% from using ecstasy and 58% from using amphetamines. In contrast, 60% or more of ATS group participants indicated that news stories and advertising had not influenced their use of ecstasy or amphetamines in any way. However, news stories and advertisements made approximately one quarter these participants more careful about their drug use. Opinions about the accuracy of news coverage and advertisements were mixed. Conclusions: In regard to reducing ecstasy and amphetamine use, news stories and advertising have the greatest impact on young adults that have never tried these drugs. However, there might also be potential for reducing drug-related harm among ecstasy and amphetamine users through the judicious use of these media

Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing

Cortese DK; Lewis MJ; Ling PM. Tobacco industry lifestyle magazines targeted to young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health 45(3): 268-280, 2009. (76 refs.)

Purpose: This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results: Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions: Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.

Copyright 2009, Society for Adolescent Medicine

Cotter T; Hung WT; Perez D; Dunlop S; Bishop J. Squeezing new life out of an old Sponge: how to modernise an anti-smoking media campaign to capture a new market. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 35(1): 75-80, 2011. (20 refs.)

Objectives: The iconic Sponge anti-smoking television advertisement was first made in Sydney, Australia, in 1979. In 2007, it was re-made for a new generation of smokers. This paper examines the impact of the re-made Sponge advertisement. Methods: Qualitative evaluation of the original Sponge ad by younger and older smokers (n=51) was followed by an online pre-test survey of the modernised version (n=301). A continuous tracking telephone survey of smokers and recent quitters (quit in past 12 months) over 18 years monitored performance of the modernised version while on air in late 2007 (total n=453; seen ad n=380). Results: Qualitative research found that the concept of the original Sponge ad may motivate younger smokers - who had not previously seen the ad - to quit. Online pre-testing demonstrated that the modernised version provided new information to 54% of 18-24 year olds (compared to 31% of older smokers). Tracking survey results indicated that believability of the modernised version was highest among 18-24 year olds (92%), that the ad was 'attention-grabbing' (86%), and that it was effective at influencing quitting intentions. Effects were amplified by the generation of pressure from family and friends. Implications: The re-made Sponge advertisement had a positive impact on smokers, and was particularly effective among the new market of smokers aged less than 40 years. Adapting successful mass media campaign material can be an effective and economical strategy to influence smokers.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Curry LE; Pederson LL; Stryker JE. The changing marketing of smokeless tobacco in magazine advertisements. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 13(7): 540-547, 2011. (34 refs.)

Concerns about secondhand smoke, increasing indoor smoking bans, and health concerns regarding cigarettes are contributing to the development of new smokeless tobacco (ST) products by the tobacco industry and the repositioning of traditional ST products. The objective of this research was to systematically document the changing advertising strategies and themes of the ST industry. Using descriptive content analysis, this study analyzed 17 nationally circulated magazines for ST advertisements (ads) from 1998-1999 and 2005-2006, recording both magazine and advertisement characteristics (e.g., themes, selling proposition, people portrayed, and setting/surroundings.) Ninety-five unique ads were found during the two time periods-occurring with total frequency of 290 ad placements in 816 issues. One hundred ninety-one ads were found in the 2005-2006 sample, while 99 were found in the 1998-1999 magazines. Significant differences in ST ads were identified between time periods and magazine types. A greater percentage of ads were found in the latter time period, and the average number of ads per issue increased (0.24 in 1998-1999 and 0.49 in 2005-2006, p < .001). More recent magazines and general adult magazines contained a greater proportion of flavored products, "alternative to cigarette" messages, and indoor settings when compared with earlier magazines and men's magazines, respectively. While continuing to advertise in men's magazines with themes appealing to men and "traditional" ST users, the ST industry appears to be simultaneously changing its message placement and content in order to include readers of general adult magazines who may not currently use ST.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

Engels RCME; Hermans R; van Baaren RB; Hollenstein T; Bot SM. Alcohol portrayal on television affects actual drinking behaviour. Alcohol and Alcoholism 44(3): 244-249, 2009. (32 refs.)

Aims: Alcohol portrayal in movies and commercials is generally positive and might stimulate young people to drink. We tested experimentally whether portrayal of alcohol images in movies and commercials on television promotes actual drinking. Methods: In a naturalistic setting (a bar lab), young adult male pairs watched) a movie clip for 1 h with two commercial breaks and were allowed to drink non-alcohol and alcoholic beverages. These participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions varying on the type of movie (many versus few alcohol portrayals) and commercials (alcohol commercials present or not). Results: Participants assigned to the conditions with substantial alcohol exposure in either movies or commercials consume more alcohol than other participants. Those in the condition with alcohol portrayal in movie and commercials drank on average 1.5 glasses more than those in the condition with no alcohol portrayal, within a period of 1 h. Conclusions: This study - for the first time - shows a causal link between exposure to drinking models and alcohol commercials on acute alcohol consumption.

Copyright 2009, Oxford University Press

Falk EB; Berkman ET; Whalen D; Lieberman MD. Neural activity during health messaging predicts reductions in smoking above and beyond self-report. Health Psychology 30(2): 177-185, 2011. (62 refs.)

Objective: The current study tested whether neural activity in response to messages designed to help smokers quit could predict smoking reduction, above and beyond self-report. Design: Using neural activity in an a priori region of interest (a subregion of medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC]), in response to ads designed to help smokers quit smoking, we prospectively predicted reductions in smoking in a community sample of smokers (N = 28) who were attempting to quit smoking. Smoking was assessed via expired carbon monoxide (CO; a biological measure of recent smoking) at baseline and 1 month following exposure to professionally developed quitting ads. Results: A positive relationship was observed between activity in the MPFC region of interest and successful quitting (increased activity in MPFC was associated with a greater decrease in expired CO). The addition of neural activity to a model predicting changes in CO from self-reported intentions, self-efficacy, and ability to relate to the messages significantly improved model fit, doubling the variance explained (R-self-report(2) = .15, R-self-report(2) (+ neural activity) = .35, R-change(2) = .20). Conclusion: Neural activity is a useful complement to existing self-report measures. In this investigation, we extend prior work predicting behavior change based on neural activity in response to persuasive media to an important health domain and discuss potential psychological interpretations of the brain behavior link. Our results support a novel use of neuroimaging technology for understanding the psychology of behavior change and facilitating health promotion.

Copyright 2011, American Psychological Association

Fielder L; Donovan RJ; Ouschan R. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on Australian metropolitan free-to-air television. Addiction 104(7): 1157-1165, 2009. (64 refs.)

This study investigated the exposure of underage youth to alcohol television advertising on metropolitan free-to-air television in the five mainland capital city markets of Australia. Exposure levels (target audience rating points; TARPs) were obtained for all alcohol advertisements screened from November 2005 to October 2006 in each capital city market for: children 0-12 years; underage teens 13-17 years; young adults 18-24 years; and mature adults 25+ years. The 30 most exposed advertisements across age groups were then content-analysed for elements appealing to children and underage youth. In each of the five metropolitan markets, mature adults were most exposed to alcohol advertising. Children were exposed to one-third the level of mature adults and underage teens to approximately the same level as young adults. However, there was considerable variation in media weight between markets, such that underage teens in two markets had higher advertising TARPs than young adults in other markets. All 30 highest exposed advertisements contained at least one element known to appeal to children and underage youth, with 23 containing two or more such elements. Fifteen of the 30 advertisements featured an animal. The self-regulation system in Australia does not protect children and youth from exposure to alcohol advertising, much of which contains elements appealing to these groups.

Copyright 2009, Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs

Flynn BS; Worden JK; Bunn JY; Connolly SW; Dorwaldt AL. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model. Health Education Research 26(6): 976-987, 2011. (26 refs.)

Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

Glantz SA. Commentary on Hanewinkel et al. (2010): Anti-smoking advertisments vaccinate movie viewers against effects of on-screen smoking. (commentary). Addiction 105(7): 1278-1279, 2010. (19 refs.)

Hanewinkel R; Isensee B; Sargent JD; Morgenstern M. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 38(4): 359-366, 2010. (38 refs.)

Background: Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. Purpose: This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Results: The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 9996 for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 5596 and 3496, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI = 1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q I, 2.90(95% CI = 1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1 79 (9596 CI = 1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. Conclusions: This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements.

Copyright 2010, Elsevior Science

Hanewinkel R; Isensee B; Sargent JD; Morgenstern M. Effect of an antismoking advertisement on cinema patrons' perception of smoking and intention to smoke: A quasi-experimental study. Addiction 105(7): 1269-1277, 2010. (36 refs.)

Aims: To assess the effect of an antismoking advertisement under real-world conditions. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting/participants: Multiplex cinema in Kiel, Germany; 4073 patrons were surveyed after having viewed a movie. Some 4005 patrons were >= 10 years old (28.7% between 10 and 17 years). A total of 654 subjects (16.3%) were smokers. Intervention: In the intervention condition (weeks 1 and 3), a 30-second antismoking advertisement-accentuating long-term health consequences of smoking and promoting cessation-was shown prior to all movies; in the control condition (weeks 2 and 4) no such spot was shown. Main outcome measures: (i) Awareness of smoking in the movie, (ii) approval of smoking in the movie, (iii) attitude towards smoking, (iv) intention to smoke in the future and (v) desire to smoke among smokers. Findings: Patrons who were exposed to the antismoking advertisement were more likely to be female, but did not differ with respect to smoking status. After controlling for gender differences, patrons exposed to the antismoking advertisement had (i) higher awareness of smoking in the movies, (ii) lower levels of approval of smoking in the movies, and (iii) a more negative attitude towards smoking in general compared with those not exposed. Among smokers, smoking in the movies increased urge to smoke, but there was no interaction between smoking in the movies and experimental condition. Conclusions: Study results suggest that placing an antismoking advertisement before movies can affect attitudes towards smoking, bolstering evidence in support of such policies.

Copyright 2010, Society for the Study of Addiction

Hanewinkel R; Polansky JR; Sargent JD. Sean Pennsylvania and American Spirits in a Vanity Fair feature: Blurring journalism and cigarette advertising. (editorial). Tobacco Control 18(4): 333-334, 2009. (10 refs.)

Harakeh Z; Engels RCME; Vohs K; van Baaren RB; Sargent J. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: An experimental study with a factorial design. Tobacco Control 19(3): 185-190, 2010. (24 refs.)

Background: This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods: We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results: Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion: These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study.

Copyright 2010, BMJ Publishing

Henriksen L. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: Promotion, packaging, price and place. (review). Tobacco Control 21(2): 147-153, 2012. (91 refs.)

Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

Copyright 2012, BMJ Publishing

Hurt RD; Ebbert JO; Achadi A; Croghan IT. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: Transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia. Tobacco Control 21(3): 306-312, 2012. (78 refs.)

Background: Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective: To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods: We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap." Results: Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion: PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

Copyright 2012, BMJ Publishing

Jiang N; Ling PM. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: Tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 101(10): 1942-1954, 2011. (177 refs.)

Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

Copyright 2011, American Public Health Association

Koordeman R; Anschutz DJ; Engels RCME. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: An experimental study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(5): 874-880, 2012. (48 refs.)

Background: Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. Methods: An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Results: Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Conclusions: Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted.

Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism

Kupersmidt JB; Scull TM; Austin EW. Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: Study of Media Detective. Pediatrics 126(3): 525-531, 2010. (32 refs.)

OBJECTIVES: Media Detective is a 10-lesson elementary school substance use prevention program developed on the basis of the message interpretation processing model designed to increase children's critical thinking skills about media messages and reduce intent to use tobacco and alcohol products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a short-term, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Media Detective for achieving these goals. METHODS: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to conditions to either receive the Media Detective program (n = 344) or serve in a waiting list control group (n = 335). RESULTS: Boys in the Media Detective group reported significantly less interest in alcohol-branded merchandise than boys in the control group. Also, students who were in the Media Detective group and had used alcohol or tobacco in the past reported significantly less intention to use and more self-efficacy to refuse substances than students who were in the control group and had previously used alcohol or tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation provides evidence that Media Detective can be effective for substance use prevention in elementary school-aged children. Notably, media-related cognitions about alcohol and tobacco products are malleable and relevant to the development and maintenance of substance use behaviors during late childhood. The findings from this study suggest that media literacy-based interventions may serve as both a universal and a targeted prevention program that has potential for assisting elementary school children in making healthier, more informed decisions about use of alcohol and tobacco products.

Copyright 2010, American Academy of Pediatrics

Lee MJ. The effects of self-efficacy statements in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages targeting college students: Who is in charge? Health Communication 25(8): 638-646, 2010. (31 refs.)

This study examined the effect of self-efficacy statements in humorous anti-alcohol abuse television advertisements on college students. A posttest only group design experiment was conducted with 124 college students. It was found that highly rebellious individuals who watched ads with a self-efficacy statement (i.e., 'You Are in Control of the Situation') indicated lower alcohol expectancies, higher risk perceptions, and higher intentions to change their drinking behaviors than those in the non-self-efficacy condition. The findings suggest that health promotional messages should be tailored to rebellious college students, particularly those who are at risk, in a manner that not only gains their attention but also minimizes possible defensive reactions to the given messages. Humorous messages with self-efficacy statements could offer ways to communicate with rebellious college students regarding their drinking problems.

Copyright 2010, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Lee ST; Cheng IH. Assessing the TARES as an ethical model for antismoking ads. Journal of Health Communication 15(1): 55-75, 2010. (55 refs.)

This study examines the ethical dimensions of public health communication, with a focus on antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). The content analysis of 82 television ads from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center is an empirical testing of Baker and Martinson's (2001) TARES Test that directly examines persuasive messages for truthfulness, authenticity, respect, equity, and social responsibility. In general, the antismoking ads score highly on ethicality. There are significant relationships between ethicality and message attributes (thematic frame, emotion appeal, source, and target audience). Ads that portrayed smoking as damaging to health and socially unacceptable score lower in ethicality than ads that focus on tobacco industry manipulation, addiction, dangers of secondhand smoke, and cessation. Emotion appeals of anger and sadness are associated with higher ethicality than shame and humor appeals. Ads targeting teen/youth audiences score lower on ethicality than ads targeting adult and general audiences. There are significant differences in ethicality based on sources; ads produced by the CDC rate higher in ethicality than other sources. Theoretical implications and practical recommendations are discussed.

Copyright 2010, Taylor & Francis

Leshner G; Cheng IH. The effects of frame, appeal, and outcome extremity of antismoking messages on cognitive processing. Health Communication 24(3): 219-227, 2009. (40 refs.)

Research on the impact of antismoking advertisements in countermarketing cigarette advertising is equivocal. Although many studies examined how different message appeal types influence people's attitudes and behavior, there have been few studies that have explored the mechanism of how individuals attend to and remember antismoking information. This study examined how message attributes of antismoking TV ads (frame, appeal type, and outcome extremity) interacted to influence people's attention (secondary task reaction time) and memory (recognition). Antismoking public service announcements were chosen that were either loss- or gain-framed, had either a health or social appeal, or had either a more or less extreme outcome described in the message. Among the key findings were that loss-framed messages with more extreme outcomes required the most processing resources (i.e., had the slowest secondary task reaction times) and were the best remembered (i.e., were best recognized). These findings indicate ways that different message attributes affect individuals' cognitive processing, and they are discussed in light of prior framing and persuasion research.

Copyright 2009, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Lyons A; McNeill A; Gilmore I; Britton J. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK. International Journal of Epidemiology 40(5): 1411-1419, 2011. (51 refs.)

Background: Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as 'alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances') were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results: At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of 'alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances' was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including 'alcohol brand appearances', were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion: Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

McGoldrick DE; Boonn AV. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 38(Supplement 3): S327-S332, 2010. (48 refs.)

Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Nelson JP. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment. (review). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 7(3): 870-926, 2010. (158 refs.)

This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

Copyright 2010, Molecular Diversity Preservation International-MDPI

Pettigrew S; Roberts M; Pescud M; Chapman K; Quester P; Miller C. The extent and nature of alcohol advertising on Australian television. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(6): 797-802, 2012. (25 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Current alcohol guidelines in Australia recommend minimising alcohol consumption, especially among minors. This study investigated (i) the extent to which children and the general population are exposed to television advertisements that endorse alcohol consumption and (ii) the themes used in these advertisements. Design and Methods. A content analysis was conducted on alcohol advertisements aired over two months in major Australian cities. The advertisements were coded according to the products that were promoted, the themes that were employed, and the time of exposure. Advertising placement expenditure was also captured. Results. In total, 2810 alcohol advertisements were aired, representing one in 10 beverage advertisements. Advertisement placement expenditure for alcohol products in the five cities over the two months was $15.8 million. Around half of all alcohol advertisements appeared during children's popular viewing times. The most common themes used were humour, friendship/mateship and value for money. Discussion and Conclusions. Children and adults are regularly exposed to advertisements that depict alcohol consumption as fun, social and inexpensive. Such messages may reinforce existing alcohol-related cultural norms that prevent many Australians from meeting current intake guidelines.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Rouner D; Slater M; Long M; Stapel L. The relationship between editorial and advertising content about tobacco and alcohol in United States newpapers: An exploratory study. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 86(1): 103-118, 2009. (48 refs.)

Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the possible relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial content. This study found less tobacco and alcohol advertising in newspapers than did previous research and no relationship between coverage and number of advertisements.

Copyright 2009, Association of Educational Journalism and Mass Communications

Sargent JD; Gibson J; Heatherton TF. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking. Tobacco Control 18(1): 47-53, 2009. (46 refs.)

Objectives: To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results: In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions: The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

Copyright 2009, BMJ Publishing Group

Sherriff J; Griffiths D; Daube M. Cricket: Notching up runs for food and alcohol companies? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 34(1): 19-23, 2010. (35 refs.)

Objective: To analyse sports sponsorship by food and alcohol companies by quantifying the proportion of time that the main sponsor's logo was seen during each of three cricket telecasts, the extent of paid advertising during the telecast and the contribution by the main sponsor to this, and to describe the associated ground advertising. Methods: DVD recordings of the three telecasts were analysed for visibility of the main sponsor's logo during actual playing time and for each sponsor's proportion of the advertising time during breaks in telecast. Results: The main sponsor's logo was visible on a range of equipment and clothing that resulted in it being clearly identifiable from 44% to 74% of the game time. The proportion of paid advertising time in these three telecasts varied from 3% to 20%, reflecting the difference in advertising content of paid television versus free-to-air. Implications: While television food advertising to children is under review, sporting telecasts also reach children and, until recently, have avoided scrutiny. This content analysis of three recent cricket telecasts reveals an unacceptable level of exposure to food and alcohol marketing, particularly in the form of the main sponsor's logo. Sponsorship is not covered by the voluntary codes of practice that address some forms of advertising. A new system of regulation is required to reduce this unacceptable level of exposure.

Copyright 2010, Public Health Association of Australia

Stewart HS; Bowden JA; Bayly MC; Sharplin GR; Durkin SJ; Miller CL et al. Potential effectiveness of specific anti-smoking mass media advertisements among Australian Indigenous smokers. Health Education Research 26(6): 961-975, 2011. (33 refs.)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156 non-Indigenous smokers from South Australia were shown 10 anti-smoking advertisements representing a range of advertisements typically aired in Australia. Participants rated advertisements on a five-point Likert scale assessing factors including message acceptance and personalized effectiveness. On average, Indigenous people rated the mainstream advertisements higher than non-Indigenous people and were more likely to report that they provided new information. Advertisements with strong graphic imagery depicting the health effects of smoking were rated highest by Indigenous smokers. Advertisements featuring real people describing the serious health consequences of smoking received mixed responses. Those featuring an ill person were rated higher by Indigenous people than those featuring the family of the person affected by a smoking-related disease. With limited Indigenous-specific messages available and given the finite resources of most public health campaigns, exposure to mainstream strong graphic and emotive first-person narratives about the health effects of smoking are likely to be highly motivating for Indigenous smokers.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

Tinkler P. Smoke Signals: Women, Smoking and Visual Culture in Britain. London: Berg Publishers, 2010

Every year, thousands of women attempt to cease smoking because it is an unhealthy and expensive. Every year, thousands do not quit smoking, due to craving and dependence. This book examines women's changing relationship to tobacco from the 1880s to the 1980s. During that period, smoking was transformed from a male practice to one enjoyed by both sexes. One of the great conundrums of modern cultural history is why there has been a dramatic decline in the number of men smoking but not of women. This book considers that reality, through a systematic study of the relationship between women, smoking and visual culture in Britain. Drawing on a range of photographs, advertisements, magazines and films, the book exposes the power and persistence of the link between smoking, femininity, modernity, sexuality and glamour. Focusing on the feminization of cigarette smoking, the author unravels the role of visual culture and the impact of social, economic, medical and technological changes, and the basis for the continuing appeal of the cigarette to British women.

Copyright 2011, Project Cork

Vallone DM; Duke JC; Cullen J; McCausland KL; Allen JA. Evaluation of EX: A national mass media smoking cessation campaign. American Journal of Public Health 101(2): 302-309, 2011. (28 refs.)

Objectives. We used longitudinal data to examine the relationship between confirmed awareness of a national, branded, mass media smoking cessation campaign and cessation outcomes. Methods. We surveyed adult smokers (n=4067) in 8 designated market areas ("media markets") at baseline and again approximately 6 months later. We used multivariable models to examine campaign effects on cognitions about quitting, quit attempts, and 30-day abstinence. Results. Respondents who demonstrated confirmed awareness of the EX campaign were significantly more likely to increase their level of agreement. on a cessation-related cognitions index from baseline to follow-up (odds ratio [OR]=1.6; P=.046). Individuals with confirmed campaign awareness had a 24% greater chance than did those who were not aware of the campaign of making a quit attempt between baseline and follow-up (OR=1.24; P=.048). Conclusions. A national, branded, mass media smoking cessation campaign can change smokers' cognitions about quitting and increase quit attempts. We strongly recommend that federal and state governments provide funding for media campaigns to increase smoking cessation, particularly for campaigns that have been shown to impact quit attempts and abstinence.

Copyright 2011, American Public Health Association

Wade B; Merrill RM; Lindsay GB. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: How graphic should they be? European Journal of Public Health 21(3): 366-372, 2011. (37 refs.)

Methods: Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged epsilon 14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population's acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured. Results: A dose-response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public's perception regarding the warning label's ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement. Conclusion: The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.

Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press

Yang TZ; Rockett IRH; Li M; Xu XC; Gu YM. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 124(1-2): 121-127, 2012. (44 refs.)

Objectives: To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Methods: Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Results: Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. Conclusions: The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Zee AV. The promotion and marketing of OxyContin: Commercial triumph, public health tragedy. (editorial). American Journal of Public Health 99(2): 221-227, 2009. (70 refs.)

I focus on issues surrounding the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs and their regulatory oversight. Compared with noncontrolled drugs, controlled drugs, with their potential for abuse and diversion, pose different public health risks when they are overpromoted and highly prescribed. An in-depth analysis of the promotion and marketing of OxyContin illustrates some of the associated issues. Modifications of the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and an enhanced capacity of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate and monitor such promotion can have a positive impact on the public health.

Copyright 2009, American Public Health Association