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CORK Bibliography: Drugs and Alcohol in Literature

70 citations. January 1997 to present

Prepared: March 2012

Alexander A; Roberts MS. High Culture: Reflections on Addiction and Modernity. Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 2003

This is a collection of essays containing reflections on addiction. Some of the essays are original and some are reprints. The volume is divided into two sections. The first deals with literature, philosophy, and the arts. The second with sociology, psychology, and the media. The editors promise something different from the usual "insistent drive to medicalize, discipline, rehabilitate, and contain the subject of drugs within frameworks that disguise deeply rooted moral and religious fears, values and beliefs or prejudices" and that addiction will emerge as something "not reducible to substance abuse or compulsiveness per se." The editors endeavor to demonstrating the "complexity, creative value and diversity" of addiction in place of what they describe as the limited view shaping most modern research into addiction.

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Amat N. Queen Cocaine. San Francisco: City Light Books, 2005. (0 refs.)

This novel takes place in Colombia, in the remote Pacific Coast jungle, a region that is ravaged by the drug trade, by civil war, guerilla insurgency, and drug traffickers. This provides the backdrop for a novel of two people. One is Spanish woman who follows her lover, a journalist to his ancestral Colombian village. He is hiding out from the enemies he has made through his articles, and drinking, drigting, and waiting for the worst. [This novel is translated from the Spanish.]

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Amberson D. An ethics of nicotine: Writing a subjectivity of process in Italo Svevo's La 'Coscienza di Zeno'. Forum Italicum 39(2): 441-460, 2005. (22 refs.)

In La coscienza di Zeno (1923), Italo Svevo's protagonist, Zeno, engages in a determined battle with nicotine, smoking a repeated "last cigarette" that tastes, time and time again, of victory. I contend that the documentation of Zeno's addiction suggests an indictment of canonical literary Tuscan, tacitly invoked as an illusory regime of health. Countering the rigidity of linguistic form, the erratic force of Svevo's infamous "scrivere male" together with the incessant stop and start of Zeno's attempts to renounce nicotine emerge as an alternative regime founded on a principle of potentiality. Reiterating the central concern of "L'uomo e la teoria darwiniana," an essay in which Svevo suggests that humanity's greatest strength lies in the fact that man remains a being devoid of formal finality, Zeno's decision to hover between the resolution and the renunciation, between the reality of sickness and the promise of health, constitutes the only ethics of subjectivity equipped to incarnate the infinite promise of potentiality.

Copyright 2005, Forum Italicum, Inc.

Brooker J. Could a swim duck? Social drinking in Ulysses. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 102-121. (95 refs.)

The link between Joyce and alcohol is extensive, with the mention of specific pubs in the Dubliners and Ulysses to the dreams of a barman in Finnegans Wake. There is too discussion of Joyce's own alcoholism, or at least heavy drinking, as well as the larger issue of the "hard drinking" Irish poet and artist. This chapter follows the depiction of drinking in Ulysses

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Brown S. Five poems. The Alcoholic and the Ball-and-Chain, The Abyss Stares Back at You, John Barleycorn. American Poetry Review 32(3): 14-16, 2003. (32 refs.)

Bull JS. Going with the flow: Drink, drugs and despair in Robert Stone's Children of Light. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 142-161. (77 refs.)

Robert Stone has been characterized as "an American laureate of alcohol," able to portray the subtle, pleasing enhancements of consciousness alongside the sudden self-lacerations, to which alcohol soothes the way." Rather than representing autobiographical experience, alcohol and drugs are seen by the author as used to depict questions that he culture has largely obviated, concerning the meaning of belief and despair and effects of these states of being. The desire for fulfillment and the pursuit of fulfillment through the use of mind-altering substances is presented as a hunger for transcendence. However, unlike the use of such aid in the 1960s and 70s, Stone's characters can not be counted upon to achieve salvation through inebriation. Substance use is essentially seen as representing a spiritual quest and dilemma.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Burgess M. Sympathy for the devil (Melvin Burgess). Children's Literature in Education 35(4): 289-300, 2004. (7 refs.)

Since Melvin Burgess published his first children's book, The Cry of the Wolf (1989) he has had the reputation of being a powerful and challenging writer, discussing issues that many other writers have shunned. But it was with junk (Smack in the US) in 1996 that he became a notorious media figure. This Carnegie winning novel showed teenagers not only taking drugs, but enjoying them, and sex, too! As a whole, though, this book also showed the dangers of hard drugs, and did anything but glamorise addiction. The book was also innovative in using multiple narrative voices, so that moral certainties are continually being challenged, shown to be but partial. Burgess continued this technique in Bloodtide (1999), which is undoubtedly his most powerful book yet (a second volume is on its way), updating the Icelandic Volsunga saga in a bleak, futuristic London. Lady: My Life as a Bitch (2001) and Doing it (2003) also brought much media attention, both dealing explicitly with teenage sex. These are the main books that Burgess talks about in his article. However, his range is far wider, and his other texts should not be forgotten: he has written several novels for younger readers, a picture book, The Birdman (2000) and an excellent novelisation of the film Billy Elliot (2001). His ability to write gripping, absorbing stories with memorable characters is always foremost, whatever other issues might be addressed.

Copyright 2004, Kluwer Academic

Carpenter L. Enhancing the possibilities of desire: Addiction as postmodern trope (Opium, heroin, and the novelists of the Romantic imagination). Southern Humanities Review 35(3): 228-251, 2001. (21 refs.)

Chappell M. 'The-meer-gift-of-luck': A tale of lottery addiction in Rambler 181. Dalhousie Review 82(3): 481-490, 2002. (13 refs.)

State run lotteries have been part of English histor of over 400 years. the first known English lottery was drawn in 1569 uner Queen Elizabth, wht the income to be applided toard repair of harbours. Itwasn't until the 1700s that they became annual events, sponsored by the government, which were later outlawed in the 1820s . The social aspects of the lottery are described. Several historical pieces on the lottery are noted. There is Charles Lamb; the fictional lottery player from Joseph Addison's Spectator 191 who had spent his hoped-for winnings before the lottery was drawn, part of an essay on banking on future possibilities. This article attends to commentary on playing the lottery. Samuel Johnsons's "Rabmler 181," is the story of one man's addition to playing the lottery, and unlike other writings addresses the dangers to the individual psyche. Written as a first person voice of a linen-draper, finds his life changed the day he buys a lottery ticket, only to find his numeral is one off of the winning number, and he is hoocked. What is essentially the natural history of problem gambing is then described drawing upon Johnson's piece.

Copyright 2002, Dalhousie University Press Ltd.

Chow R. "An addiction from which we never get free". New Literary History 36(1): 47-55, 2005. (7 refs.)

Through brief discussions of aspects of the putative crisis in the humanities -- the definition of the humanities as such, the relation of colonialism to humanistic pursuits, and the dominance of information -- the author asks what knowledge itself amounts to in the early 21st-century. Following Foucault, she proposes that humanistic knowledge be rethought as a part of a larger historical problematic, one that will by necessity undergo a process of transformation in relation to other types of knowledge. Adopting insights from Bill Readings, she suggests that thought/thinking is the most critical thing to redeem in such a process. (This article uses addiction as metaphor.)

Copyright 2005, Johns Hopkins University Press

Cosnett JE. Charles Dickens and the neurological consequences of alcoholism. (letter). Addiction 94(12): 1891-1892, 1999. (0 refs.)

Cussen J. Bloom's drunk: A rereading of the 'Eumaeus' episode in James Joyce's 'Ulysses'. CEA Critic 63(2): 56-74, 2001. (10 refs.)

Daldorph B. 'methadone'. North American Review 290(3-4): 63-64, 2005. (0 refs.)

This is a short story of the encounter of two stangers in a coffee shop. One man invites himself to sit down with another, seemingly recognizing a fellow addict, even one who is now clean, in the hope of hitting him up for some money. Was the money to enable him to score or money for his next meal?

Copyright 2005, University of Northern Iowa

Donahue P. Pouring drinks and getting drunk: The social and personal implications of drinking in John Updike's 'Too Far to Go'. Studies in Short Fiction 33(3): 361-367, 1996. (7 refs.)

This article examines the role of drinking in John Updike's short story sequence "Too far to go." The drinking of Joan and Richard Marple devolves from a conventional social pastime to an extension of their private discord, significantly altering -- for the worse ultimately -- how they regard and interact with one another.

Copyright 1996, Newberry College

Douglas-Fairhurst R. Edward FitzGerald's Rubiyat of Omar Khayyam: Under the infuence. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 52-74. (79 refs.)

In considering the Rubiyat, the author focuses upon the religioius temperment of the era and the concern with afterlife, an era marked as well by the emergece of the a temperance movement. The goal her is to examine how thse unsettled debtres over the propect of an afterlife seep into the poem. FitzGeralds suggests that his readers think of wine as a source of the only altered state that they can be sure of: drunkenness. Indeed, he is more sure of this than 'the sure and certain hope of resurrection' of the Christian tradition. Other writers have spoken of the influence of Sufi mysticism in which drunkeness represents religous ardous, and wine represents love of God. The ties to other works, paraticularly Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to Tennyson's elegies are discussed.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Findlay A. Theatres of truth: Drinking and drama in early modern England. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 21-40. (42 refs.)

Renaissance comedies commonly are set in inns, taverns and alehouses. It is important to recognize that the drinking houses were a significant part of the early modern economy, and drinking was an activity that depicts the tensions in the society. This essay begins by outlining the status of drinking houses in broad terms and then concentrate on the dramatic and nondramatic texts of the 1620s to demonstrate how a point of crisis in the drink trade, and a nostalgic view of its own immediate past, can be read as representative of a society suddenly becoming aware of its own fragmentation. The public houses, and their distinct areas, demonstrated the distinctions in social classes as do the beverages consumed. Drawing upon "the New Inn", the author notes that by 1629 the playhouse, like the public house, no longer seemed to the place for everyone. It catered to the particular tastes of a society which was increasingly estranged from itself, in which drinking was no longer a sign of community but one of unbridgeable social differences, with the lower-life characters disappearing and in the last act, the 'family' of the inn is reduced to a single aristocratic family.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Flavin M. Gambling in the Nineteenth-Century English Novel: A leprosy is o'er the land. London: Sussex Academic Press, 2003

Gambling in our day is viewed by some as an economic asset or harmless recreation and by others as a shameful vice. Such conflicting views were evident in Victorian culture. It was in 1844-1845 that Parliament enacted legislation to restrict some forms of gambling. This book traces the emergence of these conflicting attitudes in Victorian society. As the nineteenth century wore on, gambling became increasingly both a commercial success and the subject of moral condemnation. Yet, "the conflict between the desire to control working-class recreation and the desire to make a profit from it was won by the entrepreneurs over the moralists" The literatue of the era is used to illustrate the conflicting views -- fiction, nonfiction, melodrama, anti-gambling tracts, and parliamentary papers on the topic. The representations of gambling in novels (by Benjamin Disraeli, Charles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, George Eliot, Thomas Hardy, Anthony Trollope, and George Moore) are discussed both in terms of the author's own experiences and the borader social practices.

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Freeman BC. Moments of beating: Addiction and inscription in Virginia Woolf's A 'Sketch of the Past' ('Moments of Being'). Diacritics 27(3): 65-76, 1997. (19 refs.)

This article examines the relationships between beating, writing, and feminine sexuality, through a examination of autobiographical essays authored by Virginia Wolfe, "Moments of Being." Integral to this discussion is writing as "addiction," defined as an activity central to and essential for life.

Copyright 1997, Johns Hopkins University Press

Gorham S; Skinner J, eds. Last Call: Poems on Alcoholism, Addiction, & Deliverance. Sarabande Books, Inc, 1997. (0 refs.)

This anthology of poetry that addresses different aspects of alcohol and drug use and its devastation on the individual and those who live with them, includes the following poets: Joan Larkin, Thomas Lux, Martha Rhodes, Jane Mead, Jeffery McDaniel, Nancy Mitchell, Marie Howe, Tess Gallagher, Etheridge Knight, Cindy Goff, Lynda Hull, Denis Johnson, Cindy Day Roberts, William Loran Smith, Michael Burkard, Jean Valentine and Raymond Carver.

Copyright 2001, Project Cork

Grace A. 'On finding a marijuana plant in the garden.' (poetry). Triquarterly 116: 243-244, 2003. (0 refs.)

Copyright 2003, Northwestern University

Hilton F. Baudelaire in Chains: A Portrait of the Artist as a Drug Addict. Chester Springs PA: Peter Owen/Dufour Editions disributor, 2004

This book differs from most biographies of Baudelaire, the Frenchpoent who was a pitotal link between Romanticism and Moderism, because it focuses on how the poet's opium addiction affected his relationships and his work. An accomplished dramatist, the author argues that none of Baudelaire's biographers, including Jean-Paul Sartre, has fully understood the effect of drugs on the poet's personality, life, and work. Hilton further suggests that most biographers lake Baudelaire's words at face value and give a jaundiced view of his situation, blaming his mother, family, and close associates for his poverty and misfortunes and letting him completely off the hook. Hilton throws a different light on Baudelaire's life when he argues that his opium consumption made him practice a variety of deceptions -- with his friends, family, and colleagues and, most important, with himself. This chronic self-deception prevented him from undertaking any prolonged creative work. Far from ennobling the poet, Hilton's book analyzes the root of his problems, outlines the damage, and reveals the puzzling areas of his life.

Copyright 2004, Reed Elsevier

Hollander J. The rhetoric of consciousness. Social Research 68(33): 589-608, 2001. (3 refs.)

This volume provides the proceeedings of the 8th Social Research conference. Sparked by the "War on Drugs" the conference considered the origin of current attitudes toward use of drugs that alter consiciousness, patterns of use through history, and the origins and nature of government control policies, as well as alternatives to current policy. This paper is one of the three papers that were presented in the initial session that considers basic issues related to drug use.

Copyright 2001, New School for Social Research

Hough C. 'Beowulf' lines 480B and 531A: Beore-druncen again. Neophilologus 88(2): 303-305, 2004. (11 refs.)

Recent work on the term druncen in Beowulf has suggested that it may refer to intoxication rather than to mild conviviality. This is supported by the collocation with OE beor, which designates a much more potent drink than PDE beer. The phrase beore druncen should therefore not be translated 'drunk with beer' but 'drunk with alcohol' or 'intoxicated with strong drink'.

Copyright 2004, Wolters Noordhoff BV

Iszaj F; Demetrovics Z. Balancing between sensitization and repression: The role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Substance Use & Misuse 46(13): 1613-1618, 2011. (35 refs.)

The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Jeste ND; Palmer BW; Jeste DV. Tennessee Williams. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12(4): 370-375, 2004. (17 refs.)

Tennessee Williams was one of the greatest American playwrights of all time. Born into a family with a strong history of serious mental illness, Williams seemed to have bad several major depressive episodes during his early adulthood, along with severe and worsening alcohol and drug dependence and abuse involving sedatives and stimulants throughout his adult life. He received treatment of variable quality and duration in middle and old age. Despite his mental illness, Williams continued to be a productive writer even after age 60, although his later works were less successful The authors consider both the strengths and limitations of Williams' coping mechanisms.

Copyright 2004, American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

Jewers C. Heroes and heroin: From true romance to Pulp Fiction (American film, drugs). Journal of Popular Culture 33(4): 39-61, 2000. (10 refs.)

This article examines the movie "Pulp Fiction" as a contemporary of the historical romance.

Copyright 2000, Project Cork

Johnston A. Consumption, addiction, vision, energy: Political economies and utopian visions in the writings of the Beat Generation. College Literature 32(2): 103+, 2005. (69 refs.)

This work examines economic ideas in Beat writing that pave the way for economic thought in the 60s counterculture. It first describes economic concepts advanced by William S. Burroughs and by Kenneth Rexroth. Burroughs explores the imprisoning effect of economies through his "algebra of need," depicting economic relations in terms of addiction and tracing a pattern of "need" virus in all forms of relation. Rexroth views economics in terms of a "cash nexus" that negates person-centered "I-Thou" relations that express the truest condition of relation of self to other. Using these two models, the paper traces economic themes in work by Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, and Jack Kerouac, showing how these authors shift between descriptions of addictive, reductive conditions of need and escapes from this need through transcendent vision. It concludes by considering how Gary Snyder moves away from the polarity of addiction and transcendence through his commitment to non-duality.

Copyright 2005, West Chester University

Kavanagh TM. Dice, Cards, Wheels: A Different History of French Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005. (143 refs.)

This volume is a study of gambling in France over the last eight centuries. It has two goals. One is to provide a cultural history of gambling as a social practice. Examining the varied and ever-changing games, show how different periods structure the unpredictable as a contrast to life's predictabilities. The other goal is to examine what gambling constitutes an on-going seduction. Gambling, rather than an underworld apart from society, can demonstrate the tensions within a society. The first chapter comments upon the lack of scholarly examination of gambing, and outlines factors to be considered in a history of gambling as a cultural phenomenon, noting the earliest references to the use of chance to resolve conflict. At the same time, commonly those who gamble adopt views and strategies to alter chance effects. The role of chance has historically been viewed as chance, divine providence, and more precently probablity. French literature is used a a vehicle to examine gambling in different eras, beginnning with the play by Jehan Bodel's Le Jeu de saintNicholas, France's oldest dramatic work, work by Pascal, Casanova, Balzac, and Bourget.

Copyright 2007, Project Cork

Keane H. Public and private practices: Addiction autobiography and its contradictions. Contemporary Drug Problems 28(4): 567-595, 2001. (32 refs.)

This article discusses the genre of popular contemporary addiction autobiography, drawing on two texts written by recovering drug-addicted doctors and one by a recovering alcoholic mother. While presented as straightforward "true stories," these accounts can be read as sophisticated productions of identity, similar to the stories told in Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and literature. The focus is on how these texts both reproduce and undermine notions of addiction as a disease located in the self. The common identity shared by addicts is one of the lessons the authors must learn to recover, but extended personal narratives cannot isolate the "disease" from the bodies in which it is located, nor from the specific historical, social and institutional context in which the experience of addiction is formed.

Copyright 2001, Federal Legal Publications

Kezar D. Shakespeare's addictions. Critical Inquiry 30(1): 31-62, 2003. (64 refs.)

Tobacco was introduced to England in the early 17th century during the period that William Sharkespeare was writing. The author makes the case that Othello is about addition, defined as "a position that identifies one's needs (behvioral, chemical, interpretive, theoretical, as both necessity and poison." He argues that "the scapegoating tactics of Iago, who ascribes the tragedy of Othello to novelty items such as drugs, race, and textiles, and King James, who ih the first years odf the 17th centry blanses an exotic and recently discovered weed for all that is wrong with England and consonant with the construct of addiction. There is examination of the text to demonstrate the presence of the theme of addiction.

Copyright 2003, University of Chicago Press

Lenson D. Corporate highs, corporeal lows. IN: Earleywine M, ed. Mind-Altering Drugs: The Science of Subjective Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp. 338-344. (3 refs.)

This brief chapter views drug misuse within the social context of consumerism, with attention to antidepressants, their marketing, and the "Prozac Nation."

Copyright 2007, Project Cork

Lowenna S. Janus and Bacchus: Daphene du Maurier's 'Not After Midnight' and 'Don't Look Now'. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 162-180. (52 refs.)

This chapter considers the representation of acohol use in the work of Daphene du Maurier, noting in particular the biographical influences of family members with alcohol problems, and the work of Carl Jung.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

McBride AJ. Toad's syndrome: Addiction to joy riding. Addiction Research 8(2): 129-139, 2000. (25 refs.)

In writing the popular Edwardian children's book The Wind in the Willows, Kenneth Grahame invented Toad, whose tale of obdurate delinquency is well known. This paper considers the way in which Toad's adventures can be read as an embodiment of late twentieth century ideas of dependence. Toad's seemingly compulsive reckless driving, car theft, related problems and his friends' "treatment" of him are described. Kenneth Grahame's personal experience of his father's addiction to alcohol is outlined. Toad's fictional conduct is considered against the background of the research literatures on the psychopathology of car theft and addiction itself.

Copyright 2000, Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH

McGowan P. Drinking to anonymity: Berryman, Sexton, Carver. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 181-203. (71 refs.)

This chapter considers John Berryman, Raymond Carver, and Anne Sexton. It addresses the impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on social consciousness, the changing understanding of social identifies vis a vis those with alcohol dependence, and the impact upon those problem drinkers not "able to answer the call" of AA and whom become increasingly invisible in society.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Mills A. Harry Potter: Agency or addiction? Children's Literature In Education 41(4): 291-301, 2010. (12 refs.)

This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the Sorting ritual throws into doubt agency among the students in general.

Copyright 2010, Springer

Miranda M; Williams AM; Garcia-Borreguero D. Thomas de Quincey and his restless legs symptoms as depicted in "Confessions of an English Opium-Eater". (editorial). Movement Disorders 25(13): 2006-2009, 2010. (14 refs.)

Thomas de Quincey, a British writer of 19th century, suffered insomnia from the age of 17 years. In his famous "Confessions of an English-Opium Eater" (1822), he described a symptomatology that could concord with restless legs syndrome long before he became addicted to opium. In this report, we analyze his clinical description and the circumstances leading to his opium addiction.

Copyright 2010, Wiley-LIss

Morrison RJH. Addicts, edicts, and empty infinities: The rhetoric of drugs from De Quincey to Derrida. University of Toronto Quarterly 75(4): 971-178, 2006. (3 refs.)

This essay deals with the recent burgeoning scholarship on addictions. Visions of addiction are derived from three books, Marcus Boon. The Road of Excess: A History of Writers on Drugs; Janet Farrell Brodie and Marc Redfield, editors.; High Anxieties: Cultural Studies in Addiction; and Anna Alexander and Mark S. Roberts, editors. High Culture: Reflections on Addiction and Modernity. The discussion is far ranging, commenting too on the widely held conviction - expressed often in these volumes - that in a consumer society we are all addicts. 'Addiction,' remarked social psychologist Stanton Peele in 1975, 'is not, as we like to think, an aberration from our way of life. Addiction is our way of life.' The drug addict is driven by his or her infinite desire for the next fix: 'I never had enough junk,' William Burroughs writes. 'No one ever does.' The consumer is similarly bound to the seductive and highly repetitive seriality of commodity production. As Eve Sedgwick notes, in contemporary American society 'it has now become a commonplace that ... any substance, any behaviour, even any affect may be pathologized as addictive.'

2006, University of Toronto

Mulligan B. Morphine-addicted doctors, the English opium-eater, and embattled medical authority. Victorian Literature and Culture 33(2): 541-553, 2005. (23 refs.)

IN 1883, the American physician J. B. Mattison made the startling announcement that the majority of American morphine habitues were doctors and suggested that between thirty and forty percent of medical professionals were addicted (23). By 1909, an English addiction specialist had broadened the context and seemingly raised the ante, claiming "that the proportion of medical addicts to the total of cases is in some statistics as high as ninety per cent., and that one-fifth of the mortality in the profession is said to be caused by morphinism" (Jennings, The Morphia Habit v). Looking back in 1924, the German psychopharmacologist Louis Lewin referred to a "statistical table of [morphine] addicts, including all countries of the world," which "gave 40.4 per cent doctors, 10.0 per cent doctors' wives". Of course, all these data are somewhat questionable since reliable measures would have been all but impossible to obtain and the proportions surely varied over the periods and areas in question. But we can reasonably deduce at least this much: medical professionals were consistently the most prominent demographic group among morphine addicts in the developed western world after the middle of the nineteenth century.

Copyright 2005, Cambridge University Press

Nicholls J. Bottling up: Intimate conversations in Hemingway's bars. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 85-101. (31 refs.)

Discussion of alcohol in Hemingway is often chalked up to clich�s -- macho, hard-boiled, muscular -- or is seen as simply reflecting his own drinking. The author suggests this is an over-simplification, and misses the complex elements in Hemingway's writing. The author argues that the role of drink and more so the drinking places is a fundamental narrative element. It is seen as a narrative device, and primal signifier of evaluative hierarchies. It is a medium of human exchange, a mediator of relationships, values, and roles. "Hills like White Elephants," featuring the drunken conversation, is noted as an apt introduction to the use of alcohol. It is noted that, writing in prohibition, alcohol too, beyond a social reality, is seen as representing a cultural battleground, and the tensions between the religious and the secular, the parochial and cosmopolitan, the traditional and the modern.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield England: Sheffield Academic Press, Ltd., 2000. (Chapter refs.)

The 11 essays in this volume are derived from an international, interdisciplinary conference on "drink, drinkers and drinking places in literature" that was held at Sheffield University in 1997. From alehouses and taverns in seventeenth-century drama to women drinkers in contemporary literature, this collection assesses the long and fertile relationship between the book and the bottle. Alcohol appears throughout literature in all the guises in which it appears in life. Both alcohol and the places in which drinking takes place are discussed with reference to gender, nation, addiction, festivity, creativity and class. Specific works/periods discussed include: Drinking and drama in early modern England; politics of drink in Restoration drama; FitzGerald's "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam;" public houses and gender in "The Waste Land"; conversations in Hemingway's bars; social drinking in "Ulysses;" women who drink in modern and contemporary fiction; drink, drugs and despair in Robert Stone's "Children of Light;" du Maurier's "Not After Midnight" and "Don't Look Now;" and drinking to anonymity -- Berryman, Sexton, and Carver.

Copyright 2002, Project Cork

Nixon G; Solowoniuk J; McGowan V. The counterfeit hero's journey of the pathological gambler: A phenomenological hermeneutics investigation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 4(3): 217-232, 2006. (36 refs.)

This research study sought to interpret and strove toward understanding the lived experience of 13 pathological gambler from an archetypal-mythic perspective. Through a phenomenological hermeneutics inquiry, 11 clusters of themes were illuminated. These themes highlighted a three stage mythical journey that elucidated how gambling began as regular pastime, but ended in failure in regards to becoming extraordinary and financially secure. Thus, resulting in extreme gambling behaviors such as psychological distress, family disintegration, and self-effacement. Clinical implications from this inquiry suggest that understanding pathological gambling from a archetypal-mythical perspective not only encapsulates our current paradiagms of thought about gambling, but may offer a more a holistic approach to understanding the pathological gambler as it sets its theoretical tenets in a cultural, historical, and psychosocial world.

Copyright 2006, Springer

Nixon G; Solowoniuk J; McGowan V. The counterfeit hero's journey of the pathological gambler: A phenomenological hermeneutics investigation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 4(3): 217-232, 2006. (36 refs.)

This research study sought to interpret and strove toward understanding the lived experience of 13 pathological gambler from an archetypal-mythic perspective. Through a phenomenological hermeneutics inquiry, 11 clusters of themes were illuminated. These themes highlighted a three stage mythical journey that elucidated how gambling began as regular pastime, but ended in failure in regards to becoming extraordinary and financially secure. Thus, resulting in extreme gambling behaviors such as psychological distress, family disintegration, and self-effacement. Clinical implications from this inquiry suggest that understanding pathological gambling from a archetypal-mythical perspective not only encapsulates our current paradiagms of thought about gambling, but may offer a more a holistic approach to understanding the pathological gambler as it sets its theoretical tenets in a cultural, historical, and psychosocial world.

2006, Springer

Owen SJ. The politics of drink in restoration drama. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 41-51. (16 refs.)

At the outset, the author speaks to the yoking together of love, wine and wit. Simultaneously, social divisions are evidenced by differing beverages. The author considers the depiction of alcohol in restoration literature, and its serving as a sign of the party-political polarization which was to become institutionalized in the following century, similarly as a marker of divisions in sensibility and different views of the political world. Attitudes toward alcohol are seen as depicting differences between Tory and Whig.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Parsons EF. Manhood Lost: Fallen Drunkards and Redeeming women in the Nineteenth-century United States. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003

This book is about the power of one of the most frequently told narratives of the nineteenth century in the United States -- the story of hopeful young men with lives destroyed by alcohol. The author describes this "drunkard narrative" from the time it came into prominence in the 1830s and how it became the central pillar of the temperance movement, arguably the largest social movement of nineteenth century America. Drunkard narratives generally began with a young man on the brink of adulthood who, longing for adult privileges and seeking excitement, allows himself to be lured into a saloon, usually by a "fast" young man. His entry and the "fatal first drink" launch his downward spiral into chronic drunkenness. The author shows that this narrative was so ubiquitous that pamphleteers and the popular press felt comfortable alluding to it and parodying it without explanation. Recovered drunkards would travel from town to town telling their histories, and their wives would describe their plight to juries, temperance reformers, neighbors, and officials. Reformers repeated the stories of drinkers they knew or knew about, and temperance novelists, short story writers, poets, songwriters, and playwrights created fictional accounts of drunkards' lives. The consequences of the drunkard narrative included a series of slow but massive cultural changes that would culminate in a generally weakened belief in individual volition and in greater participation of women in public life.

Public Domain

Pattison S; Heath I. On the irreducible individuality of the person and the fullness of life: Simon Gray's smoking diaries. Health Care Analysis 18(3): 310-321, 2010. (12 refs.)

This article aims to challenge and expand notions of health, health care and health promotion, particularly in relation to smoking, via a consideration of the autobiographical literary work of the English playwright, Simon Gray. Gray died in 2008, having written a series of reflective autobiographical books, The Smoking Diaries. Gray was a lifelong smoker, perpetually trying to give up his habit. This article introduces Gray's diaries and their reflections on life, death, health care and smoking. It then enquires what can be learned about contemporary health care practices and assumptions from Gray's work. Finally, it reflects on the limits of views of health and health promotion when considered in the light of a fully lived life. In the life under consideration, health care risks are very differently understood to those prevalent in the medical community. Literary approaches to thinking about smoking are thus seen to place health and health care in broader, richer, and less instrumental perspectives than those that are common amongst contemporary health professionals and institutions.

Copyright 2010, Springer

Peele S; McCarley A. James Frey's one true thing. (editorial). Addiction Research & Theory 14(5): 453-460, 2006. (1 refs.)

This commentary addreses the book by James Frey, purportedly a memoir, "A Million Little Pieces" which was at central points fiction. It recounted his treatemnt for alcoholism and crack addiction at Hazelden. The author notes that while the criminal past was fabricated his attack on the 12-step treatment industry has been overlooked. (An attack which the author considers warranted.) The author considers it unfortunate that the Frey failed to chronicle the factors which were germane to his recovery.

Copyright 2007, Project Cork

Platizky RS. 'Like dull narcotics, numbing pain': Speculations on Tennyson and opium. Victorian Poetry 40(2): 209-215, 2002. (10 refs.)

Tennyson's biographer, Robert Bernard Martin describes how Tennyson was haunted "from the time of his honeymoon until the end of his life" by the accusation that he was an opium addict. These views of Tennyson, run counter to fact, and ignore his aversion to the use of opium, and careful selection of physicians who would not prescribe it. His aversion to opium is seen as highly atypical in the Victorian period when its use opium was not only popular, but described as "completely unrestrained," through 1868 when the first Pharmacy Act took effect in Britain. This brief article deals with references to opiates in Tennyson's work, material from his own life, in light of the cultural views toward opium use then present.

Copyright 2002, West Viginia University

Pollock J. Opium and the occult: Antonin Artaud and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Revue de Litterature Comparee. RLC 75(4): 567-577, 2001. (11 refs.)

If Antonin Artaud's last writings are no longer considered to be the 'ramblings of an idiot' (Paul Claudel), their very strangeness has diverted critics from using them other than as a means of elucidating Artaud's own thought. However, his preface to 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner', 'Christabel' and 'Kubla Khan' by Samuel Taylor Coleridge constitutes not only a very precise formulation of his own ars poetica, but also a new reading of three poems that have always eluded critics, poems in which he finds the traces of a crisis which would explain the later 'falling off' in Coleridge's poetical career.

Copyright 2001, Didier-Erudition

Pratt L. The 'sad habits' of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Unpublished letters from Joseph Cottle to Robert Southey, 1813-1817. Review of English Studies 55(218): 75-90, 2004. (26 refs.)

Although his role in the early careers of Coleridge and Southey has long been acknowledged, accounts of the later relationships between Joseph Cottle and his eminent contemporaries have tended to concentrate on his two biographies, Early Recollections; chiefly relating to the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1837) and Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey (1847). Relatively little is known about what happened to his association with Coleridge and Southey in the period between the failure of his publishing business in the late 1790s and his emergence as a memoirist in the 1830s and 1840s. This article sheds light on the development and complexity of relationships between the three men by publishing the letters Cottle wrote to Southey from 1813 to 1817. It reveals Cottle's response to learning of Coleridge's opium addiction, charts his attempts to help him forsake his 'sad habits', and suggests that his relationship with Southey, though deferential, was not a subservient one. These letters illustrate that, although Cottle knew much of the financial, as well as emotional and physical, circumstances surrounding Coleridge's time in Bristol int he mid-1810s, he was generally circumspect about disclosing information. However, although consistently sympathetic and supportive of his friend's potential, Cottle felt increasingly marginalized by Coleridge, and this growing sense of exclusion lay behind the composition and publication of the Early Recollections.

Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press

Pringle MW. Seizing the moral high ground: The discourses of alcohol in American literature. Dissertation Abstracts International 61(10): 3999A-4000A, 2001. (0 refs.)

This dissertation examined American cultural attitudes towards alcohol, and the way in which the debate has influenced and been shaped by American literary discourse. Alcohol was easily accepted as an important part of daily life during the Colonial period. By the nineteenth century, however, alcohol had become a focus of cultural conflict, with temperance advocates urging a reform agenda in which alcohol was linked to distinct ideologies of civilization, citizenship, family, and gender. Some dominant conventions of antebellum temperance fiction are outlined, particularly the civilization-versus-savagery and the "silent suffering" themes. Two strains of thought in the temperance movement are examined as they appear in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851-2) and Timothy Shay Arthur's Ten Nights in a Bar-Room (1854). Arthur's work marks the high point of the popular "silent suffering" formula in temperance fiction where husbands take the pledge to save their families from misery, while Stowe depicts active women characters in an alteration of the temperance formula that parallels the rise of women in the temperance movement. The African-American authors Frederick Douglass, William Wells Brown, and Frank J. Webb uses the conventions of the temperance movement to a different rhetorical end than most white temperance writers. Each uses the discourses of temperance to contextualize slavery and racial prejudice alongside the alcohol issue, and urges a greater scope of reform.

Copyright 2001, Dissertation Abstracts International, Inc.

Roth M. Drunk the Night Before: An Anatomy of Intoxication. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota, 2005

This book provides a cutural history of intoxication, of convivial drinking before the concept of addiction overshadowed intoxication's reputation as a creative, philosophical, and spiritual force. It calls upon a wide range of scholarly discourse, drawing upon portrayals of drink and drunkenness in art and literature, from poetry and art, popular festivals and film. While not following a strict chronology, the author traces changing attitudes toward alcohol and its consumption, from ancient Greece to twentieth-century America, drawing as well on examples from the Muslim world. Dionysus, the Greek god of wine-a key figure throughout the book-was paradoxically regarded by the Greeks both as a civilizing influence and as bringer of wild behavior, threatening to social order. Dionysus embodies the disparate attitudes and social conflicts around alcohol use. The book is not an argument about the value of drink-certainly not a polemic "for" or "against" alcohol. Nor does it endeavor to clarify cultural understandings of what it means to be intoxicated or addicted. Rather it endeavors to portray the representation of alcohol use. The question raised is whether alcohol is used to characterize heaven and hell, the opposite may be true, that heaven and hell are the the product of physical intoxication. In literature the question is raised is as to the potential of separating the artist from the writer when discussing Fizgerald or Faulkner? Individual chapters deal with the sublimation of drunkeness, the mysteries of intoxication, the ambiguities in the discourse of intoxication, the depiction of intoxication in literature, and the relationship to creativity.

Copyright 2006, Project Cork

Roth M. Carnival, creativity, and the sublimation of drunkenness. Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 30(2): 1-18, 1997. (64 refs.)

The connection between intoxication and creativity makes a regular if infrequent appearance in the history of the arts. Witness Horace's dictum, "no poems can please long, nor live, which are written by water-drinkers." Yet the connection is frequently suppressed. IN this essay the author explores how a far-reaching esthetic project of the late 19th-20th centuries -- the Dionyisan esthetic of Nietzsche and the carnival esthetics of Bakhtin and others -- is unable to suppress its connection to intoxication as a remarkable fact of social life. The author endeavors to demonstrate a widespread affirmation of the necessity and intensity of the link between carnival and intoxication, but one that needs to be inferred. It examines the way in which intoxication is both present and elided in various account of carnival.

Copyright 1997, University of Manitoba

Rowland D. Down at Tom's Place: Public houses and gender in The Waste Land. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 75-84. (28 refs.)

This chapter considers portions of the poem set in public drinking places, which reflect upon the social fabric of the modern city, sites where the public and private become blurred, and the stage on which changing gender relations are evident. The author also notes how tehn recent changes in drinking laws are evidenced in the poem, such as the initation of hours, and the calling of time, and "last calls."

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Rudski JM; Segal C; Kallen E. Harry Potter and the end of the road: Parallels with addiction. Addiction Research & Theory 17(3): 260-277, 2009. (25 refs.)

The term addiction involves aspects of salience, withdrawal, and conflict or interference with everyday functioning. The present series of studies examined whether high levels of engagement with the Harry Potter (HP) phenomenon could qualify as an addiction. Through use of three surveys posted online, we established that a sizeable portion (though not a majority) of self-described HP fans demonstrated craving for the release of the final book in the series, and experienced some withdrawal symptoms upon finishing the book. HP fandom also produced a disruptive influence on day to day functioning of some fans in a 6 month follow-up. In sum, we found parallels between criteria used to diagnose traditional forms of addiction or dependence and some people's attachment to a phenomenon in popular culture.

Copyright 2009, Taylor & Francis

Schneiderman D; Walsh P, eds. Retaking the Universe: William S. Burroughs in the Age of Globalization. London: Pluto Press, 2004. (Chapter refs.)

William Burroughs is one the most widely examined writers, and is synonymous with the Beat Movement in the U.S. His first novel was Junkie (1953) followed by others which spoke to the experience of addiction and the use of heroin, including "Naked Lunch." This collection of essays deals with the broad expanse of Burrough's work including his involvment in sound, film and media. They focus upon debates on "reality"; control and magic and mysticism; language and technology; control and transformation; transgression and addiction. These essays discuss the continuing impact of Burroughs work.

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Sexton RL; Carlson RG; Leukefeld CG; Booth BM. "Tweaking and geeking, just having some fun": An analysis of methamphetamine poems. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 42(3): 377-383, 2010. (41 refs.)

There is a body of methamphetamine-themed poetry that speaks regretfully of the highly negative experiences of those in recovery from methamphetamine (MA) addiction or who feel trapped in an MA-using lifestyle. During ethnographic research in western Kentucky, the author collected two MA-themed poems from active MA users that differ from other MA poetry. They describe misadventures that occur during MA "binges." However, the text and tone of the poems are comically ironic and represent optimism rather than regret toward MA use. Analyzing these poems provides valuable insights into local patterns of MA use, related terminology, and attitudes toward MA use.

Copyright 2010, Haight-Ashbury Publishing

Shannonhouse R, ed. Under the Influence: The Literature of Addiction. New York: Modern Libary, 2003. (0 refs.)

Drawing on two centuries of important literary and historical writings, Rebecca Shannonhouse has shaped a remarkable collection of works that are, in turn, tragic, compelling, hilarious, and enlightening. Together, these selections comprise a profound and truthful portrait of the life experience known as addiction. The volume includes classic selections from fiction, memoirs, and essays by authors such as Tolstoy, Cheever, Parker, and Poe. In addition are works by writers who illuminate the causes, dangers, pleasures, and public perceptions surrounding people consumed by excessive use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Recent works by Abraham Verghese, the Barthelme brothers, Margaret Bullitt-Jonas, and others expand and modernize the construct of addiction to include sex, gambling, and food. Together, these incomparable writings give shape and meaning to the raw experience of uncontrollable urges.

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Southern S. Darkness into light: The dream journal of an addicted trauma survivor. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling 24(2): 115-127, 2004. (33 refs.)

The author applied dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). The dreams of the fictional client were then related to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle.

Stephenson W. Island of the assassins: Cannabis, spectacle, and terror in Alex Garland's The 'Beach'. Critque 46(4): 369-381, 2005. (30 refs.)

This article discusses the novel "The Beach." It is seen as the latest in the cannabis tradition literature which extends back to the Renaissancem and co-mingles with two modern anxieties that emerged in the wake of September 11 -- drugs and terrorism. The novel plays on these fears by suggesting that fanaticism, violence and drug abuse are characteristics of the West , brought about by its relentlees search for commodified pleasures and willingess to defend its cultural and economic priveleses at any any cost. the beach community is a metonym for the US and Europe.

Copyright 2005, Heldref Publications

Storhoff G. Jason's role-slippage: The dynamics of alcoholism in The Sound and the Fury. Mississippi Quarterly 49(3): 519-535, 1996. (29 refs.)

William Faulker while denying his having alcoholism or that his drinking had any negative impact on his family, was himself an adult child of an alcoholic. Thus, he knew well that an alcoholic parent's behavior has psychological repercussion in the family. Far beyond the illness, given the terrific compulsions, abuse and exploitation, alcoholic life patterns become a feature of the children as they mature. These consequences are dramatized in Faulker's first great novel, "The Sound and The Fury", that focus on the children who endure their fathers alcoholism. The discussion of the Comptom family draws upon family systems theory, and its application to alcoholism.

Copyright 1996, Mississippi Quarterly, Inc.

Sturgess R. Freud, Sherlock Holmes and Coca Cola: The cocaine connection. Pharmaceutical Journal 265(7128): 915-917, 2000

The two most significant figures in the cocaine story are world renowned but not for their connection with cocaine. The individual responsible for the introduction of cocaine into medicine, albeit indirectly, went on to other and greater things, his life work fundamentally, changing our views of ourselves and the world. The other did not even exist, although there are plenty of devotees who behave as if he did.

Copyright 2000, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

Thomas J (producer); Cronenberg D (director/writer. Naked Lunch (videorecording). New York: Criterion Collection, 2003

This is based on the book by William Burrougs. Part-time pest-control man and full-time drug addict Bill Lee (Weller) seeks escape from his troubled existence in 1953 New York and flees to Interzone (a hallucinatory version of Tangiers) where reality and fantasy have merged. It's a strange, surreal landscape inhabited by mugwumps, half-alien, half-insect creatures, man-sized centipedes, carnivorous typewriters and bizarre humans. Compelled to make sense of this alien territory, he writes a book called "Naked lunch." Burrough's audio recording of excerpts from the novel, and archival stills of Burroughs. Accompanying guide includes essays by critics Janet Maslin, Chris Radley and Gary Indiana and a piece by W.S. Burroughs. Performers include Peter Weller, Judy Davis, Ian Holm, Julian Sands, Roy Scheider.

Copyright 2005, Project Cork

Townsend A. The Addict. The Southern Review 42(4): 723-4, 2006. (0 refs.)

This presents a poem, "The Addict." It begins, "Because she is a good girl and an A student, with a name -- Charlotte (after Charlotte Bronte) -- that only an English professor's daughter could have, you're not prepared when she tells you what's really wrong, confessing she's addicted to oxycontin..."

Louisiana State University Press

Townsend A. The Addict. The Southern Review 42(4): 723-4, 2006. (0 refs.)

This presents a poem, "The Addict." It begins, "Because she is a good girl and an A student, with a name -- Charlotte (after Charlotte Bronte) -- that only an English professor's daughter could have, you're not prepared when she tells you what's really wrong, confessing she's addicted to oxycontin..."

Copyright Louisiana State University Press

Vice S. Love stories: Women who drink in modern and contemporary fiction. IN: Nicholls J; Owen SJ, eds. A Babel of Bottles: Drink, Drinkers, and Drinking Places in Literature. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. pp. 132-141. (17 refs.)

This chapter opens with reference to Bridget Jones's list of New Year's resolutions beginning with a vow not to drink more than 14 alcohol units a week. The role of drinking in literature has until recently focused almost exclusively on men. Personal accounts of women's drinking is relatively recent. The author considers both memoir and fictional discussions of drinking among women, speaking of Doris Lessing, Carolyn Knapp, Mary Carr, Sophie Parkins, Christy Karr, Elizabeth Wurtzel. Jane Owens, and Louise Erdrich.

Copyright 2004, Project Cork

Walker C. Co-dependent: A potted history of drugs and Australian music. Meanjin 61(2): 154-166, 2002. (3 refs.)

This article in this thematic issue of the literary magazine addresses the rock culture and the cross-currents of creative and destructive impulses seen there since the 1960s.

Copyright 2002, Meanjin Company, Ltd.

Warner NO. Firewater legacy: Alcohol and Native American identity in the fiction of James Fenimore Coope. IN: Brodie JF; Redfield M, eds. High Anxieties: Cultural Studies in Addiction. Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2002. pp. 109-116. (17 refs.)

This chapter explores the drinking behavior of Native Americans, as depicted in James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers." The purpose is to clarify the ways that Cooper's fiction mediates between "pity" for Native Americans, on one hand, and "censure," on the other - these being the dual sides of an attitude that, in the words of Roy Harvey Pearce, has dominated "the American obsession with the problem of the civilized versus the savage." The discourse of Native American drinking as a mark of racial inferiority appeared early in the history of Native American-European contact, as in the sixteenth-century explorer Henry Hawks' comment that tribal peoples "are soone drunke, and given to much bestinesse, and void of all goodnesse." The comments reviewed here show that the Native American could simultaneously be portrayed as a victim to be pitied and as a victimizer whose own worst enemy was himself. In general, Cooper blends considerable sympathy with criticism in his view of Native American drinking problems. His work also reveals a tension between this view and more hostile perspectives on Native Americans and their drinking. Cooper never resolved the problem of Native American intoxication, just as he was never able to reconcile white dominance in North America with his own awareness of, and guilt over, the destruction of native life resulting from that dominance. But, if Cooper's work fails to overcome the contradictions described here, it does show his willingness to engage those contradictions and to include them as part of his vision of America.

Copyright 2003, University of California Press

Welsh CJ. Harry Potter and butterbeer. (letter). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43(1): 9-10, 2004. (1 refs.)

The author notes that while the author J.K. Rowlings addrsses a number of themes with sensitivity - acceptance, friendship, courage, being different, racial stereotypes, unfair work conditions, and animal rights- there is one where she has taken a less serious stand: alcohol. It is the discussion of "butterbeer". Rowling does not specifically discuss the alcoholic content of the beer. However, there are several references to the "warming" effect of the drink. The current author suggests that there is the obvious question of why Rowling has allowed what appears to be an alcoholic beverage to be consumed by 13-year-old wizards and witches. Despite its relative innocent and benign treatment in the books, it is not clear how many children and adolescents might read this and think that drinking alcohol is funny, or, at the very least, an okay thing to do when you are 13. The author suggests that clinicians and parents might use these references as an introduction to a discussion about alcohol consumption, and hopefully influence the attitudes of children and adolescents.

Copyright 2004, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Williams RH. Jack London and John Barleycorn: An intimate account of alcoholism. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 21(1): 89-98, 2003. (8 refs.)

Jack London's autobiography, John Barleycorn (1913), describes London's personal problems with alcohol, as well as the problems of alcoholism in society. In the present study, the book is content analyzed to yield a set of direct quotations. These quotations were selected for the insight they may provide for the personal and relationship problems resulting from alcohol abuse or dependence. London's autobiography can be used in a variety of treatment or educational settings to sensitize readers to the progressive and destructive course of alcohol addiction. Members of AA would also benefit from adding London's autobiography to their personal reading list and to materials available in reading rooms.

Copyright 2003, Haworth Press

Wilner J. Drinking rules: Byron and Baudelaire (Intoxication). Diacritics 27(3): 34-48, 1997. (23 refs.)

This essay takes up two nineteenth-century texts on the theme of intoxication in which the poetic word can no longer, if it ever could, stably figure itself as the metaphor other of the drug, that is as a legitimate means of imaginative transport, and in which the writer's enthrallment by the transporting substance of words shows us its addictive and prosaic face. The first of the two pieces is a pair f of stanzas from Canto II of Byron's Don Juan, the other, Buadelaire's prose poem "Enivrez-vous."

Copyright 1997, Johns Hopkins University Press

Zimmerman RB. Michael Ryan's 'Secret Life': A portrait of the addict as a young man. Proteus 22(2): 5-8, 2005. (9 refs.)

Recent scholarship on masculine subjectivity in US culture recognizes that there are many forms in masculinity, each of which changes over time. This paper considers the representations of the prevailing culture definition of masculinity, which has been termed "hegemonic masculinity." This dominant ideology naturalizes social, political, and economic inequalities among men and women and promotes the desire for supremacy, and at the same time promotes behaviors destructive to self or others which may throw the ideology into question. The author considers the autobiography of Michael Ryan, an American poet, which sets forth the emergence of sexual addiction, which is seen as emerging out of the experience of sexual molestation as a child.

Copyright 2005, Proteus Inc.