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CORK Bibliography: Family

105 citations. January 2012 to present

Prepared: September 2012

Aalborg AE; Miller BA; Husson G; Byrnes HF; Bauman KE; Spoth RL. Implementation of adolescent family-based substance use prevention programmes in health care settings: Comparisons across conditions and programmes. Health Education Journal 71(1): 53-61, 2012. (14 refs.)

Objective: To examine factors that influence the effectiveness and quality of implementation of evidence-based family-focused adolescent substance use prevention programmes delivered in health care settings and to assess the effects of programme choice versus programme assignment on programme delivery. Design: Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP) and Family Matters (FM) were delivered as part of a randomized longitudinal prevention study designed to assess the influence of programme choice versus assignment to programme on study recruitment, retention and adolescent substance use outcomes. Families were initially randomized to a choice (FM or SFP) or assigned study condition (FM, SFP or control group). Setting: Families with an 11-year-old child were randomly selected from health plan membership databases of four large managed care medical centres in the San Francisco California Bay area; 494 ethnically diverse families enrolled in study programmes. Method: A mixed-method case study was conducted to assess procedures used to maximize implementation quality and fidelity. Programme monitoring was conducted to assess differences in programme delivery for families in the choice versus assigned study condition. Results: Programme fidelity improved over time. Families who chose FM (versus being assigned to the programme) completed the programme in a shorter period and spent more time implementing programme activities. SFP 'choice' families (versus assigned) attended more programme sessions. Conclusion: Fidelity assessment data can be successfully utilized for ongoing quality improvement of programme delivery. Programme choice appears to increase family engagement in programmes. Future effectiveness trials should assess approaches to integrate evidence-based family prevention programmes with adolescent health services.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Abdullah AS; Hua F; Xia X; Hurlburt S; Ng P; MacLeod W et al. Second-hand smoke exposure and household smoking bans in Chinese families: A qualitative study. Health & Social Care in the Community 20(4): 356-364, 2012. (35 refs.)

As workplace smoking restrictions spread, smoking in the home is becoming the predominant source of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among children and other non-smokers in the household. This study explored issues around childrens exposure to SHS. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted among 31 Chinese households in urban Shanghai, China. All FGDs/IDIs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that there are gaps in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and SHS among the participants. Although there was a lack of knowledge about the health risk of exposure to SHS, most were willing to protect their child from the SHS exposure. In 16/31 households, families had partial home-smoking restrictions; there were no complete restrictions in any of the smokers homes. Many families do not openly discuss smoking or smoking restrictions at home. Barriers to adopting a smoke-free home included the social acceptability of smoking (22/31), hosting social gatherings at home, which would involve smoking (12/31), authoritative attitudes of the husband or father-in-law (10/31), and difficulties with visitors who smoke (7/31). Most (28/31) participants stated they would accept a counselling intervention to reduce SHS exposure to children and suggested various measures to implement it. The findings from this intervention have implications for designing intervention strategies to reduce SHS exposure at home among children in China.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Acri MC; Gogel LP; Pollock M; Wisdom JP. What adolescents need to prevent relapse after treatment for substance abuse: A comparison of youth, parent, and staff perspectives. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 21(2): 117-129, 2012. (42 refs.)

Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after completing a residential treatment program. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 adolescents, 30 parents, and 29 staff at 3 treatment agencies. Data were coded thematically and themes were organized by respondent type. Results: There was high frequency and concordance across respondents regarding the need for aftercare services, supportive relationships, and activities. Only one item, outpatient treatment, demonstrated significant differences across groups. Conclusions: External supports and activities are important to recovery of adolescents from substances following treatment completion. Implications and potential areas of inquiry are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Allmark P; Tod AM; McDonnell A; Al-Alawy K; Mann K; Hollis E et al. Evaluation of the impact of a smoke-free home initiative in Rotherham, a deprived district in Northern England. European Journal of Public Health 22(2): 248-251, 2012. (14 refs.)

Background: An evaluation of a smoke-free home initiative launched in Rotherham, northern England, in July 2009. Methods: Two approaches were used: (i) a postal survey of participants 4 months after signing up as a SFH and (ii) a telephone consultation. The survey was sent to 620 households (of 654 who signed up to the scheme); 289 (46.6%) were returned. The telephone consultation involved 20 households before and 20 after signing up to the scheme. Results: Of the households that permitted some smoking at home before the initiative, similar to 78% became smoke free after signing up (uncertainty due to missing replies). A high number of participants (169, 60.8%) were already informally smoke free. The most common reasons for participation concerned health, environment, and fire safety. Participants were motivated by, amongst other things, information given in a booklet and by the offer of a fire-safety referral. The most immediate benefits noted by participants were improvements in house hygiene. The most important hindrance to success seemed to be a lack of power to enforce the ban at home, particularly on the part of those living in smokers' homes. Conclusion: The Rotherham initiative succeeded in creating smoke-free homes. The results should help those planning similar initiatives. Important points include that: many participants had already instituted some rules regarding smoking at home; whether and how to include households that are already smoke-free; risk of fire and concern with house hygiene are important motivations; those living in smokers' homes may lack power to initiate smoke-free rules.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Al-Sahab B; Ardern CI; Hamadeh MJ; Tamim H. Age at menarche and current substance use among Canadian adolescent girls: Results of a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 12: e-article 195, 2012. (34 refs.)

Background: Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls. Methods: The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results: The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months) and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use. Conclusions: Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.

Copyright 2012, BioMed Central

Arria AM; McLellan AT. Evolution of concept, but not action, in addiction treatment. Substance Use & Misuse 47(8): 1041-1048, 2012. (45 refs.)

The Western approach to addiction treatment involves a medical or disease orientation to understanding the onset, course, and management of addiction, and a clinical goal of abstinence or very significant reductions in drug use, usually with a combination of behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Even within this Western approach, and despite several consensually accepted features of addiction, a significant mismatch remains between what this culture has come to accept as the nature of the disease and how that same culture continues to treat the disease. This paper discusses the evolution of these Western concepts over the past decade without a corresponding evolution in the nature, duration, or evaluation standards for addiction treatment.(1) Here, we take the position that continuing care and adaptive treatment protocols, combining behavioral therapies, family and social supports, and, where needed, medications show much promise to address the typically chronic, relapsing, and heterogeneous nature of most cases of serious addiction. By extension, methods to evaluate effectiveness of addiction treatment should focus upon the functional status of patients during the course of their treatment instead of post-treatment, as is the evaluation practice used with most other chronic illnesses.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Balagopal PG; George NA; Venugopal A; Mathew A; Ahamed MI; Sebastian P. Tobacco related habits among first degree relatives of patients undergoing surgery for advanced head and neck malignancies in India. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 13(1): 217-220, 2012. (13 refs.)

This prospective study records the tobacco related habits among the relatives of patients with advanced head and neck cancers who underwent both surgery and chemotherapy as part of their treatment from September 2009 to March 2010. A total of 200 relatives were interviewed (148 males and 52 females). 198 (99%) were aware of the fact that tobacco use can lead to cancer and 168 (84%) had any one of the habits. Smoking alone was reported in 36 (18%) individuals, pan chewing alone in 66 (33%) and multiple habits in 64 (32%). Alcohol and tobacco chewing alone was reported in one case each. There were change in habits following diagnosis of head and neck cancers among the relatives, 33 (16.5%) stopped their habits and smoking was reduced by 25% in 72 (36%) and by 50% in 63 (31.2%) individuals. However, 135 continued the habit even after the diagnosis of cancer in their relatives. Of note, 15 out of the 33 who quit the habit did it because of health advice given to them during the hospital visit.

Copyright 2012, Asian Pacific Organization Cancer Prevention

Bannon WM; Beharie N; Olshtain-Mann O; McKay MM; Goldstein L; Cavaleri MA et al. Youth substance use in a context of family homelessness. Children and Youth Services Review 34(1): 1-7, 2012. (45 refs.)

Objective: This study examines the relationship between family processes and youth substance use debuts among a sample of youth residing in urban family homeless shelters. Method: Data regarding shelter experiences, youth and family characteristics, and the use of three substances (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) were gathered from a sample of youth (11-14 years) and their respective parents residing in an urban family homeless shelter system. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the influences on youth substance use. Results: Of the 198 youth included in the statistical analysis, 72% (n = 143) reported no substance use debuts, while 18% (n = 35) indicated one and 10% (n = 20) indicated two to three substance use debuts. Within the final model, greater substance use debut was associated with being older (13-14 vs. 11-12; OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.8-30.9) and stressors exposure (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 1.5-14.7). Furthermore, youth of adult caretakers that reported low levels of the three family processes considered were almost four and a half more likely (OR = 4.4: 95% CI = 1.2-16.5) to have made two to three substance use debuts. Conclusions: Family processes may be a particularly important intervention target toward reducing the rate of substance use among youth residing in urban family homeless shelters.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Blakey JM. From surviving to thriving: Understanding reunification among African American mothers with histories of addiction. Children and Youth Services Review 34(1): 91-102, 2012. (60 refs.)

Child maltreatment cases involving substance abuse have increased. Estimates reveal that between 40% and 80% of all families involved with child protection have substance-abuse issues. Only 12%-20% of substance-abusing families regain custody of their children. Little is known about the factors that contribute to substance-abusing women regaining or losing custody of their children. Using the Multiple Embedded Case Study method, this study illuminates the experiences and feelings of mothers struggling to overcome addiction and highlights the main differences between women who regained custody and those who permanently lost custody of their children. In this study, 50% of the women lost custody and 50% regained custody of their children. The women who lost custody of their children tended to be in survival mode, characterized as going through the motions, engaging in acting-out behaviors, and failing to follow treatment recommendations. The women who regained custody of their children tended to thrive, characterized as having internal motivation, taking responsibility, and engaging the material. This study advances our knowledge of the factors contributing to reunification. Understanding these factors can lead to the development of practices that increase the likelihood of reunification for families struggling to overcome addiction.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Bohnert KM; Anthony JC; Breslau N. Parental monitoring at age 11 and subsequent onset of cannabis use up to age 17: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(2): 173-177, 2012. (29 refs.)

Objective: Smoking cannabis before adulthood is associated with subsequent adverse psychiatric outcomes and might be prevented via parenting interventions such as programs to increase parents' effective monitoring of their children. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of parental monitoring assessed at age 11 on the initiation of cannabis use before age 18. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of 823 children randomly selected from 1983 to 1985 newborn discharge lists from two major hospitals in southeast Michigan. Parental monitoring was assessed at age 11 via a standardized 10-item scale, and the parental monitoring cannabis initiation relationship was estimated for the 638 children with complete data. Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the association that links levels of parental monitoring at age 11 with the risk of cannabis use up to age 17, adjusting for other important covariates. Results: Higher levels of parental monitoring at age 11 were associated with a reduced risk of cannabis initiation from ages 11 to 17 (adjusted estimated relative risk = 0.96; 95% CI [0.93, 0.98]). Conclusions: This prospective investigation found that higher levels of parental monitoring were associated with a reduced occurrence of cannabis initiation from ages 11 to 17 years. Consistent with evidence reported elsewhere, these findings from prospective research lend further support to theories about parenting and familial characteristics that might exert long-lasting influences on a child's risk of starting to use drugs.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Brook J; McDonald TP; Yan YQ. An analysis of the impact of the Strengthening Families Program on family reunification in child welfare. Children and Youth Services Review 34(4): 691-695, 2012. (33 refs.)

This study examines reunification outcomes of children of alcohol or other drug involved parents who were placed in foster care and received the Strengthening Families Program as part of their child welfare service intervention. Following the use of propensity score matching to generate a comparison group, survival analysis was utilized to predict reunification rates. Strengthening Families participants had a significantly higher reunification rate than matched families who did not receive this intervention. Time to reunification was run from two points in the life of the child welfare case: from the date of child removal from the home and from the date of Strengthening Families Program start. In both instances, our analyses indicated that the Strengthening Families Program participants were significantly more likely to reunify than comparison cases.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Brook JS; Rubenstone E; Zhang C; Brook DW. Maternal predictors of comorbid trajectories of cigarette smoking and marijuana use from early adolescence to adulthood. Addictive Behaviors 37(1): 139-143, 2012. (24 refs.)

This is the first study to examine maternal predictors of comorbid trajectories of cigarette smoking and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood. Participants (N=806) are part of an on-going longitudinal psychosocial study of mothers and their children. Mothers were administered structured interviews when participants were adolescents, and participants were interviewed at six time waves, from adolescence to adulthood. Mothers and participants independently reported on their relationships when participants were age 14.1 years. At each time wave, participants answered questions about their cigarette and marijuana use from the previous wave to the present. Latent growth mixture modeling determined the participants' membership in trajectory groups of comorbid smoking and marijuana use, from ages 14.1 to 36.6 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal factors (when participants were adolescents) with participants' comorbid trajectory group membership. Findings showed that most maternal risk (e.g., mother-child conflict, maternal smoking) and protective (e.g., maternal affection) factors predicted participants' membership in trajectory groups of greater and lesser comorbid substance use, respectively. Clinical implications include the importance of addressing the mother-child relationship in prevention and treatment programs for comorbid cigarette smoking and marijuana use.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Browning SE. Neighborhood, school, and family effects on the frequency of alcohol use among Toronto youth. Substance Use & Misuse 47(1): 31-43, 2012. (49 refs.)

This study examines the effect of neighborhood, school, and family indicators on adolescent drinking. The Toronto Drugs, Alcohol, and Violence International (DAVI) data were collected in 2001-2002. The sample was stratified both by region (city vs. outskirts) and by the socio-economic status of the schools. Two schools from each stratum were randomly selected and 910 students completed the survey. The survey contains extensive measures of substance use, violence, and mental health. The study uses cluster analysis and multinomial logits to examine the variation in the effect of schools, family, and demographic indicators on alcohol use across neighborhood contexts. Study implications and suggestions for future research are included. The study was partially funded by NIDA grant # R01-DA11691-01A1.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Burstein M; Stanger C; Dumenci L. Relations between parent psychopathology, family functioning, and adolescent problems in substance-abusing families: Disaggregating the effects of parent gender. Child Psychiatry & Human Development 43(4): 631-647, 2012. (71 refs.)

The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Celikkol S; Nadir V; Senol L; Selek HS. Research on determination of the factors which cause high school students to start smoking. Energy Education Science And Technology. Part B. Social and Educational Studies 4(4): 2099-2108, 2012. (24 refs.)

In order to prevent students from starting to smoke, it is required to reveal opinions of students regarding smoking, and factors that cause starting to smoke. In the first chapter of the research, ages of starting to smoke, opinions on quitting smoking, relation of smoking with daily nourishment, effect of smoking on health, and relation of smoking with malignant diseases were analyzed. Factors that cause smoking were analyzed in the second chapter. According to the results of the research, students know that smoking is dangerous for health and they claim that they can quit smoking. Most important factors that cause smoking of students are imitating loved persons, emotional problems with such persons, problems inside families, wish for being accepted to friend groups, and emotional problems with social environment.

Copyright 2012, Sila Science

Chaplin TM; Sinha R; Simmons JA; Healy SM; Mayes LC; Hommer RE et al. Parent-adolescent conflict interactions and adolescent alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors 37(5): 605-612, 2012. (40 refs.)

Objective: One important factor in adolescents' development of problem alcohol use is their family environment. Yet, the mechanisms that relate parenting to youth alcohol use are not well characterized. This study employed a naturalistic laboratory-based approach to observe parenting behaviors (support, structure, criticism) and adolescents' physiological and emotional responses to parent-adolescent interactions to examine associations with adolescent alcohol use. Method: Fifty eight 10-16 year olds and their parents completed a 10 minute Parent Adolescent Interaction Task (PAIT) in which they discussed a mutually highly-rated conflict topic. Parental support, structure, and criticism were coded from the interaction. Adolescents' heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), reported emotions, and salivary cortisol were assessed before, during, and after the interaction. Results: Findings indicated that lower parental structure and support were associated with youth's greater diastolic BP and anger arousal in response to the PAIT. Furthermore, higher FIR, systolic BP, and cortisol responses to the interaction were associated with youth's alcohol use. Conclusions: Findings suggest that heightened emotional and physiological responses to parent-adolescent conflict interactions in youth may be one pathway by which parenting is associated with adolescent alcohol use and risk for abuse.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Chen YT; Chung MC; Hsiao FH; Miao NF; Chen PL. Exploration of parental smokers' experience, perceptions, and family's influences on their smoking in the presence of children. Advances In Nursing Science 35(1): E1-E13, 2012. (41 refs.)

The purpose of this study was to explore parents' experience and perceptions of smoking in the presence of children. Findings regarding patterns of parents' smoking in the presence of children were situation specific. When thinking of smoking with children around, parents engaged in a process of weighing the importance of the need to smoke and adverse effects from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, a consideration based mostly on their experience. A pattern of correspondence was identified between family's level of concern and promoting change among smokers. Many strategies participants used to prevent children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure were relatively ineffective and needed to be addressed.

Copyright 2012, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Cheng TC; Lo CC. Nonmedical use of prescription medications: A longitudinal analysis with adolescents involved in child welfare. Children and Youth Services Review 34(4): 859-864, 2012. (66 refs.)

This study evaluated a sample of 1005 adolescents involved in the child welfare system, looking for risk and protective factors in their nonmedical use of prescription medications. It comprised a secondary data analysis of longitudinal records extracted from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), and it employed generalized estimating equations. Its multivariate results indicate that such use of medications in the past 30 days was (a) associated positively with misuse of prescribed drugs prior to NSCAW participation and with time involved in the child welfare system, as well; but (b) associated negatively with parental monitoring and feeling close to parents. Implications for services and research are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Chun TH; Linakis JG. Interventions for adolescent alcohol use. (review). Current Opinion in Pediatrics 24(2): 238-242, 2012. (22 refs.)

Purpose of review: Adolescent alcohol use is a considerable public health problem, contributing to the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality. Additionally, adolescent alcohol use is a major risk factor for adult alcohol use disorders. Successful prevention of and interventions for adolescent alcohol use may thus have significant public health impact. This article reviews the current literature on adolescent alcohol prevention and intervention strategies. Recent findings: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses find that a variety of adolescent alcohol interventions are effective at reducing adolescents' alcohol use, as well as harmful behaviors associated with alcohol use. Long-term treatment is not necessarily superior, as brief interventions have been found to have a large effect size. Additionally, universal interventions (i.e., those that target all families within a group) may be more successful than selective interventions (i.e., those that target only certain families within a group). Intervention effects tend to wane 6-12 months after the cessation of treatment. The results of prevention interventions are more mixed. Many different intervention modalities have been shown to be effective, particularly family-based interventions, as have both universal and targeted interventions. Summary: A wide range of interventions are effective at reducing the harm of adolescent alcohol use. It is unclear which intervention(s) is/are optimal or most efficacious. Additionally, further research is needed on how to maintain long-term intervention effects. It is less clear which prevention strategies are most efficacious. Family-based interventions appear to be most promising.

Copyright 2012, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Clark TT; Belgrave FZ; Abell M. The mediating and moderating effects of parent and peer influences upon drug use among African American adolescents. Journal of Black Psychology 38(1): 52-80, 2012. (30 refs.)

This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and gender, parental monitoring and peer risky behavior completely mediated the relationship between parental attitudes toward drug use and drug refusal efficacy and partially mediated the relationship between parental attitudes toward drug use and current alcohol use. Only peer risky behavior mediated the relationships between parental attitudes toward drug use and current tobacco and marijuana use. Results also revealed several salient moderating relationships. Implications for prevention programs are provided and include strengthening current parenting skills and focusing efforts on fostering the mother-adolescent relationship.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Constantinescu M; Constantinescu C. Success local policies in preventing and reducing the alcohol consumption among youngters. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala 36: 54-73, 2012. (39 refs.)

Young people are most vulnerable to the consequences of alcohol consumption. Local autorithies are the main institution in the development of local policies to reduce alcohol related harm and preventive actions to target not only individual consumers, but the environment in which the young grows: parents, teachers and vendors of alcoholic beverages. The main goal of this project is to reduce youth alcohol availability. Cooperation between different organizations is essential because prevention education programs (schools) alone will not be able to change drinking behavior. In preparing its policy on alcohol on the knowledge of reality. Thereby, collecting local data on the level of alcohol consumption among young teens, parent's attitudes and availability of alcohol was made by several sociological research base don sociological investigation. The population investigated included teenagers, parents and sellers of alcoholic beverages. Implementation of this policy required the formation of alcohol-related working groups according to the three elements of the project: public support (through media coverage and cooperareacu message frequency and parents), legal regulations and how to apply them (identification of the level of application and increased police actions in this direction). Key factors in the success of this project were the good communication and good cooperation of all involved.

Copyright 2012, Editura Lumen, IASI

Creswell KG; Sayette MA; Manuck SB; Ferrell RE; Hill SY; Dimoff JD. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding. PLoS ONE 7(2): e-article28914, 2012. (90 refs.)

Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) 62 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

Copyright 2012, Public Library of Science

Doku D; Koivusilta L; Rimpela A. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol and drug use among Ghanaian adolescents. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 357-360, 2012. (18 refs.)

Socioeconomic differences in experimental alcohol use, drunkenness, marijuana use and other drug uses among adolescents in Ghana was investigated using multiple socioeconomic indicators. A school-based cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 12-18-year-olds (N = 1195, response rate = 89.7%) was conducted in Ghana in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to model the associations between substance use and socioeconomic status. Use of marijuana and drugs was associated with lower material affluence while experimental alcohol use was associated with higher material affluence. Living in non-nuclear family was predictive of other drug uses and drunkenness. Other drug uses were associated with lower paternal education and occupation while drunkenness was associated with lower paternal education. Individual anticipated future social position measured by plans after graduation was the strongest predictor of experimental alcohol use, drunkenness, marijuana and other drug uses. Interventions are need to prevent adolescence substance use especially among those in danger of discontinuing schooling and those in less affluence families.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Donovan E; Wood M; Frayjo K; Black RA; Surette DA. A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors 37(1): 25-35, 2012. (37 refs.)

Alcohol consumption among college students remains a major public health concern. Universal, Web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption have been found to be effective in changing their alcohol-related behavior. Recent studies also indicate that parent-based interventions, delivered in booklet form, are effective. A parent-based intervention that is also Web-based may be well suited to a dispersed parent population; however, no such tool is currently available. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an online parent-based intervention designed to (1) increase communication between parents and students about alcohol and (2) reduce risks associated with alcohol use to students. A total of 558 participants, comprising 279 parent-teen dyads, were enrolled in the study. The findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, with their teens, as compared with parents in an e-newsletter control group. Moreover, students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, as compared with students whose parents did not receive the intervention. A universal, online, parent-based intervention to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption may be an efficient and effective component of a college's overall prevention strategy.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Du J; Lombardi C; Evans E; Jiang HF; Zhao M; Meng YY. A mixed methods approach to identifying factors related to voluntary HIV testing among injection drug users in Shanghai, China. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 16(7): E498-E503, 2012. (22 refs.)

Objectives: Injection drug use is a major route of HIV transmission in China, yet relatively little is known about why so few injection drug users utilize free HIV testing services. This study aimed to examine barriers to HIV testing and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service utilization among injection drug users in Shanghai, China. Methods: Utilizing mixed methods, we analyzed data from a survey of 540 compulsory drug abuse treatment patients and data from focus groups with 70 service providers and patients. Results: Only 24.4% of patients expressed willingness to be tested for HIV. Willingness to be tested was associated with younger age and more positive attitudes towards condom use. Patients reported several barriers to utilization of voluntary HIV testing services, including lack of information about these services, perceptions of no risk or low-risk for HIV infection, fear of positive results, and the stigma or discrimination that may be experienced by the patient or their family. Having limited skills related to HIV counseling was reported by service providers as the primary barrier to encouraging patients to utilize HIV testing/VCT services. Conclusions: Special intervention programs targeting injection drug users, their family members, and service providers may increase HIV testing in China.

Copyright 2012, International Society for Infectious Diseases

Elmeland K; Kolind T. 'Why don't they just do what we tell them?' Different alcohol prevention discourses in Denmark. Young 20(2): 177-197, 2012. (68 refs.)

In recent decades great focus has been placed on the excessive consumption of alcohol by young Danes. In this connection, Danish parents have been called upon by the national health authorities to function as prevention workers with a view to reducing their children's alcohol intake. Parallel to these efforts, and also responding to the increase in drinking by young people, efforts to reduce the harm caused by the drinking practices of adolescents have grown bottom-up among parents. In this article we identify and compare these two seemingly contrasting discourses, both of which influence the prevention field: a public alcohol prevention discourse and an everyday discourse, respectively. The analysis is based on alcohol legislation, public health programmes and national alcohol recommendations, as well as on a qualitative study of a special Danish phenomenon: parties for young people organized by parents. In the two discourses alcohol consumption is presented differently. However, traditionally liberal Danish alcohol policy plays an important role in both: the central feature of this policy relies on individual control rather than on public regulation.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Fish LJ; Gierisch JM; Stechuchak KM; Grambow SC; Rohrer LD; Bastian LA. Correlates of expected positive and negative support for smoking cessation among a sample of chronically ill veterans. Addictive Behaviors 37(1): 135-138, 2012. (14 refs.)

To examine demographic, relationship, and smoking history factors related to expected positive and negative support for quitting smoking among chronically ill veterans. Data for this report comes from baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of a support-based smoking cessation intervention for veterans with chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). We used separate multiple linear regression models to analyze relationships between positive and negative support and variables selected for model entry. Veterans in our sample expected high positive and negative support for quitting. Veterans who were married/living as married, had some college education, were female, or named a female support person expected higher levels of positive support. Veterans who named a female or a nonsmoker as a support person expected higher levels of negative support. Males and non-Caucasians also reported higher levels of expected negative support. Individual differences that influence perceptions of expected support are likely to influence intervention participation and engagement. Thus, understanding factors associated with expected positive and negative support is necessary to optimize future implementation of support-based cessation interventions through better treatment matching.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Forrester D; Westlake D; Glynn G. Parental resistance and social worker skills: Towards a theory of motivational social work. Child & Family Social Work 17(2, special issue): 118-129, 2012. (47 refs.)

Parental resistance is a ubiquitous feature of child and family social work, yet there has been limited research or theoretical work directed at the issue. This paper identifies social and individual reasons why parents may be resistant. Five principle causes of parental resistance are discussed, namely social structure and disadvantage, the context of child protection work, parental resistance to change, denial or minimization of abuse or neglect and the behaviour of the social worker. It is argued that motivational interviewing (MI) provides particularly useful skills and concepts for firstly reducing the social worker contribution to resistance and secondly minimizing the resistance related to other reasons for resistance. Key adaptations required in the strategic aims of MI if it is to be used in child protection work are identified and discussed, the most important of which is maintaining a focus on the child's welfare and safety. It is concluded that MI offers an opportunity to improve practice by increasing parental engagement and to make a contribution to social work theory by combining an attention to both broader social structure and the micro-skills required in social work interviews.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Galan I; Diez-Ganan L; Mata N; Gandarillas A; Cantero JL; Durban M. Individual and contextual factors associated to smoking on school premises. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14(4): 495-500, 2012. (12 refs.)

Introduction: Despite regulations, tobacco consumption in schools is still very common. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of personal, family, and school-level contextual factors with smoking on school premises. Methods: A representative survey was undertaken of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region (Spain), including 79 schools and 3,622 individuals. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were type of school, perception of compliance with the law, smoking policy, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Analysis was carried out in the smoking population (n = 1,179) using multilevel logistic regression models. Results: During the last 30 days, 50.6% of smokers had smoked on school premises. Having a father with a university education (in comparison with fathers who have not attained any educational level) reduces this probability (odds ratio [ OR]: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.96), whereas smoking a larger number of cigarettes (p < .001), illicit drug consumption (p < .001), and low academic achievement (p = .052) increases it. The probability is reduced when there is no parental permission to smoke (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-1.01) and is lower both in nonsubsidized private schools (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67) and in state subsidized private schools (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09-0.34) than in public schools. Conclusions: A very low level of educational attainment by the father, smoking a higher number of cigarettes, as well as illicit drug consumption, low academic achievement, having parental permission to smoke, and attending public schools are all related to a higher probability of smoking on school premises.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Graziotti AL; Hammond J; Messinger DS; Bann CM; Miller-Loncar C; Twomey JE et al. Maintaining participation and momentum in longitudinal research involving high-risk families. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 44(2): 120-126, 2012. (16 refs.)

Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to identify and describe strategies available to optimize retention of a high-risk research cohort and assist in the recovery of study participants following participant dropout. Design and Methods: The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which investigated the effects of prenatal substance exposure (cocaine or opiates) on child outcome, is a prospective longitudinal follow-up study that extended from birth through 15 years of age. Retention strategies to maximize participation and factors that might negatively impact compliance were examined over the course of five follow-up phases. Findings: At the conclusion of the 15-year visits, MLS had successfully maintained compliance at 76%. Retention rates did not differ by exposure group. Conclusions: Maintaining ongoing participation of enrolled study subjects is a critical element of any successful longitudinal study. Strategies that can be used to reengage and maintain participants in longitudinal research include persistence, flexibility with scheduling, home visits, long-distance trips, increased incentives, and development of a computerized tracking system. Establishing rapport with families and ensuring confidentiality contributed to overall participant retention. The use of multiple tracking techniques is essential. Clinical Relevance: Researchers are challenged to maintain participants in longitudinal studies to ensure the integrity of their research.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Gustafson DH; McTavish FM; Schubert CJ; Johnson RA. The effect of a computer-based intervention on adult children of alcoholics. Journal of Addiction Medicine 6(1): 24-28, 2012. (23 refs.)

Objectives: People who grow up with a family member who has a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for serious problems, and yet support for family members focuses mainly on the individual with the SUD. Technology may offer a way to make support widely available to family members of those with SUDs. This small randomized trial examined an online system of resources called CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) for adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), a population at greater risk for SUDs, depression, and other difficulties than adults whose parents were not alcoholics. Methods: The study randomized 23 self-identified ACOAs to 3 interventions for 8 weeks. The goal was to increase participants' treatment compliance and psychological health. The interventions were therapy only, CHESS only, and CHESS plus therapy. We used 2 measures: compliance with treatment, gauged by attendance in group therapy for the 2 groups assigned to therapy, and aspects of psychological health or distress, measured by a survey with items from 7 scales. Results: The CHESS-plus-therapy group had an attendance rate in group therapy of 81.5% compared to 42.8% for the therapy-only group. The CHESS-only intervention had the largest effect size on 5 of the 7 measures of psychological health or distress. In 4 of the 5 cases, the effect size was large; in 1 case, it was moderate. Conclusions: The findings of this pilot study are based on a small sample, but they suggest the need for more research and the potentially important role of technology in behavioral health treatment.

Copyright 2012, Lippinocott, Williams & Wilkins

Hedges KE. A family affair: Contextual accounts from addicted youth growing up in substance using families. Journal of Youth Studies 15(3): 257-272, 2012. (50 refs.)

There are currently over 8 million children in the USA living in households where at least one parent is dependent on or abusing substances. Research has shown a link between parental substance use and children initiating substance use. This article uses qualitative data to give a contextual understanding of the experience of growing up in substance using homes. Results found that the habitus of homes was so immersed in substances that children's initiation into substance use was expected and became a 'rite of passage' into full acceptance as an adult member of the family. Furthermore, in many cases youth described a role reversal between child and parent roles or parentification in the family. The conclusion calls for early identification in treatment of youth who use substances with family members to target new norms and behaviors for the entire family posttreatment and to enhance successful recovery when returning to the family.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Homish GG; Eiden RD; Leonard KE; Kozlowski LT. Social-environmental factors related to prenatal smoking. Addictive Behaviors 37(1): 73-77, 2012. (28 refs.)

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health issue that has profound effects on maternal and fetal health. Although many women stop smoking upon pregnancy recognition, a large number continue. Given the higher burden of smoking among low-income women, the focus of this study is to examine the impact of pre-conception social-environmental influences on smoking cessation during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women who presented for prenatal were asked to complete a screening form at their first prenatal appointment. Women who agreed to participate were scheduled for a total of four interviews; a prenatal interview at the end of each trimester and a postnatal interview at 2months of infant age. The sample for the current report consisted of pregnant women (first trimester) with a partner (N=316). After controlling for pre-conception heaviness of smoking, a number of social-environmental factors were associated with smoking during the first trimester. Women were more likely to smoke during the first trimester if their partner was a smoker; however, the presence of other household smokers was not associated with increased risk for smoking. Additionally, women with a greater proportion of friends (but not relatives) who smoked and more frequent exposure to environmental tobacco were more likely to smoke. This work found differential impacts of the social network on smoking suggesting that understanding relationship type, not simply number of smokers, may be important for smoking cessation efforts. Understanding differences in social network influences on smoking can help to inform interventions.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Hoque M; Ghuman S. Do parents still matter regarding adolescents' alcohol drinking? Experience from South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9(1): 110-122, 2012. (34 refs.)

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to improve our understanding of adolescents' perceptions of parental practices relating to their (adolescents') alcohol use. A total of 704 students were conveniently selected and completed self-administered questionnaires. More than half (54%) of the adolescents reported that they had consumed alcohol at some time in their life. Parental marital status was significantly associated with whether adolescents ever consumed alcohol or not (p < 0.05). A large number of mothers/female guardians (66.3%) and fathers/male guardians (69.3%) did not allow alcohol use at home. More mothers (54.6%) and fathers (65.3%) were not aware of their adolescents' alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Adolescents were more likely to use alcohol when they reported that they had often seen either their father or mother drunk or both (p < 0.05). There were also significant associations between parents' views against alcohol use and their adolescents' alcohol use (p < 0.05). Prevalence of alcohol uptake was quite high among these adolescents. Compulsory parenting programmes and skills development should be practiced by education, health, cultural and religious groups. Parents should be motivated to delay the age at which their children are initiated into alcohol use and be provided with guidance on how to counteract social pressures.

Copyright 2012, MDPI AG

Horimoto ARVR; Oliveira CM; Giolo SR; Soler JP; de Andrade M; Krieger JE et al. Genetic analyses of smoking initiation, persistence, quantity, and age-at-onset of regular cigarette use in Brazilian families: the Baependi Heart Study. BMC Medical Genetics 13: article 9, 2012. (34 refs.)

Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic influences on the initiation of cigarette smoking, the persistence, quantity and age-at-onset of regular cigarette use in Brazilian families. Methods: The data set consisted of 1,694 individuals enrolled in the Baependi Heart Study. The heritability and the heterogeneity in genetic and environmental variance components by gender were estimated from variance components approaches, using the SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) computer package. The mixed-effects Cox model was used for the genetic analysis of the age-at onset of regular cigarette use. Results: The heritability estimates were high (> 50%) for smoking initiation and were intermediate, ranging from 23.4 to 31.9%, for smoking persistence and quantity. Significant evidence for heterogeneity in variance components by gender was observed for smoking initiation and age-at-onset of regular cigarette use. Genetic factors play an important role in the interindividual variation of these phenotypes in females, while in males there is a predominant environmental component, which could be explained by greater social influences in the initiation of tobacco use. Conclusions: Significant heritabilities were observed in smoking phenotypes for both males and females from the Brazilian population. These data add to the literature and are concordant with the notion of significant biological determination in smoking behavior. Samples from the Baependi Heart Study may be valuable for the mapping of genetic loci that modulate this complex biological trait.

Copyright 2012, BioMed Central

Hunter-Reel D; Witkiewitz K; Zweben A. Does session attendance by a supportive significant other predict outcomes in individual treatment for alcohol use disorders? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(7): 1237-1243, 2012. (25 refs.)

Background: A significant amount of research has supported the efficacy of couple versus individual treatment for alcohol use disorders, yet little is known about whether involving a significant other during the course of individual treatment can improve outcomes. Likewise, several barriers to couple treatment exist and a more flexible approach to significant other involvement may be warranted. Methods: This study constituted secondary analyses of the COMBINE data, a randomized clinical trial that combined pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention for alcohol dependence. Data were drawn from the 16-week individual combined behavioral intervention (CBI), which had 776 participants, 31% of which were female, and 23% were non-white. The current study examined whether attendance by a supportive significant other (SSO) during CBI sessions would predict better outcomes. It was further hypothesized that active SSO involvement, defined by attendance during drink refusal or communication skills training sessions, would predict better outcomes. Results: SSOs attended at least 1 session for 26.9% of clients. Clients with SSOs who attended at least 1 session had significantly fewer drinking days and fewer drinking-related problems at the end of treatment. The presence of an SSO during a drink refusal training session predicted significantly better outcomes, as compared to SSO attendance at other sessions and drink refusal training without an SSO present. SSO attendance at a communication training session did not predict better outcomes. Conclusions: These results suggest that specific types of active involvement may be important for SSO-involved treatment to have greater efficacy than individual treatment.

Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism

Hussaarts P; Roozen HG; Meyers RJ; van de Wetering BJM; McCrady BS. Problem areas reported by substance abusing individuals and their concerned significant others. American Journal on Addictions 21(1): 38-46, 2012. (52 refs.)

Substance use disorders (SUDs) have a serious impact on several life areas, including family functioning. This study examined problem areas that patients with SUDs and their family members experience in terms of quality of relations, psychological problems, physical distress, and quality of life. A sample of 32 dyad-persons with SUDs and a family member were recruited from a substance abuse treatment program, and completed the Maudsley Addiction Profile health symptoms section, EuroQol-5D, Relationship Happiness Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Dedication Scale. Family members reported that four significant others were directly affected by patients addiction-related problems, while patients reported that less than three family members were affected by their addiction. Consistently, family members indicated that they were less content with their relationship than patients and evaluated the consequences of patients SUDs as more negative and severe than the patients themselves. Furthermore, patients and their family members reported comparable levels of physical and psychological distress and quality of life scores. These systematically obtained findings support the notion that relationships of patients and family members are disrupted and both need help to improve their physical and psychological well-being.

Copyright 2012, American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry

Jarvis MJ; Sims M; Gilmore A; Mindell J. Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: Cotinine data from the Health Survey for England. Tobacco Control 21(1): 18-23, 2012. (21 refs.)

Objective: To examine the impact of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places implemented in England in July 2007 on children's exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Design Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. Setting: The Health Survey for England. Participants: Confirmed non-smoking children aged 4-15 with measured saliva cotinine participating in surveys from 1998 to 2008, a total of 10 825 children across years. Main outcome measures: The proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; geometric mean cotinine as an objective indicator of overall exposure. Results: Significantly more children with smoking parents lived in smoke-free homes in 2008 (48.1%, 95% CI 43.0% to 53.1%) than in either 2006 (35.5%, 95% CI 29.7% to 41.7%) or the first 6 months of 2007, immediately before the ban came into effect (30.5%, 95% CI 19.7% to 43.9%). A total of 41.1% (95% CI 38.9% to 43.4%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2008, up from 34.0% (95% CI 30.8% to 37.3%) in 2006. Geometric mean cotinine in all children combined was 0.21 ng/ml (95% CI 0.20 to 0.23) in 2008, slightly lower than in 2006, 0.24 ng/ml (95% CI 0.21 to 0.26). Conclusions: Predictions that the 2007 legislative ban on smoking in enclosed public places would adversely affect children's exposure to tobacco smoke were not confirmed. While overall exposure in children has not been greatly affected by the ban, the trend towards the adoption of smoke-free homes by parents who themselves smoke has received fresh impetus.

Copyright 2012, BMJ Publishing

Jayne M; Valentine G; Gould M. Family life and alcohol consumption: The transmission of 'public' and 'private' drinking cultures. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 19(3): 192-200, 2012. (56 refs.)

This article considers the transmission of drinking cultures within families. In particular, we highlight the differential and discursive construction of the home as a space where parents/carers are happy to introduce children to alcohol in a 'safe' environment in opposition to public spaces which they consider to be locations where alcohol consumption is associated with violence and disorder. Presenting empirical research undertaken in the UK, we argue that parents/carers miss the opportunity to teach children about the range of drinking practices and spaces they may experience throughout their lives and fail to engage with their children about wider social responsibilities as potential drinkers in the future. We conclude with theoretical- and policy-relevant insights.

Copyright 2012, Informa HealthCare

John RM; Ross H; Blecher E. Tobacco expenditures and its implications for household resource allocation in Cambodia. Tobacco Control 21(3): 341-346, 2012. (25 refs.)

Objectives To assess the determinants of smoking behaviour and to estimate the impact of tobacco consumption on the consumption of other commodities by Cambodian households. Methods: To assess the determinants of smoking in Cambodia, the authors used a logistic regression model that estimated the probability of an individual smoking, given a set of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression method was used to assess the impact of tobacco consumption on the consumption of other commodities. The nationally representative 2004 Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey, collected by the National Institute of Statistics of the Ministry of Planning in Cambodia, was used for the analysis. Results: Smoking in Cambodia is influenced by a variety of factors such as gender, marital status, age, ethnicity, literacy, health status and perceptions about the health consequences of tobacco use. The authors found that spending on tobacco crowds out expenditures on education and clothing at the national level and expenditures on food for low-and middle-income households. Conclusions: The first analysis of the study showed that increased education is associated with lower daily smoking, and the second analysis revealed that expenditures on tobacco crowds out expenditures on education. Combining these two results points to a vicious circle where low education means higher likelihood of smoking, which in turn results in lower spending on education. Such budget allocation clearly has negative intergenerational consequences.

Copyright 2012, BMJ Publishing

Kelly AB; O'Flaherty M; Toumbourou JW; Homel R; Patton GC; White A et al. The influence of families on early adolescent school connectedness: Evidence that this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 40(3): 437-447, 2012. (69 refs.)

School connectedness is central to the long term well-being of adolescents, and high quality parent-child relationships facilitate school connectedness. This study examined the extent to which family relationship quality is associated with the school connectedness of pre- and early teenagers, and how this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. The sample consisted of 7,372 10-14 year olds recruited from 231 schools in 30 Australian communities. Participants completed the Communities that Care youth survey. A multi-level model of school connectedness was used, with a random term for school-level variation. Key independent variables included family relationship quality, peer drinking networks, and school grade. Control variables included child gender, sensation seeking, depression, child alcohol use, parent education, and language spoken at home. For grade 6 students, the association of family relationship quality and school connectedness was lower when peer drinking networks were present, and this effect was nonsignificant for older (grade 8) students. Post hoc analyses indicated that the effect for family relationship quality on school connectedness was nonsignificant when adolescents in grade 6 reported that the majority of friends consumed alcohol. The results point to the importance of family-school partnerships in early intervention and prevention.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Kendler KS; Sundquist K; Ohlsson H; Palmer K; Maes H; Winkleby MA et al. Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: A national Swedish adoption study. Archives of General Psychiatry 69(7): 690-697, 2012. (40 refs.)

Context: Prior research suggests that drug abuse (DA) is strongly influenced by both genetic and familial environmental factors. No large-scale adoption study has previously attempted to verify and integrate these findings. Objective: To determine how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for DA. Design: Follow-up in 9 public databases (1961-2009) of adopted children and their biological and adoptive relatives. Setting: Sweden. Participants: The study included 18 115 adopted children born between 1950 and 1993; 78 079 biological parents and siblings; and 51 208 adoptive parents and siblings. Main Outcome Measures: Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Results: Risk for DA was significantly elevated in the adopted offspring of biological parents with DA (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.66-2.62), in biological full and half siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.64; and odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.19-1.67, respectively), and in adoptive siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.43-2.65). A genetic risk index (including biological parental or sibling history of DA, criminal activity, and psychiatric or alcohol problems) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental history of divorce, death, criminal activity, and alcohol problems, as well as an adoptive sibling history of DA and psychiatric or alcohol problems) both strongly predicted the risk for DA. Including both indices along with sex and age at adoption in a predictive model revealed a significant positive interaction between the genetic and environmental risk indices. Conclusions: Drug abuse is an etiologically complex syndrome strongly influenced by a diverse set of genetic risk factors reflecting a specific liability to DA, by a vulnerability to other externalizing disorders, and by a range of environmental factors reflecting marital instability, as well as psychopathology and criminal behavior in the adoptive home. Adverse environmental effects on DA are more pathogenic in individuals with high levels of genetic risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of limitations of the diagnosis of DA from registries.

Copyright 2012, American Medical Association

Kim EK; Choo J. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and associated factors among college students on campus and in the home: A preliminary study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9(1): 212-222, 2012. (25 refs.)

To explore the prevalence of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure of college students at two locations, i.e., on campus and in the home, and to identify factors associated with SHS exposure at each location, a preliminary cross-sectional study was conducted on 1754 nonsmoking students from two universities in Korea. In total, 83.1% were exposed to SHS at least once a week on campus or at home; the average SHS exposure was 3.4 times per week. Specifically, 79.7% and 23.5% were exposed to SHS on campus and in the home, respectively. On campus, SHS exposure was significantly more prevalent in freshmen and sophomore students. In the home, SHS exposure was significantly more prevalent among females, those with smokers in their families, and those who rated their health as poor. SHS exposure was common among nonsmoking college students, with more than two-thirds exposed on campus. The prevalence of SHS exposure was greater on campus than in the home; the factors associated with SHS exposure were location-specific.

Copyright 2012, MDPI AG

Kizza D; Hjelmeland H; Kinyanda E; Knizek BL. Alcohol and suicide in postconflict northern Uganda: A qualitative psychological autopsy study. Crisis 33(2): 95-105, 2012. (55 refs.)

Background: Alcohol has been noted to be an important factor in nearly 68% of the suicides in Northern Uganda, yet exactly how alcohol contributes to suicide in this region has not been studied. Aims: To determine how alcohol contributes to suicide in this region. Methods: Qualitative psychological autopsy interviews were conducted with bereaved relatives and friends of 20 suicides mainly from Internally Displaced Peoples' camps in Northern Uganda. Data were analyzed using a modified Interpretative Phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Alcohol had a direct or an indirect influence on the suicide of 16 out of the 20 decedents. Directly, alcohol facilitated the suicidal process, was a means to suicide, or had an influence on the decedents' lifestyles. Indirectly, alcohol had an influence on the suicidal process of the deceased through the drinking behavior of significant others. Conclusions: This study established that alcohol not only contributes to the suicidal process of the individuals through acute and chronic alcohol consumption, but also through victimization of those lowest in the power hierarchy by alcohol abusers higher up in the power hierarchy. Therefore, future development of suicide prevention programs should address the interrelated public health problem of alcohol abuse.

Copyright 2012, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers

Knudson TM; Terrell HK. Codependency, perceived interparental conflict, and substance abuse in the family of origin. American Journal of Family Therapy 40(3): 245-257, 2012. (25 refs.)

Codependency has been found to originate in many different environments, namely the family of origin. The most popularly researched environment is the family of origin that exhibits substance abuse. However, little research has clearly demonstrated that codependency is most prevalent in children of substance abusers. Previous research has not examined how codependency is correlated with perceived interparental conflict. This study examined the relationships among codependency, interparental conflict, and substance abuse in the family of origin. Results of this study found that codependency in adulthood was related to perceived interparental conflict in the family of origin, but was not related to the family of origin that exhibited substance abuse.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Ko NY; Wang PW; Wu HC; Yen CN; Hsu ST; Yeh YC et al. Self-efficacy and HIV risk behaviors among heroin users in Taiwan. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3): 469-476, 2012. (55 refs.)

Objective: This study examined the predictors of self-efficacy in reducing risky injection behaviors among heroin users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Method: The Methadone Maintenance Treatment Outcome Study was an 18-month prospective study from March 2007 to July 2008. Data collection was conducted in the substance use disorders treatment outpatient clinics of three hospitals in southern Taiwan. A total of 368 opioid-dependent heroin users (13.6% women) were interviewed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15- and IS-month follow-ups. The level of self-efficacy in reducing risky injection behaviors was repeatedly assessed using the Self-Efficacy Scale for HIV Risk Behaviors. Demographic and substance use characteristics, HIV serostatus, family function, depression, and pros and cons of heroin use were collected at baseline, and methadone dosage at each follow-up interview and the duration of retention in the MMT program were also recorded. Results: The results of the generalized estimating equation indicated that a lower educational level, concurrent methamphetamine use, a younger age at first heroin use, a lower methadone dosage, a higher level of depression, and a shorter duration of retention in the MMT program were predictive of a lower level of self-efficacy in reducing risky injection behaviors. Conclusions: This study found that personal and MMT-related factors were predictive of a lower level of self-efficacy among heroin users receiving MMT. Programs implemented to promote a higher level of self-efficacy should be provided to heroin users in the MMT program.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Koning IM; Verdurmen JEE; Engels RCME; van den Eijnden RJJM; Vollebergh WAM. Differential impact of a Dutch alcohol prevention program targeting adolescents and parents separately and simultaneously: Low self-control and lenient parenting at baseline predict effectiveness. Prevention Science 13(3): 278-287, 2012. (38 refs.)

To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents ( age = 12.66, = 0.49) and their parents randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention, 2) student intervention, 3) combined intervention and 4) control group. Moderators at baseline were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 34-month follow-up. The combined intervention was only effective in preventing weekly drinking among those adolescents who reported to have lower self-control and more lenient parents at baseline. No differential effect was found for the onset of weekly drinking. No moderating roles of self-control and lenient parenting were found for the student and parent interventions regarding the onset of drinking. The combined intervention is more effective among adolescents with low-self control and lenient parents at baseline, both factors that were a specific target of the intervention. The relevance of targeting self-control in adolescents and restrictive parenting is underlined.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Kopak AM; Chen ACC; Haas SA; Gillmore MR. The importance of family factors to protect against substance use related problems among Mexican heritage and White youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 124(1-2): 34-41, 2012. (50 refs.)

Introduction: This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. Methods: Data came from Wave land Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n = 4894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n = 2875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. Results: Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR= 0.87, 95% CI= 0.77-0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing drug- (OR = 0.82, 95% CI= 0.70-0.97) or alcohol-related (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.65-0.84) problems. Parental control was also negatively associated with odds of problems related to drug use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-0.99) or alcohol use (OR =0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99). Results also indicated family cohesion was the only protective factor for Mexican heritage youth while family cohesion and parent-child attachment were protective among White youth. Parental control protected White female adolescents from drug use problems more than males. Mexican heritage male adolescents experienced more protection from drug problems compared to females. Conclusion: Findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to emphasize parent-child attachment for White youth and family cohesion for both Mexican-heritage and White youth to decrease adolescent substance users' drug- and alcohol-related problems.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Laslett AM; Ferris J; Dietze P; Room R. Social demography of alcohol-related harm to children in Australia. Addiction 107(6): 1082-1089, 2012. (33 refs.)

Aims: This study seeks to establish the prevalence alcohol-related harms to children (ARHC) that occur because of others' drinking in the general population and examine how this varies by who was reported to have harmed the child and socio-demographic factors. Design and setting: A randomly selected cross-sectional national population telephone survey undertaken in 2008 in Australia. Participants A total of 1142 adult respondents who indicated they lived with or had a parental/carer role for children. Measurements: Questions included whether children had been negatively affected in any way, left unsupervised or in an unsafe situation, verbally abused, physically hurt or exposed to serious family violence because of others' drinking in the past year. Findings: Twenty-two per cent of respondents reported children had been affected because of another's drinking in the past year; 3% reported substantial harm. Respondents most commonly reported that children were verbally abused because of others' drinking (9%). Participants in single-carer households were more likely to report ARHC than participants in households with two carers, and participants who drank weekly were more likely to report ARHC than those who did not drink. Conclusions: Almost a quarter of those with a caring role for children in Australia reported that a child or children with whom they lived or for whom they were responsible have been affected adversely by others' alcohol consumption in the past year. The problem extends across the social spectrum, but children in single-parent homes may be at higher risk.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Lawrence R. Addiction dilemmas: Family experiences from literature and research and their lessons for practice. British Journal of Psychiatry 200(5): 435-435, 2012. (1 refs.)

Lee CE; Christie MM; Copello A; Kellett S. Barriers and enablers to implementation of family-based work in alcohol services: A qualitative study of alcohol worker perceptions. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 19(3): 244-252, 2012. (30 refs.)

Aims: Despite research evidence and clinical guidelines, family work is rarely delivered systematically in community alcohol services in the UK. This study explored clinicians' perceptions of implementation of family-based approaches in community alcohol services and included the investigation of factors that clinicians perceived to either impede or enable family work. Method: Participants were recruited from seven community alcohol services within the UK. A total of 18 clinicians participated in semi-structured interviews using an adapted version of the theory-based implementation interview which were audio-taped, transcribed and used for analysis. Findings: Analysis of the interviews identified barriers and enablers to family-based work at three different levels: clinician; problem drinker and family; and the organization. Clinician perceptions of family-based work were identified as enabling or impeding depending on the clinician's interpretations of family-based work. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the importance of challenging narrow perceptions of family-based work so that it included more flexible interpretations of it (i.e. brief low intensity family interventions as well as more formal family therapies). This would help to increase family-based work; more accurate measurement, and help reduce resistant attitudes in clinicians towards family work.

Copyright 2012, Informa HealthCare

Lee J. The influence of parent-adolescent relationship quality, parental monitoring, and peer substance use on substance use in South Korean high school students: Using latent growth curve modelling. Health Education Journal 71(4): 505-515, 2012. (30 refs.)

Objective: Substance use, such as alcohol and tobacco, is becoming a critical problem in the area of health promotion and preventive programme. Furthermore, the onset of alcohol use has been becoming increasingly earlier. This study examined developmental trajectories of substance use among high school students in South Korea and effects of peer substance on such trajectories, and also examined the moderating effects of parent-adolescent relationship quality and parental monitoring in the link between peer substance use and adolescents' own substance use. Methods: This study used the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS), a nationally-representative sample of 3,125 high school students. The participants were in the 10th grade when first recruited and assessed annually from 2005 to 2007. A latent growth curve model was used for the analysis Results: Substance use in Korean high school students increased over time. Peer substance use was associated more strongly with the initial level of adolescent substance uses than parenting. Parent-adolescent relationship quality moderated the association between peer and adolescent substance use. Conclusion: The effect of peer substance use was most strongly associated with the initial level and growth of adolescents' own substance use.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Levin KA; Kirby J; Currie C. Adolescent risk behaviours and mealtime routines: Does family meal frequency alter the association between family structure and risk behaviour? Health Education Research 27(1): 24-35, 2012. (51 refs.)

Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were modelled using Multilevel Binomial modelling for six risk behaviour outcomes. Significantly more children from 'both parent' families ate a family meal every day and fewer 'hardly ever or never' did. Family structure was associated with boys' and girls' smoking, drinking, cannabis use and having sex and with girls' fighting. Frequency of eating a family meal was associated with a reduced likelihood of all risk behaviours among girls and all but fighting and having sex among boys. Eating a family meal regularly nullified the association between family structure and drinking alcohol for boys and girls and cannabis use for boys and reduced the effect size of alternative family structures on boys having sex and smoking. The family meal, associated with a reduced likelihood of many adolescent risk behaviours, reduces or eliminates the association with family structure and may therefore help to overcome inequalities in adolescent risk behaviours.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Li SJ; Delva J. Social capital and smoking among Asian American men: An exploratory study. American Journal of Public Health 102(Supplement 2): S212-S221, 2012. (59 refs.)

Objectives. We examined how different dimensions of social capital (i.e., family and friend connections, neighborhood and family cohesion, family conflict) were associated with smoking behavior among a nationally representative sample of Asian American men and whether the associations varied by ethnic group. Methods. The sample consisted of 998 adult Asian American men who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey from 2002 to 2003. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions on data for the sample and for each of 4 ethnic subgroups (Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Other). Results. Vietnamese American men had the highest prevalence of current smoking; Chinese American men, the lowest. After controlling for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and perceived discrimination, neighborhood cohesion was inversely associated with smoking among Asian American men, and family and friend connections and family cohesion were not. An exception was family cohesion, which was associated with increased odds of smoking among Filipino American men. Conclusions. The relationship between social capital and smoking among Asian American men varied according to specific dimensions of social capital and was ethnicity specific. These findings highlight the need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions to take into consideration the heterogeneity that exists among Asian Americans.

Copyright 2012, American Public Health Association

Lim MK; Kim HJ; Yun EH; Oh JK; Park EY; Shin SH et al. Role of quit supporters and other factors associated with smoking abstinence in adolescent smokers: A prospective study on Quit line users in the Republic of Korea. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 342-345, 2012. (25 refs.)

The aim of this study elucidated the effectiveness of Quitline among adolescent smokers, as well as other factors associated with adolescent smoking cessation in the Republic of Korea. For 642 adolescent Quitline users aged 13-19 years, the information on demographic characteristics, smoking and cessation related factors, and cessation outcome was collected. Cox proportional hazard models were applied. 13.4% of boys and 6.6% of girls maintained smoking cessation for 1 year. Having a high level of self-efficacy had a preventive effect on relapse in both genders. Boys with parents or other family members as quit supporters, and boys with a higher number of past cessation attempts, were more likely to relapse. It was even more pronounced among boys who reported low self-efficacy. Relapse was increased with marginal significance among girls with parents or other family members as quit supporters. It is evident that Quitline is an effective way to encourage adolescent smoking cessation in Korea. Reinforcing self-efficacy and enhancing the cooperative behaviors of parents or other family member quit supporters could be additional contributors for maintaining cessation among adolescent smokers who want to quit.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Lorenzo-Blanco EI; Bares C; Delva J. Correlates of Chilean adolescents' negative attitudes toward cigarettes: The role of gender, peer, parental, and environmental factors. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14(2): 142-152, 2012. (42 refs.)

We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls' but not boys' attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Mahmud T; Saboor QA; Aamir S; Aasim M; Bokhari SNH. General perceptions and practices of smokers regarding tobacco-related issues and hazards. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 62(6): 590-595, 2012. (19 refs.)

Objective: To assess the perceptions and practices related to tobacco consumption and its hazards among cigarette smokers seeking medical attention. Methods: The cross-sectional study included 180 active smokers who were either hospitalised in medical or chest ward or attending pulmonary OPD at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, between January and July 2010. Patients having altered sensorium were excluded from the study. A questionnaire was filled by the consulting participants. SPSS version 15 and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: A total of 180 questionnaires were distributed among 118 (65.6%) in-house and 62 (34.4%) active smokers in the out-patients department. These included 154 (85.6%) males and 26 (14.4%) females, with a mean age of 53.84 +/- 17.35 years, and with varying pack years (mean 26.44 +/- 19.89). Apart from cigarettes, 42 (74%) were also smoking other types of tobacco. Attempt to quit smoking was made by 92 (51.1%) and 151 (83.9%) were willing to give up. Majority of them 130 (72%) had at least two more smokers in the family. Most of the patients 169 (93.9%) presented with illnesses directly related to smoking. Besides, 127 (70.6%) patients had visited their general practitioners within the preceding year and a positive history of hospitalisation was found in 101 (56.1%). Regarding the knowledge of smoking hazards, only 5 (2.8%) could name three organs that may dysfunction due to smoking. While 162 (90%) had poor perception regarding the estimated number of chemicals in a cigarette, 120 (66.7%) knew the smoking's association with cancer. Conclusion: A high proportion of urban population consumes tobacco and most are poorly informed about the traumatic effects of its consumption. The continuing habits of patients with a history of seeking medical attention suggest that healthcare providers are missing opportunities for quit-smoking counselling.

Copyright 2012, Pakistan Medical Assoc

Mansouri A; Alvandi I; Mohammad K; Zeraati H; Fotouhi A. The familial aggregation of cigarette smoking in Kish, Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 14(3): 158-163, 2012. (23 refs.)

Background: Based on WHO reports, smoking is an epidemic in developing countries. One of important issues about this behavior is its distribution pattern in family members. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if cigarette smoking had a tendency to cluster or aggregate in the families and what the determinants were. Methods: Using a multi-stage random cluster sampling approach, a household survey was conducted in Kish Island in 2009. We used the Alternating Logistic Regressions algorithm to model to show the familial aggregation. Results: The odds ratio for the aggregation of cigarette smoking between family members was 1.63 (1.29-2.06) which increased to 1.96 (1.50-2.55) after adjustment for demographic factors. There was no significant correlation between siblings' cigarette smoking nor was between spouses but the pairwise odds ratio for parents-offspring was significant. In other words, cigarette smoking in at least one of the parents increased the odds of being a smoker in offspring significantly. Conclusion: The study showed that the smoking behavior aggregated in families significantly. The inter-parent offspring aggregation was the main component of the familial aggregation. Higher education and age-gender interaction were determinants of smoking in the families. The programs for prevention and cessation of this behavior in the community might be more successful if they were designed in a family-based rather than an individual-based approach.

Copyright 2012, Iranian Red Crescent Society

Mantere O; Suominen K; Valtonen HM; Arvilommi P; Leppamaki S; Paunio T et al. Concomitants of family histories of mood disorders and alcoholism in a clinical cohort of patients with Bipolar I and II Disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 200(5): 388-394, 2012. (59 refs.)

We diagnosed 191 secondary-care outpatients and inpatients with DSM-IV BD I or II. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including axis I and II comorbidity, neuroticism, and prospective life-chart were evaluated at intake and at 6 and 18 months. The family history (FH) of mood disorders, alcoholism, or any major psychiatric disorders among first-degree relatives was investigated in a semistructured interview. Most (74%) patients had some positive FH; 55% of mood disorder, 36% of alcoholism. Positive FH was associated with psychiatric comorbidity and depressive course in the proband. Based on a multinomial logistic regression model, patients with an FH of mood disorder and alcoholism had an odds ratio of 4.8 (p = 0.001) for having an anxiety disorder. Overall, the first-degree relatives of patients with BD have multiple types of mental disorders, which correlate with bipolar patients' course of illness and psychiatric comorbidity. The strongest associations are between FH of mood disorders and presence of comorbid anxiety disorders.

Copyright 2012, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Manuel JK; Houck JM; Moyers TB. The impact of significant others in motivational enhancement therapy: Findings from Project MATCH. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 40(3): 297-312, 2012. (41 refs.)

Background: Social network support for abstinence has been associated with improved treatment outcomes among samples of individuals with alcohol use disorders. As a result, research studies have focused on the inclusion of significant others (SOs) in the treatment process. Nonetheless, little is known about 1) the specific influence SOs may have on clients during treatment sessions or 2) whether SO within-session behaviors have any relationship to client post-treatment drinking. Method: In the current study, Motivational Enhancement Therapy sessions in which a SO was present were coded using a behavioral coding system designed to measure SO and client within-session language. Results: Relationships were observed between SO and client within-session language. Furthermore, some specific SO categories of language predicted post-treatment client drinking. Conclusions: This study is the first systematic evaluation of SO contributions in substance abuse treatment sessions. Future research examining SO language in the treatment of alcohol use disorders might allow clinicians to avoid contributions from SOs that are associated with poorer drinking outcomes.

Copyright 2012, Cambridge University Press

McDonald JL; Comino E; Knight J; Webster V. Developmental progress in urban Aboriginal infants: A cohort study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 48(2): 114-121, 2012. (43 refs.)

Aim: To measure, describe and investigate potential predictors of early developmental progress in urban Aboriginal infants. Methods: The Gudaga study is a longitudinal birth cohort study of urban Aboriginal infants. At 12 months 134 infants were assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). The infants' developmental progress was compared with standardised norms. Results: Total scores for the Aboriginal infants for the GMDS were significantly lower than the standards (mean difference (MD) = -4.7, P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.37, -2.96). The difference was small and not clinically significant. Infant performance on the locomotor scale was equivalent to the standards; however, their performance was significantly lower on all other subscales. Reported problem alcohol use at home was the only factor found to be negatively correlated with developmental progress (MD = -7.8, P = 0.01; 95% CI: -13.9, -1.8). The presence of three or more risk factors was also found to be associated with lower developmental scores (MD = -5.4, P = 0.01; 95% CI: -9.6, -1.3). Conclusion: This study shows that urban Aboriginal infants are mostly developing within the normal range at 12 months. The lower scores overall compared with standards indicate that differences in development appear early in Aboriginal children and this supports the case for early intervention. The association with exposure to problem drinking and the effect of cumulative family stress may be useful in designing screening tools and interventions.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

McGillicuddy NB; Eliseo-Arras RK. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation. Addictive Behaviors 37(4): 456-462, 2012. (31 refs.)

Reseaarch on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Miller BA; Aalborg AE; Byrnes HF; Bauman K; Spoth R. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program. Health Education Research 27(1): 1-13, 2012. (39 refs.)

Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promotion Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Mirlashari J; Demirkol A; Salsali M; Rafiey H; Jahanbani J. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(4): 461-468, 2012. (52 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. Design and Methods. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. Results. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. Discussion and Conclusions. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Nargiso JE; Becker SJ; Wolff JC; Uhl KM; Simon V; Spirito A et al. Psychological, peer, and family influences on smoking among an adolescent psychiatric sample. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 42(3): 310-318, 2012. (74 refs.)

Although much is known about adolescent cigarette use and initiation in community samples, less is known about these factors among adolescents in clinic-referred populations or those with severe psychopathology. Data were collected from 106 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (M = 13.6, SD = 0.74) recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility. Hierarchical logistic regressions assessed the relationship among psychological, peer, and family environment factors and smoking at baseline and 18 months posthospitalization. Conduct problem symptoms, friends' cigarette use, and friends' marijuana use were associated with greater odds of lifetime and current smoking at baseline but not at follow-up. After accounting for the significant effect of baseline use, greater family conflict predicted decreased odds of having initiated smoking at the 18-month follow-up. The period following inpatient psychiatric hospitalization may represent an important window for smoking cessation and prevention efforts targeting peer and family factors, especially for youth with externalizing problems.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Niccols A; Milligan K; Smith A; Sword W; Thabane L; Henderson J. Integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues and their children: A systematic review of studies reporting on child outcomes. (review). Child Abuse & Neglect 36(4): 308-322, 2012. (44 refs.)

Background: Integrated treatment programs (those that include on-site pregnancy-, parenting-, or child-related services with addiction services) were developed to break the intergenerational cycle of addiction, potential child maltreatment, and poor outcomes for children. Objectives: To examine the impact and effects of integrated programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children, we performed a systematic review of studies published from 1990 to 2011. Methods: Literature search strategies included online bibliographic database searches, checking printed sources, and requests to researchers. Studies were included if all participants were mothers with substance abuse problems at baseline; the treatment program included at least 1 specific substance use treatment and at least 1 parenting or child treatment service; the study design was randomized, quasi-experimental, or cohort; and there were quantitative data on child outcomes. We summarized data on child development, growth, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. Results: Thirteen studies (2 randomized trials, 3 quasi-experimental studies, 8 cohort studies; N = 775 children) were included in the review. Most studies using pre-post design indicated improvements in child development (with small to large effects, ds = 0.007-1.132) and emotional and behavioral functioning (with most available effect sizes being large, ds = 0.652-1.132). Comparison group studies revealed higher scores for infants of women in integrated programs than those not in treatment, with regard to development and most growth parameters (length, weight, and head circumference; with all available effect sizes being large, ds = 1.16-2.48). In studies comparing integrated to non-integrated programs, most improvements in emotional and behavioral functioning favored integrated programs and, where available, most effect sizes indicated that this advantage was small (ds = 0.22-0.45). Conclusions: Available evidence supports integrated programs, as findings suggest that they are associated with improvements in child development, growth, and emotional and behavioral functioning. More research is required comparing integrated to non-integrated programs. This review highlights the need for improved methodology, study quality, and reporting to improve our understanding of how best to meet the needs of children of women with substance abuse issues.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Niyonsenga T; Blackson TC; De La Rosa M; Rojas P; Dillon F; Ganapati EN. Social Support, attachment, and chronic stress as correlates of Latina mother and daughter drug use behaviors. American Journal on Addictions 21(2): 157-167, 2012. (42 refs.)

This cross-sectional study examined three social determinants (sociodemographics, chronic stress, and social support) and the quality of attachment among a community-based sample of Latina mother-daughter dyads (N = 158 dyads) to document the relationship between those factors and their respective drug use. Hypotheses were: (a) the quality of motherdaughter attachment will mediate the relationship between their social support and drug use and (b) the effects of mothers and daughters chronic stress on their drug use is mediated by their social support which, in turn, is also mediated by the quality of their attachment after taking into account socio-demographic variables. Structural equation modeling was used with dyads as the units of analyses. Our preliminary results show: (a) transgenerational dyadic concordance among the variables, (b) mothers higher quality of attachment scores mediated the relationship between their chronic stress and social support scores on their lower drug use scores, and (c) daughters attachment scores mediated the relationship between their social support scores and their lower drug use scores. Limitations are discussed. Our preliminary results provide a useful first step towards understanding the processes linking stress, social support, and attachment with drug use behaviors among Latina mothers and daughters from a culturally relevant and transgenerational perspective.

Copyright 2012, American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry

Notley C; Scaife V; O'Brien M; McEune R; Biggart L; Millings A. Vulnerable young people and substance-use information-seeking: Perceived credibility of different information sources and implications for services. Journal of Substance Use 17(2): 163-175, 2012. (21 refs.)

This article presents exploratory qualitative data from a pragmatic sample (n = 11) of vulnerable young people (aged 13-18 years) in contact with youth services. Data were gathered during a substance-use services needs assessment project undertaken in a rural county in the United Kingdom. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored engagement with services and narratives of episodes of substance-use information-seeking. A range of different information sources were reported, but consensus was expressed regarding source credibility. Parents, particularly mothers, and older siblings were perceived as the most credible. The range of information sources utilized by young people is discussed in terms of furthering research understanding of credibility of sources of information. Implications for services and for future research are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

O'Mara RM; Hill RM; Cunningham RM; King CA. Adolescent and parent attitudes toward screening for suicide risk and mental health problems in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care 28(7): 626-632, 2012. (22 refs.)

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate adolescent and parent attitudes toward screening adolescents for suicide risk and other mental health problems in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Two hundred ninety-four adolescents and 300 parents completed questionnaires about the importance of screening for suicide risk and other mental health problems in the ED, what would be helpful if the screen was positive, their concerns about screening in the ED, whether they believe screening should be a routine part of an ED visit, and whether they would complete a screening during the current visit if offered the opportunity. Results: Overall, parents and adolescents reported positive attitudes toward screening for suicide risk and other mental health problems in the ED, with the majority responding that it should be a routine part of ED care. Suicide risk and drug and alcohol misuse were rated as more important to screen for than any of the other mental health problems by both parents and adolescents. Adolescent females and mothers were more supportive of screening for suicide risk and mental health problems in the ED than male adolescents and fathers. Descriptive data regarding screening concerns and follow-up preferences are reported. Conclusions: Study results suggest overall positive support for screening for suicide risk and other mental health problems in the ED, with some important preferences, concerns, and parent versus adolescent and male versus female differences.

Copyright 2012, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Orchowski LM; Barnett NP. Alcohol-related sexual consequences during the transition from high school to college. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 256-263, 2012. (67 refs.)

Alcohol use and risky sexual behavior are significant problems on college campuses. Using a prospective design, the present study sought to explore the relationship between alcohol use and experience of alcohol-related sexual consequences (ARSC) during the transition from high school to the first year of college. During the senior year of high school, and following the first year of college, participants completed assessments of alcohol use, problem drinking behavior, ARSC, and potential influences on drinking behaviors, including parental knowledge of alcohol use, peer influences, motivation for alcohol use, and mood state. Data indicated that 29% of men and 35% of women indicated some form of ARSC during the last year of high school, rates that increased by 6-7% for the first year of college (36% of men and 41% of women). The onset or recurrence of ARSC in college was not explained by differential increases in alcohol use between high school and college. Low levels of positive affect, low motivation to consume alcohol to cope, and high levels of peer alcohol use were associated with repeated ARSC in high school and college; whereas drinking to enhance positive affect and low parental knowledge of alcohol use were associated with the onset of such consequences in college. Implications for intervention are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Page RM; Huong NT; Chi HK; Tien TQ. Social normative beliefs about smoking among Vietnamese adolescents. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 24(1): 68, 2012. (48 refs.)

Tobacco-related deaths in Vietnam are forecast to climb from 40,000 annually to 70,000 by 2030. Previous research in Western nations has found social factors to be important determinants of adolescent smoking. Because these factors remain unexplored in Vietnamese youth, the purpose of this study was to examine social normative beliefs regarding smoking in a school-based sample of North Vietnamese adolescents and the association of these factors with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Three measures of normative beliefs regarding smoking were evaluated in cross-sectional surveys of secondary students. Of the 3 measures, parent/peer disapproval was the most consistent normative belief associated with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Pennanen M; Vartiainen E; Haukkala A. The role of family factors and school achievement in the progression of adolescents to regular smoking. Health Education Research 27(1): 57-68, 2012. (56 refs.)

This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' lower levels of school achievement. Moreover, parental smoking had moderate association with lack of house smoking rules. At the beginning of the ninth grade, these associations were strengthened and lack of house smoking rules as well as loosened perceived parental punishment for smoking was related to both parental smoking and single parenting. The likelihood of ninth grade regular smoking was greater among adolescents whose parents smoked, who had no smoking rules in their homes and had substandard school achievement. These results suggest that smoking parents and single parents had similar anti-smoking regulations for their children at the baseline but once children became older smoking parents were not able to maintain these rules as successfully as non-smoking parents and families with two parents. Motivating parents to uphold these anti-smoking regulations offers a prospective intervention opportunity.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Piko BF; Balazs MA. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 353-356, 2012. (24 refs.)

While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent: substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N = 2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean = 15.4 years, S.D. = 1.8 years: 49.2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Polcin DL; Korcha R; Greenfield TK; Bond J; Kerr W. Twenty-one-year trends and correlates of pressure to change drinking. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(4): 705-715, 2012. (34 refs.)

Background: The vast majority of individuals with alcohol problems in the United States and elsewhere do not seek help. One policy response has been to encourage institutions such as criminal justice and social welfare systems to mandate treatment for individuals with alcohol problems (Addiction, 1997;92:1133). However, informal pressures to drink less from family and friends are far more common than institutional pressures mandating treatment (Addiction, 1996;91:643). The prevalence and correlates of these informal pressures have been minimally studied. Methods: This analysis used data from 5 Alcohol Research Group National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) collected at approximately 5-year intervals over a 21-year period (1984 to 2005, pooled N = 16,241) to describe the patterns of pressure that drinkers received during the past year from spouse, family, friends, physicians, police, and the workplace. Results: The overall trend of pressure combining all 6 sources across all 5 NAS data sets indicated a decline. Frequent heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms also declined, and both were strong predictors of receiving pressure. Trends among different sources varied. In multivariate regression models, pressure from friends showed an increase. Pressure from spouse and family showed a relatively flat trajectory, with the exception of a spike in pressure from family in 1990. Conclusions: The trajectory of decreasing of pressure over time is most likely the result of decreases in heavy drinking and alcohol-related harm. Pressure was generally targeted toward higher risk drinkers, such as heavy drinkers and those reporting alcohol-related harm. However, demographic findings suggest that the social context of drinking might also be a determinant of receiving pressure. Additional studies should identify when pressure is associated with decreased drinking and increased help seeking.

Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism

Polcin DL; Mulia N; Jones L. Substance users' perspectives on helpful and unhelpful confrontation: Implications for recovery. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(2): 144-152, 2012. (13 refs.)

Substance users commonly face confrontations about their use from family, friends, peers, and professionals. Yet confrontation is controversial and not well understood. To better understand the effects of confrontation we conducted qualitative interviews with 38 substance users (82% male and 79% White) about their experiences of being confronted. Confrontation was defined as warnings about potential harm related to substance use. Results from coded transcripts indicated that helpful confrontations were those that were perceived as legitimate, offered hope and practical support, and were delivered by persons who were trusted and respected. Unhelpful confrontations were those that were perceived as hypocritical, overtly hostile, or occurring within embattled relationships. Experiences of directive, persistent confrontation varied. Limitations of the study include a small and relatively high functioning sample. We conclude that contextual factors are important in determining how confrontation is experienced. Larger studies with more diverse samples are warranted.

Copyright 2012, Haight-Ashbury Publishing

Prado G; Pantin H; Huang S; Cordova D; Tapia MI; Velazquez MR et al. Effects of a family intervention in reducing hiv risk behaviors among high-risk Hispanic adolescents A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 166(2): 127-133, 2012. (39 refs.)

Objective: To determine the efficacy of a family intervention in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent adolescents. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Miami-Dade County Public School System and Miami-Dade County's Department of Juvenile Services, Florida. Participants: A total of 242 Hispanic delinquent youth aged 12 to 17 years and their primary caregivers completed outcome assessments at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Intervention: Participants were randomized to either Familias Unidas (120 participants), a Hispanic-specific, family intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, or a community practice control condition (122 participants). Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported measures included unprotected sexual behavior, engaging in sex while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, number of sexual partners, and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Family functioning (eg, parent-adolescent communication, positive parenting, and parental monitoring) was also assessed via self-report measures. Results: Compared with community practice, Familias Unidas was efficacious in increasing condom use during vaginal and anal sex during the past 90 days, reducing the number of days adolescents were under the influence of drugs or alcohol and had sex without a condom, reducing sexual partners, and preventing unprotected anal sex at the last sexual intercourse. Familias Unidas was also efficacious, relative to community practice, in increasing family functioning and most notably in increasing parent-adolescent communication and positive parenting. Conclusion: These results suggest that culturally tailored, family-centered prevention interventions may be appropriate and efficacious in reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent adolescents.

Copyright 2012, American Medical Association

Razaz-Rahmati N; Nourian SR; Okoli CTC. Does household structure affect adolescent smoking? Public Health Nursing 29(3): 191-197, 2012. (20 refs.)

Objectives: To examine household structure when studying determinants of youth smoking, as the configuration of a family is an important factor in the etiology of adolescent problem behaviors. Design and Sample: The study sample (n = 13,001) included respondents aged 1219 years who were either living in two-parent households, single-parent households, or no-parent households, and with valid response to the smoking status questions from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Measures: Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the presence and strength of the association between household structure and the likelihood of smoking while controlling for age, sex, household education, and exposure to secondhand smoking. Results: The odds of youth smoking in the single-parent household was 1.78 times greater than the odds of youth smoking in two-parent households. Similarly, the odds of youth smoking in no-parent households was 1.47 times greater than the odds of youth smoking in two-parent households. Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an association between household structure and smoking among adolescents in Canada. Findings might be helpful for decision makers to recognize the context within which adolescents initiate and sustain smoking when developing strategies for the prevention and cessation of smoking among youth.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Rheingold AA; Zinzow H; Hawkins A; Saunders BE; Kilpatrick DG. Prevalence and mental health outcomes of homicide survivors in a representative US sample of adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(6): 687-694, 2012. (31 refs.)

Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US adolescent survivors. Methods: A nationally representative sample of American adolescents (N = 3,614) between the ages of 12 and 17 completed structured telephone interviews assessing homicide survivorship and mental health consequences including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, drug use, and alcohol abuse. Results: Reported prevalence within this sample of losing a loved one to criminal homicide was 9%, losing a loved one to vehicular homicide was 7%, and losing a loved one to both types of homicide was 2%. Logistic regression analyses found that adolescents who reported being homicide survivors were significantly more likely to report depression, drug use, and alcohol abuse after controlling for demographic factors and other violence exposure. Conclusions: If the results from this study are generalizable to the US population, roughly 1 in 5 American adolescents may be impacted by homicide. Further, adolescents exposed to such a loss are at increased risk for mental health sequelae. Results suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to address the needs of these often underserved victims.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Riesch SK; Brown RL; Anderson LS; Wang K; Canty-Mitchell J; Johnson DL. Strengthening Families Program (10-14): Effects on the family environment. Western Journal of Nursing Research 34(3): 340-376, 2012. (66 refs.)

This study examined whether parent-youth dyads participating in the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP 10-14) would demonstrate greater postprogram family cohesion, communication, involvement, and supervision and if youth would report less alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs involvement in contrast to a comparison group. From 16 randomly selected schools, we recruited 167 parent-youth dyads: 86 from intervention and 81 from comparison schools. The intention-to-treat analysis found one significant change in family environment. Considering dose, it was found that among dyads receiving a full dose, all the outcomes were in the expected direction and effect sizes were moderate. Among dyads receiving a partial dose, 10 of 18 outcomes were in the direction opposite than expected. Youth participation in alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs was very low and did not differ postprogram. Although the expected outcomes were not realized, findings descriptive of dosage effects make a valuable contribution to the field. Study of factors that distinguish intervention completers from noncompleters is recommended.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Rosenman R; Goates S; Hill L. Participation in universal prevention programmes. Applied Economics 44(2): 219-228, 2012. (37 refs.)

We analyse family decisions to participate in community-based universal substance-abuse prevention programmes through the framework of expected utility theory. Family functioning, which has been shown to be a good indicator of child risk for substance abuse, provides a useful reference point for family decision making. Our results show that well-functioning families (with children at low risk for substance use) should have the lowest incentive to participate, but that high-risk families may also opt out of prevention programmes. For programmes that are most effective for high-risk youth, this could be a problem. Using data from the Strengthening Families Programme (SFP) and the Washington Healthy Youth Survey (HYS), we empirically test the implications of our model and find that at least for one measure of family functioning those families with children most likely to be at risk for substance use are opting out of the programme.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Savelli M. Diseased, depraved or just drunk? The psychiatric panic over alcoholism in communist Yugoslavia. Social History of Medicine 25(2): 462-480, 2012. (82 refs.)

In the era of Communist rule in Yugoslavia (1945-91), few problems attracted as much psychiatric attention as alcoholism. Conducting widespread epidemiological research, practitioners discovered an alarming trend as rates of the disease were seemingly rising in every territory and segment of the population. Such an upswing of problem drinking seemed to threaten the ideological, economical, and social well-being of the state and its citizens. This widespread panic spurred psychiatric investigations into the aetiology of alcoholism. Much of this work focused on the role of the family, the workplace, class and societal changes as the genesis of problem drinking. Ultimately, these researchers concluded that alcoholism was not merely an affliction of the individual but rather a social disease with cause and consequence extending far beyond the problem drinker.

Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press

Scherer M; Worthington EL; Hook JN; Campana KL; West SL; Gartner AL. Forgiveness and cohesion in familial perceptions of alcohol misuse. Journal of Counseling and Development 90(2): 160-168, 2012. (39 refs.)

The authors examine the relationships between forgiveness, family cohesion, and alcohol. In Study 1 (N= 190), participants reported lower levels of trust and forgiveness for family members who misuse alcohol. In Study 2 (N= 141), the authors present a model demonstrating family cohesion and trait forgiveness related to state forgiveness of an alcohol-misusing family member. State forgiveness was related to trust in that family member and, subsequently, higher levels of perceived misuser drinking refusal efficacy.

Copyright 2012, Wiley Periodicals

Scherrer JF; Xian H; Pan H; Pergadia ML; Madden PAF; Grant JD et al. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 240-247, 2012. (42 refs.)

We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Schuckit MA; Smith TL; Kalmijn J; Trim RS; Cesario E; Saunders G et al. Comparison across two generations of prospective models of how the low level of response to alcohol affects alcohol outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(2): 195-204, 2012. (47 refs.)

Objective: This article presents the first direct comparison of level of response (LR)-based prospective models in two generations of the same families. To accomplish this, we describe results from the first prospective evaluation of potential mediators of how an earlier low LR. to alcohol relates to adverse alcohol outcomes in offspring from the San Diego Prospective Study (SOPS). Method: To compare with data from probands in the SDPS, new data were gathered from 86 drinking offspring (age similar to 20 years) during the 25-year follow-up of these families. Consistent with the usual effect of a low LR, outcomes 5 years later for both generations focused on drinking quantities as well as alcohol problems during the follow-up. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the relationships among variables, and the models in proband and offspring generations were compared using direct observations of the model results and through invariance procedures. Results: In these drinking offspring, LR correlated with 5-year outcomes (r=.48, p<.001) and the SEM R-2 was .48, with good fit statistics. As predicted, the LR relationship to alcohol-related outcomes was both direct and partially mediated by heavier peer drinking, positive alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. These results were similar to a previously published prospective model in SOPS probands, although path coefficients were generally higher in the younger group. Conclusions: The LR-based model of heavier drinking operated similarly across generations, with some modest differences. These results indicate that the model may be meaningful in both younger and middle-age groups.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Shifren K; Chong A. Health-related behaviors: A study among former young caregivers. Journal of Adult Development 19(2): 111-121, 2012. (78 refs.)

The health-related behaviors of adults who were child and adolescent caregivers is a neglected area of research. The purpose of the present study was to: (1) Provide descriptive information on these former young caregivers' adult health-related behaviors, (2) To compare former young caregivers' health-related behaviors to non-caregiver samples, and (3) To assess the relationship between former young caregivers' health-related behaviors and their mental health. Early caregiving was defined as providing assistance with basic and/or instrumental activities of daily living to parents or adult relatives while under the age of 21. Thirty-five female caregivers and 94 female non-caregivers completed a demographic questionnaire and a measure of their health-related behaviors. Former young caregivers and emerging adult non-caregivers showed similar health-related behaviors. Former young caregivers did not differ from community samples of young and middle adult non-caregivers on the overall mean score for their health-related behaviors. The former young caregiver sample differed from the emerging adult non-caregiving sample on only one health-risk behavior, alcohol consumption. Caregivers reported drinking significantly less alcohol over time than the emerging adult non-caregiving sample. Former young caregivers with more regular sleep patterns reported more positive mental health and less depressive symptoms. Former young caregivers who were better able to manage their stress reported more positive mental health and less negative mental health.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Song EY; Smiler AP; Wagoner KG; Wolfson M. Everyone says it's OK: Adolescents' perceptions of peer, parent, and community alcohol norms, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Substance Use & Misuse 47(1): 86-98, 2012. (50 refs.)

An adolescent's perception of norms is related to her or his engagement in alcohol-related behaviors. Norms have different sources, such as parents, peers, and community. We explored how norms from different sources were simultaneously related to different alcohol-related behaviors (current drinking, drunkenness, heavy episodic drinking, driving under the influence or riding with a impaired driver, and alcohol-related nonviolent consequences) using data collected in 2004 from 6,958 adolescents from 68 communities in five states. Results revealed that parent, friend, and community norms were related to adolescents' alcohol-related behavior, but the strength of these impacts varied across behaviors. The pattern of results varied when the analysis relied on all adolescents or just those who had consumed alcohol in the last year.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Stankovic A; Nikolic M; Arandelovic M. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and absence from work in women in Nis, Serbia. Central European Journal of Public Health 20(1): 24-28, 2012. (29 refs.)

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke leads to very serious health effects, especially on the respiratory system. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on absence from work because of respiratory problems in women. The study sample consisted of 497 women aged 40-56 who live in an area with identical outdoor air pollution. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was recorded in 346 women. Data about respiratory symptoms in women were entered into a structured questionnaire. Statistics tests showed no significant difference of living conditions, keeping pets, hereditary predisposition among women. The occurrence of congested nose (OR=3.47; 95% CI=1.38-9.01), nasal secretion (OR=3.48; 95% CI=1.38-9.02) and sinusitis (OR=2.88; 95% CI=1.22-6.89) was significantly higher in women who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Primary health care need for respiratory symptoms due to the effect of passive smoking is higher in the exposed women. Passive smoking can be a risk factor for the appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness in women that causes absence from work.

Copyright 2012, National Institute of Public Health, Czech Republic

Straussner SLA. Clinical treatment of substance abusers: Past, present and future. Clinical Social Work Journal 40(2): 127-133, 2012. (46 refs.)

With an estimated 9 % of the population in the United States having a substance use disorder, it is a rare social worker that has not encountered a substance abuser or a family member of one in his or her clinical practice. This article provides a brief history of social workers' role in the treatment of substance abusing clients, an overview of the current, evidence-based treatment approaches and some of the issues that will be impacting this field in the future. A case study is used to illustrate some of the dynamics of substance abusing individuals, the impact on the family and effective treatment approaches.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Surkan PJ; Fielding-Miller R; Melchior M. Parental relationship satisfaction in French young adults associated with alcohol abuse and dependence. Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 313-317, 2012. (43 refs.)

Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for disease in developed countries. In addition to genetic susceptibility, alcohol consumption is shaped by one's social and family environment. With data from 2009, we examined associations between satisfaction with familial relationships and alcohol abuse and dependence using a national sample of 1101 French young adults aged 22-35. Alcohol-related problems were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Main exposure variables included young adults' self-report of satisfaction with parental relationships. In adjusted logistic regression models, having a poor relationship with one's mother (OR=1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.6) or father (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.2) was associated with alcohol abuse and dependence. Gender stratified analyses indicated unsatisfactory maternal relationships were associated with alcohol problems in women (OR=2.6. 95%CI 1.1-6.61; unsatisfactory paternal relationships were suggestive of alcohol abuse in men (OR=2.0, 95%CI 0.9-4.7), but not in women. Non-cohabitation with a romantic partner was associated with an almost three-fold increase of alcohol abuse and dependence in men (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6-4.8). The quality of parental relationships may be important for alcohol abuse, particularly when the parent is the same gender. Family-centered approaches may be considered in prevention efforts to reduce problem drinking in French young adults.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Sutherland A. Is parental socio-economic status related to the initiation of substance abuse by young people in an English city? An event history analysis. Social Science & Medicine 74(7): 1053-1061, 2012. (72 refs.)

This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study - PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Tamminen KA; Holt NL; Crocker PRE. Adolescent athletes: Psychosocial challenges and clinical concerns. (review). Current Opinion in Psychiatry 25(4): 293-300, 2012. (61 refs.)

Purpose of review: To review the recent literature (over the past 18 months) regarding psychosocial challenges and clinical concerns among adolescent athletes, and to address the advances made in understanding adolescent athletes' coping processes. Recent findings: Coping research has moved from identifying discrete stressors and coping strategies to examining the processes of coping over time. Parents and coaches play an important role in young athletes' sport experiences and athletes' use and development of coping strategies. In terms of clinical concerns, findings regarding the prevalence of disordered eating have been equivocal. However, disordered eating may be of greater concern among athletes participating in 'leanness' sports. Sport participation may contribute to increased alcohol consumption among adolescent athletes but decreased use of drugs and smoking cigarettes, while steroid use appears to be relatively rare compared with athletes' use of alcohol and cigarettes. Summary: The reviewed studies have implications for future research by identifying opportunities for intervention and education regarding clinical and nonclinical psychosocial challenges. Researchers have emphasized the importance of athletes' social context and relationships in coping with psychosocial challenges in sport. One concern is that adolescent athletes' disordered eating and substance use may reflect maladaptive coping. Experimental and intervention research is limited; however, incorporating members of athletes' social network into future research and interventions may be a practical avenue to achieving positive outcomes among adolescent athletes.

Copyright 2012, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins

Tanski SE; Stoolmiller M; Gerrard M; Sargent JD. Moderation of the association between media exposure and youth smoking onset: Race/ethnicity, and parent smoking. Prevention Science 13(1): 55-63, 2012. (39 refs.)

This study of youth smoking onset aims to replicate previously published media moderation effects for race/ethnicity in a national longitudinal multiethnic sample of U.S. adolescents. Previous research has demonstrated that associations between media and smoking during adolescence are greater for Whites than Hispanics or Blacks, and for youth living in non-smoking families. In this study, changes in smoking status over 24 months were assessed among 4, 511 baseline never-smokers. The incidence of smoking onset was 14.3% by 24 months with no differences by race/ethnicity. Blacks had higher exposure to movie smoking and overall television viewing compared with Whites and Hispanics. Whites responded to movie smoking regardless of parent smoking but more strongly if their parents were non-smokers. In contrast, Black adolescents showed little behavioral response to any media, regardless of parent smoking. Hispanic adolescents responded only to TV viewing and only when their parents did not smoke. In an analysis assessing the influence of the race of smoking characters on smoking behavior of White and Black adolescents, Whites responded to both White and Black movie character smoking, whereas Blacks responded only to smoking by Black movie characters. Taken as a whole, the findings replicate and extend previous findings, suggesting media factors are more influential among adolescents at low to moderate overall risk for smoking. We draw analogies between these low-moderate risk adolescents and "swing voters" in national elections, suggesting that media effects are more apt to influence an adolescent in the middle of the risk spectrum, compared with his peers at either end of it.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Tolou-Shams M; Hadley W; Conrad SM; Brown LK. The role of family affect in juvenile drug court offenders' substance use and HIV risk. Journal of Child and Family Studies 21(3): 449-456, 2012. (42 refs.)

Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual risk taking behavior, and in particular examines the role of family emotional involvement and responsiveness in young offenders' risk-taking behaviors. Participants included 53 juvenile drug court offenders and their parents. Results indicate that poor parent-child communication is associated with marijuana use and unprotected sexual activity for young offenders; however, family affective responsiveness is also a significant unique predictor of unprotected sexual activity for these youth. Findings suggest that interventions focused on improving parent-child communication may reduce both marijuana use and risky sexual behavior among court-involved youth, but a specific intervention focused on improving parents and young offenders' ability to connect with and respond to one another emotionally may provide a novel means of reducing unprotected sexual risk behaviors.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Ungar M; Liebenberg L; Landry N; Ikeda J. Caregivers, young people with complex needs, and multiple service providers: A study of triangulated relationships. Family Process 51(2): 193-206, 2012. (38 refs.)

Five patterns of service provider caregiver-adolescent interaction are discussed using qualitative interviews and file review data from 44 youth with complex needs who were clients of more than one psychosocial service (child welfare, mental health, addictions, juvenile justice, and special education). Findings show that young people and their families become triangulated with service providers, either engaging with, or resisting, interventions. For young people with complex needs involved with multiple service providers, both positive and negative patterns of interaction contribute to the complexity of caregiverchild interactions. According to young people themselves, the most functional of these patterns, empowerment, was experienced as protective when it helped them to meet their personal needs and enhance communication. In contrast, four problematic patterns produced triangulations described as conflictual or unsupportive. The implications of these patterns for family therapy are discussed with an emphasis on the therapist as both clinician and advocate for better services from multiple providers.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Valentine G; Hughes K. Shared space, distant lives? Understanding family and intimacy at home through the lens of internet gambling. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37(2): 242-255, 2012. (42 refs.)

This paper explores how space helps us to understand the ways that people relate to each other and manage the boundary between the personal and the social/familial by using original empirical material from a study of problem internet gamblers and their families. Here, we conceptualise intimacy in terms of the interiority of family life, and as experienced particularly, though not exclusively, through the affective space of the home. The disclosure of an individuals previously hidden problem gambling provides an important lens through which to understand the concepts of personal relationships, family and intimacy because it provides a rupture in normal taken-for-granted domestic life in which individual family members are forced to reflect on: their relationships with the problem gambler and he/she with the family from whom they have concealed their gambling; the extent of their intimacy and togetherness (in terms of both space and time) in the light of the exposure of the gamblers secrecy and lies; the degree of their responsibilities for, and emotional commitments to, each other; and how they might develop new ways of relating to each other in, and beyond, the home.

Copyright 2012, Royal Geographical Society

Valentine G; Jayne M; Gould M. Do as I say, not as I do: The affective space of family life and the generational transmission of drinking cultures. Environment and Planning A 44(4): 776-792, 2012. (34 refs.)

In the context of new modernity, intimacy, theorized in terms of families as the embodied practices which mediate relationships between parents and children across the life course, has been reconceptualized. As part of wider transformations in social relations wrought by the ideological extension of neoliberalism into the realm of social and affective relationships, the language and logic of the market in terms of the importance of individual autonomy and choice have infiltrated family practices, shifting many of the responsibilities and risks for maximizing the life chances of children from governments to families. This principle of parental responsibility for children's present and future well-being means that anxiety about doing the 'right thing' is at the centre of contemporary experiences of intimate family relationships. Yet how such attitudes are translated into everyday practices of knowing, loving, and caring for each other by parents and children within the affective space of the home has been relatively underrepresented in geographers' thinking about families. Drawing on a survey of 2089 parents/carers and case-study research with ten families with children aged 5-12 years old, the paper begins with an exploration of parents' perceptions of when, how, and where children ought to be introduced to alcohol (extrafamilial norms). It then focuses on lived realities by examining what practices parents model to their children through everyday family life. The conclusion reflects on how the social distance between adults and children is being reduced and the implications of the contemporary realities of everyday familial intimacy for wider processes of demoralization.

Copyright 2012, Pion Ltd

Varvil-Weld L; Mallett KA; Turrisi R; Abar CC. Using parental profiles to predict membership in a subset of college students experiencing excessive alcohol consequences: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(3): 434-443, 2012. (59 refs.)

Objective: Previous research identified a high-risk subset of college students experiencing a disproportionate number of alcohol-related consequences at the end of their first year. With the goal of identifying pre-college predictors of membership in this high-risk subset, the present study used a prospective design to identify latent profiles of student-reported maternal and paternal parenting styles and alcohol-specific behaviors and to determine whether these profiles were associated with membership in the high-risk consequences subset. Method: A sample of randomly selected 370 incoming first-year students at a large public university reported on their mothers' and fathers' communication quality, monitoring, approval of alcohol use, and modeling of drinking behaviors and on consequences experienced across the first year of college. Results: Students in the high-risk subset comprised 15.5% of the sample but accounted for almost half (46.6%) of the total consequences reported by the entire sample. Latent profile analyses identified four parental profiles: positive pro-alcohol, positive anti-alcohol, negative mother, and negative father. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students in the negative-father profile were at greatest odds of being in the high-risk consequences subset at a follow-up assessment 1 year later, even after drinking at baseline was controlled for. Students in the positive pro-alcohol profile also were at increased odds of being in the high-risk subset, although this association was attenuated after baseline drinking was controlled for. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for the improvement of existing parent- and individual-based college student drinking interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related consequences.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

von Hippel C; Brener L. Specificity of discrimination: Does it matter from whence it comes? Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42(4): 1029-1042, 2012. (49 refs.)

The negative effects of discrimination on those who are stigmatized are well documented. What is less clear, however, is whether the source of the discrimination has differential outcomes on the person being discriminated against. Survey results from 685 injecting drug users (IDUs) revealed that IDUs who experienced discrimination from healthcare workers had poorer physical health, whereas physical health was unrelated to experiences of discrimination by those outside the healthcare system (family, friends, and partners). In contrast, IDUs' mental health status was less sensitive to the source of discrimination. Discrimination by healthcare workers and by others outside the healthcare industry were both related to IDUs' mental health. Implications and limitations of this research are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Walker SE; Abbott MW; Gray RJ. Knowledge, views and experiences of gambling and gambling-related harms in different ethnic and socio-economic groups in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 36(2): 153-159, 2012. (17 refs.)

Objective: To describe survey findings which measure broader gambling harms and provide benchmark data to evaluate an awareness and education program to minimise harm; part of NZ's public health approach to problem gambling. To assess whether previously reported ethnic and socio-economic disparities are evident when researching broader gambling harms. Methods: An in-home, nationwide survey captured data from a multi-stage, random probability sample of 1,774 adults and 199 15-17-year-olds. Oversampling Maori (NZ's indigenous people), Pacific and Asian peoples, and people in areas of deprivation, allowed analysis by ethnicity and socio-economic status. Results: Data show high participation levels; around 8 out of 10 people took part in at least one gambling activity in the previous 12 months. Type and frequency of activities was used to define four groups: infrequent gamblers (60.9%); frequent, non-continuous gamblers (17.6%); frequent, continuous gamblers (4%); and non-gamblers (17.5%). Self-reported knowledge of the signs of gambling harm was high. Arguments about gambling and people going without/unpaid bills provided two indicators of broader gambling harm. Around one-sixth of New Zealanders experienced each of these harms. Impacts were greatest for low-income groups, Maori, and Pacific peoples. Conclusions: The proportion of New Zealander's experiencing broader gambling harms is much higher than the prevalence for problem gambling. Consistent with other research, results show the flow-on impacts of problem gambling - on family, friends and communities. Implications: Measures can be developed to benchmark the wider harms of gambling and evaluate public health programs addressing harm at population and sub-population levels.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Weden MM; Miles JNV. Intergenerational relationships between the smoking patterns of a population-representative sample of US mothers and the smoking trajectories of their children. American Journal of Public Health 102(4): 723-731, 2012. (55 refs.)

Objectives. We assessed intergenerational transmission of smoking in mother-child dyads. Methods. We identified classes of youth smoking trajectories using mixture latent trajectory analyses with data from the Children and Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=6349). We regressed class membership on prenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal smoking, including social and behavioral variables, to control for selection. Results. Youth smoking trajectories entailed early-onset persistent smoking, early-onset experimental discontinued smoking, late-onset persistent smoking, and nonsmoking. The likelihood of early onset versus late onset and early onset versus nonsmoking were significantly higher among youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus either postnatally alone or unexposed. Controlling for selection, the increased likelihood of early onset versus nonsmoking remained significant for each exposure group versus unexposed, as did early onset versus late onset and late onset versus nonsmoking for youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus unexposed. Experimental smoking was notable among youths whose mothers smoked but quit before the child's birth. Conclusions. Both physiological and social role-modeling mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are evident. Prioritization of tobacco control for pregnant women, mothers, and youths remains a critical, interrelated objective.

Copyright 2012, American Public Health Association

White C; Oliffe JL; Bottorff JL. Fatherhood, smoking, and secondhand smoke in North America: An historical analysis with a view to contemporary practice. American Journal of Men's Health 6(2): 146-155, 2012. (63 refs.)

In the context of concerns about the effects of secondhand smoke on fetal health and the health of children, North American health promotion interventions have focused on reducing tobacco consumption among women to a greater extent than men. This is problematic when the health effects of men's secondhand smoke in family environments are considered. This article examines this gendered phenomenon in terms of a history of cigarette consumption that positions smoking as masculine. Furthermore, it demonstrates the value of addressing men's smoking using a gendered methodology, with an emphasis on fatherhood as an expression of masculine identity. Garnering health promotion programs to promote a culture of masculinity that is less individualistic, and defined in terms of responsibility and care for others, in addition to the self, has the potential to render men's smoking problematic and challenge the historic linkages between smoking and masculinity.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Wiechelt SA; Gryczynski J; Johnson JL; Caldwell D. Historical trauma among urban American Indians: Impact on substance abuse and family cohesion. Journal of Loss & Trauma 17(4): 319-336, 2012. (48 refs.)

Historical trauma theory suggests that many American Indians are still affected by the cultural losses and injustices endured by previous generations. The current study examines historical trauma in an urban American Indian sample using validated measures of historical loss and associated symptoms (N = 120). Urban American Indians reported high degrees of historical trauma compared to reservation samples in past research. Generalized linear models showed that historical trauma symptoms were significantly associated with past month alcohol use, lifetime use of non-marijuana illicit drugs, and lower family cohesion. However, frequent thoughts about historical losses were positively associated with family cohesion. Implications are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Windlin B; Kuntsche E. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence. Journal of Health Psychology 17(4): 509-519, 2012. (28 refs.)

Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Zaloudikova I; Hruba D; Samara I. Parental education and family status: Association with children's cigarette smoking. Central European Journal of Public Health 20(1): 38-44, 2012. (47 refs.)

Background: Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Methods: Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. Results: The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% Cl 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one single attempt, and 15.4% smoked repeatedly. The level of parents' education had no influence on children's concurrent smoking experimentation or on their concurrent decision about smoking in the future. There was also no difference in number of children who obtained cigarettes from their parents and parents' level of education (about 6%). When the level of maternal education was combined with the family status, significant differences were found. Compared to children living with two biological parents (highly educated mother), children from other groups more often reported current experimentating with smoking and lower number of those decided not to smoke in the future. No significant differences were found in other markers of knowledge and attitudes between children from analysed social family groups. Conclusion: In our study, the parental education has significantly influenced exposure of children to passive smoking at homes and in cars, but had no effect on children's opinions and attitudes about smoking. Higher education of mothers and family status significantly lowered the frequency of current experimentation and decision about future smoking among children living in families with two biological parents of whom mother attained higher education. It is necessary to seek ways for improving parental concern about smoking prevention.

Copyright 2012, National Institute of Public Health, Czech Republic

Zimic JI; Jukic V. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(2): 173-185, 2012. (42 refs.)

This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

Copyright 2012, Haight-Ashbury Publishing