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CORK Bibliography: Domestic Violence

62 citations. January 2010 to present

Prepared: March 2012

Abramsky T; Watts CH; Garcia-Moreno C; Devries K; Kiss L; Ellsberg M et al. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health 11: article 109, 2011. (38 refs.)

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods: Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results: Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions: IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central Ltd

Andrews CM; Cao DC; Marsh JC; Shin HC. The impact of comprehensive services in substance abuse treatment for women with a history of intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women 17(5): 550-567, 2011. (38 refs.)

This study examines the impact of comprehensive services on posttreatment substance use among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The sample includes 1,123 women from 50 treatment facilities derived from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES). Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine whether a history of intimate partner violence moderates the association between service receipt and posttreatment substance use. Significant interactions were found between history of intimate partner violence and concrete (p = .016) and family services (p = .023) in predicting substance use.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Berg MJ; Kremelberg D; Dwivedi P; Verma S; Schensul JJ; Gupta K et al. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of greater Mumbai. AIDS and Behavior 14(Supplement 1): 126-135, 2010. (28 refs.)

Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

Copyright 2010, Springer Press

Brackley MH; Williams GB; Wei CC. Substance abuse interface with intimate partner violence: What treatment programs need to know. Nursing Clinics of North America 45(4): 581-+, 2010. (18 refs.)

This article provides suggestions for skill development for substance abuse (SA) treatment agencies and providers for implementing Treatment Improvement Protocol number 25: Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Methods for detecting, screening, intervening, and referring victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence enrolled in SA treatment are presented. Evidence-based brief intervention is presented. A 2-minute screen for domestic violence as well as danger assessment for lethality of abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scales 2 are reviewed. A survey of interventions aimed at establishing trust, brief intervention from best practice, guidelines for safety planning, compliance strategies for SA treatment, and community resource development are presented.

Copyright 2010, W B Saunders

Cheng TC. Factors associated with reunification: A longitudinal analysis of long-term foster care. Children and Youth Services Review 32(10): 1311-1316, 2010. (45 refs.)

Longitudinal analysis and a secondary sample of 411 children were used to examine how child welfare worker engagement with families and parent receipt of needed services shaped the outcomes for children in long-term foster care. The data came from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Multinomial logistic regression showed reunification to be likeliest for neglected children who had caseworkers deeply involved with their families; whose families needed housing and financial assistance but not domestic violence services, specifically; and who were provided appropriately matched services. Adoption was likeliest for neglected children who had caseworkers deeply involved with their families; whose families needed substance-abuse services but not housing services; whose families had a high risk of re-reporting; whose parents were married; who were White and relatively young; and who had experienced foster care for relatively longer periods. Implications for services and training are discussed.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Choo EK; Nicolaidis C; Jenkinson RH; Cox JM; McConnell KJ. Failure of intimate partner violence screening among patients with substance use disorders. Academic Emergency Medicine 17(8): 886-889d, 2010 , 2010. (10 refs.)

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between substance use disorder (SUD) and intimate partner violence (IPV) screening and management practices in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients presenting to an urban, tertiary care teaching hospital over a 4-month period. An automated electronic data abstraction process identified consecutive patients and retrieved visit characteristics, including results of three violence screening questions, demographic data, triage acuity, time of visit, and International Classifications of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9), diagnosis codes. Data on management were collected using a standardized abstraction tool by two reviewers masked to the study question. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of screening and management. Results: In 10,071 visits, 6,563 violence screens were completed. IPV screening was documented in 33.5% of patients with alcohol-related diagnoses (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.7% to 39.3%, chi 2 = 116.78, p < 0.001) and 53.3% of patients with drug-related diagnoses (95% CI = 44.3% to 62.3%, chi 2 = 7.69, p = 0.006), compared to 66.1% of patients without these diagnoses (95% CI = 65.2% to 67.1%). In the multivariate analysis, alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.40) and drug use (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.83) were associated with decreased odds of screening. Of completed screens, 429 (6.5%) were positive, but violence was addressed further in only 55.7% of patients. Substance abuse did not appear to affect the odds of having positive screens addressed further by providers (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 0.39 to 10.14). Conclusions: This study found an association between SUD and decreased odds of IPV screening. Failure to screen for IPV in the setting of substance use may represent a missed opportunity to address a critical health issue and be a barrier to successful intervention.

Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell

Clements K; Schumacher JA. Perceptual biases in social cognition as potential moderators of the relationship between alcohol and intimate partner violence: A review. (review). Aggression and Violent Behavior 15(5): 357-368, 2010 , 2010. (99 refs.)

Heavy drinking and alcohol use disorders are well-established risk factors for the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, there is considerable debate over the functional role of alcohol in IPV. Psychopharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication may escalate the risk of violence directly by impairing cognitive function and facilitating aggressogenic processes by distorting perceptions of social cues and lowering inhibitions. Additionally, alcohol limits the capacity to attend to social cues and, in conflict situations, may thereby increase the salience of provocative cues. Importantly, research on stable personality characteristics of partner-violent men has identified social cognitive processing biases that may heighten the risk for IPV, especially during alcohol intoxication. This review examines social perceptual deficits as possible moderators of the effect of alcohol on IPV within the context of the multiple threshold model. Specifically, we examine maladaptive or deficient social perceptual processes that have been identified as risk factors for IPV and have also been implicated as moderators of the association between alcohol and general aggression: empathic accuracy, facial affect recognition, and anger/hostile attribution biases. Despite the interrelations among cognitive processes related to IPV and risk markers for alcohol-related aggression, many of these constructs continue to be examined in separate literatures.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Cohn AM; McCrady BS; Epstein EE; Cook SM. Men's avoidance coping and female partner's drinking behavior: A high-risk context for partner violence? Journal of Family Violence 25(7): 679-687, 2010 , 2010. (35 refs.)

The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's and women's drinking behavior using the Time Line Follow Back Interview. Using multiple regression analysis, results showed that men's use of avoidance coping significantly predicted male IPV perpetration over and above the women's perpetration of violence toward him, while women's alcohol use did not significantly predict male-to-female IPV perpetration. Implications for teaching emotion-regulation strategies to male partners of women with an AUD to cope with partner drinking are discussed.

Copyright 2010, Springer

Connor-Smith JK; Henning K; Moore S; Holdford R. Risk assessments by female victims of intimate partner violence: Predictors of risk perceptions and comparison to an actuarial measure. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(12): 2517-2550, 2011. (31 refs.)

Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide unique and complementary information. However, very little is known about elements involved in women's risk assessments. The present study explores predictors of women's risk assessment and differences in factors linked to victim and actuarial risk assessments in a large sample of women (N = 728) shortly after the arrest of their male partner for IPV. In multivariate analyses, women's risk assessments were strongly related to past relationship violence and their partner's substance abuse but weakly related to demographic factors, family constellation, and the partner's criminal history. Women who perceived high risk but had a low risk score on an actuarial measure were more likely to report the presence of dynamic risk factors, such as escalating violence and violence during separations, along with a history of emotional and psychological abuse. Qualitative findings paralleled quantitative findings, with women's stated reasons for expecting high or low risk indicating that women were attending to IPV history and dynamic factors. Implications for risk assessment and safety planning are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Cunradi CB. Neighborhoods, alcohol outlets and intimate partner violence: addressing research gaps in explanatory mechanisms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7(3): 799-813, 2010. (75 refs.)

Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a, private. event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social mechanisms linking IPV to alcohol use in community settings, and discusses three social mechanisms relevant to these effects: greater numbers of alcohol outlets within a neighborhood may (1) be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence; (2) promote problem alcohol use among at-risk couples, and; (3) provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of critical public health importance for developing environmental strategies aimed at prevention of IPV, such as changes in zoning, community action and education, and policing.

Copyright 2010, Molecular Diversity Preservation International-MDPI

da Fonseca RMGS; Egry EY; Guedes RN; Gutierres AR; Tezzei FPN. Violence against women: A study of the reports to police in the city of Itapevi, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Midwifery 27(4): 469-473, 2011. (17 refs.)

Background: Violence against women is a serious problem caused by the social construction of feminineness and masculineness that results in the domination of women by men. Public policies on gender have recently been developed in order to confront the problem. But what exactly are the problems faced by women? Purposes: to survey and analyse cases of violence against women reported to the police, as recorded at the Police Stations for Women's Defence (PSWDs), and to reconstruct the procedures that women must go through in order to denounce their aggressors. Methodology: this quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study was undertaken during 2006-2007 in the city of Itapevi, Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil. As there is no PSWD data were collected from police reports from PSWDs of neighbouring cities. Findings: malicious physical injury (49%) and threats (42%) were the most commonly reported types of violence. The victims were aged between 20 and 49 years (93%). Almost all of the aggressors (97%) were men and most had an intimate relationship with their victim. The use of alcoholic beverages was linked to approximately 25% of the cases. Conclusion: women who are victims of domestic violence in Itapevi report that going through PSWDs of neighbouring cities is a difficult, isolated, long and expensive process that often, provides no institutional protection. Implications for practice: there is an urgent requirement for judicial-assistance and support close to home in order to provide a quality service and follow-up for these women and their aggressors; to provide training for the professionals called to attend them at police stations; and for a caring attitude from health-care professionals.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Duke MR; Cunradi CB. Measuring intimate partner violence among male and female farmworkers in San Diego County, CA. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology 17(1): 59-67, 2011. (85 refs.)

Although there are over one million farmworkers in the United States, little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) among this population. Given the particular demands of agricultural labor, however, farmworkers and their partners are highly susceptible to a host of occupation-specific stressors that may result in relationship conflict, and thereafter IPV. In cases where one or both members of the dyad engage in problematic drinking, the likelihood of violence increases exponentially. The purpose of this exploratory quantitative study was to estimate the prevalence of IPV among a mixed gender sample of farmworkers in San Diego County, California, and assess the association of potential correlates (acculturation- and work-related stress, problem drinking, and impulsivity) to IPV. Bilingual interviewers conducted survey data collection by using standardized instruments (e.g., Revised Conflict Tactics Scale: Migrant Farm Work Stress Inventory; AUDIT). Nearly all participants (n = 100) were Mexican born. Results showed that approximately 16% of female individuals (n = 61) and 32% of male individuals (n = 37) reported partner violence perpetration, victimization, or both, in the past year. Significant correlates of IPV were problem drinking (among males) and impulsivity (among females). This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting IPV research among male and female farmworkers. Additional research is warranted to more fully explore the role of acculturation- and work-related stress, drinking, and other personal characteristics and environmental factors in precipitating couple conflict and thereafter IPV.

Copyright 2011, American Psychological Association

El-Bassel N; Gilbert L; Witte S; Wu EW; Chang MW. Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: Contexts linking these two epidemics-challenges and implications for prevention and treatment. Substance Use & Misuse 46(2-3): 295-306, 2011. (106 refs.)

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are two serious overlapping public health epidemics that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. This article reviews research that has identified a number of contexts that may explain the links between IPV and HIV transmission risks. These contexts include sexual coercion, fear of violence, negotiation of condom use, extradyadic relationships, disclosure of sexually transmitted infections or HIV seropositivity to intimate partners, drug involvement of women and their male partners, low social status of drug-involved women, relationship dependencies, and sex ratio imbalances. The article focuses on how the bidirectional relationship between IPV and HIV risks may be mediated by a history of childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also addressed are the challenges that substance user treatment programs face in dealing with female clients who experience IPV and the implications for HIV prevention.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Fagan AA; Wright EM. Gender differences in the effects of exposure to intimate partner violence on adolescent violence and drug use. Child Abuse & Neglect 35(7): 543-550, 2011. (37 refs.)

Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the effects of IPV on adolescents have been rarely assessed using longitudinal data. Methods: Longitudinal data was obtained from 1,315 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The sample was 51% female and ethnically diverse (45% Hispanic, 37% African-American, and 14% Caucasian). Two waves of data were assessed to examine the effects of exposure to IPV, reported by caregivers when their children were aged 12 and 15, on violence and drug use, reported by adolescents 3 years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, family, and neighborhood risk factors. Results: Exposure to IPV did not significantly predict subsequent violence among males or females in multivariate analyses. IPV exposure was significantly related to the frequency of drug use for females but did not predict drug use among males. This gentler difference was not statistically significant, however, which suggests more similarities than differences in the relationship between exposure to IPV and subsequent violence and drug use. Conclusions: This study supports prior research indicating that exposure to IPV can negatively impact adolescent development, but it suggests that these effects may be more likely to influence some outcomes (e.g., drug use) than others (e.g., interpersonal violence). The findings also emphasize the need for additional research examining the overall impact of IPV on adolescent problem behaviors and gender differences in these relationships, including longitudinal studies and investigations that control for a range of other important predictors. A better understanding of these relationships can help inform intervention efforts aimed at ensuring that adolescents living in violent households receive timely and appropriate services to help prevent the occurrence of future problem behaviors.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science Ltd

Fowler DN. Screening for co-occurring intimate partner abuse and substance abuse: challenges across service delivery systems. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 9(3): 318-339, 2009 , 2009

Substance use problems among women survivors of intimate partner abuse (IPA) present unique challenges in screening for the co-occurrence of these 2 issues. The lack of coordinated efforts and integrated services is startling given the prevalence and subsequent risks among those who suffer at the crossroads of these 2 complex and interrelated problems. This article critically examines the issues in screening to identify IPA victimization and substance abuse in selected service delivery systems. The philosophical, programmatic, and policy implications for the implementation of integrated screening and intervention across these service delivery systems are discussed as a more comprehensive approach to helping women IPA survivors who abuse substances.

Copyright 2009, Routledge

Fowler DN; Faulkner M. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 41(4): 386-398, 2011. (72 refs.)

In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Friend J; Langhinrichsen-Rohling J; Eichold BH. Same-day substance use in men and women charged with felony domestic violence offenses. Criminal Justice and Behavior 38(6): 619- 633, 2011. (52 refs.)

This archival study reviewed 196 closed felony domestic violence files from a large southern city from the years 1999-2006. The purpose was to provide information on the co-occurrence of substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) for male and female perpetrators on the day of the violent incident. Results indicated that of the 141 of 196 cases in which there was documentation about drug or alcohol involvement, 67.4% (n = 95) of the cases confirmed that there was drug or alcohol use on the day of the incident. Male perpetrators were significantly more likely to have been involved with alcohol and/or drugs the day of the violent episode than were female perpetrators. Sex of offender and race analyses revealed that the percentage of female IPV perpetrators (42.9%) was substantial and African Americans, particularly women, were overrepresented in IPV felony charges. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Gallagher KE; Parrott DJ. Influence of heavy episodic drinking on the relation between men's locus of control and aggression toward intimate partners. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 71(2): 299-306, 2010. (59 refs.)

Objective: This study examined the interactive effects of locus of control and heavy episodic drinking on men's physical assault and sexual coercion against intimate partners. Method: Participants were 151 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of locus of control, alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and intimate-partner aggression during the past 12 months. Results: An internal locus of control was associated with a lower frequency of physical assault and sexual coercion toward intimate partners among men who reported lower quantities of alcohol consumption. However, data suggested that the protective qualities of an internal locus of control for both forms of partner aggression diminished among men who reported higher quantities of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: These results support alcohol myopia theory and extend this theory by suggesting how alcohol consumption may affect the relation between locus of control and different forms of intimate-partner aggression toward women.

Copyright 2010, Alcohol Research Documentation

Gass JD; Stein DJ; Williams DR; Seedat S. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical illness among South African women. South African Medical Journal 100(9): 582-585, 2010 , 2010. (26 refs.)

Objectives. An association between intimate partner violence and adverse physical health outcomes and health-risk behaviours among women has been established, most scientific research having been conducted in the USA and other developed countries. There have been few studies in developing countries, including South Africa, which has one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence in the world. We therefore sought to study the association between physical intimate partner violence and physical health outcomes and behaviours among South African women. Methods. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South African Stress and Health Study, we assessed exposure to intimate partner violence, health-risk behaviours, health-seeking behaviours and chronic physical illness among a sample of 1 229 married and cohabiting women. Results. The prevalence of reported violence was 31%. This correlated with several health-risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of non-medical sedatives, analgesics and cannabis) and health-seeking behaviours (recent visits to a medical doctor or healer). Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with health-risk behaviours and increased use of medical services. Public health programmes should incorporate interventions to mitigate the impact of violence on victims and reduce the risk of negative behavioural outcomes. Further investigation of the pathways between violence exposure and health

Copyright 2010, South African Medical Association

Gilchrist G; Hegarty K; Chondros P; Herrman H; Gunn J. The association between intimate partner violence, alcohol and depression in family practice. BMC Family Practice 11: 72, 2010 , 2010. (54 refs.)

Background: Depressive symptoms, intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking are common among patients attending general practice. Despite the high prevalence of these three problems; the relationship between them remains relatively unexplored. Methods: This paper explores the association between depressive symptoms, ever being afraid of a partner and hazardous drinking using cross-sectional screening data from 7667 randomly selected patients from a large primary care cohort study of 30 metropolitan and rural general practices in Victoria, Australia. The screening postal survey included the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale, the Fast Alcohol Screening Test and a screening question from the Composite Abuse Scale on ever being afraid of any intimate partner. Results: 23.9% met criteria for depressive symptoms. A higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6%) reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 4.0) and a lower proportion of females (12%) than males (25%) were hazardous drinkers (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5); and a higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6%) reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 4.0). Men and women who had ever been afraid of a partner or who were hazardous drinkers had on average higher depressive symptom scores than those who had never been afraid or who were not hazardous drinkers. There was a stronger association between depressive symptoms and ever been afraid of a partner compared to hazardous drinking for both males (ever afraid of partner; Diff 6.87; 95% CI 5.42, 8.33; p < 0.001 vs. hazardous drinking in last year; Diff 1.07, 95% CI 0.21, 1.94; p = 0.015) and females (ever afraid of partner; Diff 5.26; 95% CI 4.55, 5.97; p < 0.001 vs. hazardous drinking in last year; Diff 2.23, 95% CI 1.35, 3.11; p < 0.001), even after adjusting for age group, income, employment status, marital status, living alone and education level. Conclusions: Strategies to assist primary care doctors to recognise and manage intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking in patients with depression may lead to better outcomes from management of depression in primary care.

Copyright 2010, BioMed Central

Gonzalez-Guarda RM; Vasquez EP; Urrutia MT; Villarruel AM; Peragallo N. Hispanic women's experiences with substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and risk for HIV. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 22(1): 46-54, 2011. (21 refs.)

Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Hirschel D; Hutchison I. Unraveling the relative contributions of his, her, and their drinking to the likelihood of arrest in intimate partner violence cases. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(15): 3050-3079, 2011. (74 refs.)

The nexus between substance abuse and intimate partner violence has been studied in depth. The interrelationship between drinking, intimate partner violence, and an officer's decision to make an arrest has not received as much attention. The issue is complicated by the fact that either or both of the involved parties may have been drinking and the effects may vary depending on who has been drinking. In this article, the authors examine the relative contributions of his, her, and their drinking to the likelihood of arrest.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Keller PS; Gilbert LR; Koss KJ; Cummings EM; Davies PT. Parental problem drinking, marital aggression, and child emotional insecurity: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72(5): 711-722, 2011. (49 refs.)

Objective: Marital aggression plays an important role in relations between parental problem drinking and child maladjustment. The purpose of the current study was to apply emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the role of marital aggression. Method: A community sample of 235 children in kindergarten participated once a year for 3 years. Parents completed measures of parental problem drinking and marital aggression, and children were interviewed about their emotional security reactions to marital conflict vignettes. Results: Greater parental problem drinking was directly associated with children's more negative emotional reactions to conflict. Maternal problem drinking predicted increased sad reactions and negative expectations for the future. Paternal problem drinking predicted increases in child anger reactions and negative expectations for the future. Parental problem drinking was also indirectly associated with child reactions via marital aggression. Conclusions: Results confirmed hypotheses that parental problem drinking would be related to child emotional insecurity and that associations would be indirect via greater marital conflict. Findings are interpreted in terms of emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the effects of parental problem drinking on marital aggression and child development.

Copyright 2011, Alcohol Research Documentation

Klostermann K; Kelley ML; Mignone T; Pusateri L; Fals-Stewart W. Partner violence and substance abuse: Treatment interventions. Aggression and Violent Behavior 15(3): 162-166, 2010. (61 refs.)

Partner violence is a serious public health issue. For couples who enter treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, rates of partner aggression are alarmingly high, with 53% to 63% of couples reporting one or more episodes of partner violence in the year prior to program entry (Murphy & O'Farrell, 1994; Murphy, O'Farrell, Fals-Stewart, & Feeham, 2001; Stuart et al., 2003). Indeed, one of the most challenging clinical issues faced by therapists who treat substance-abusing patients is intimate partner violence (IPV). This review describes the link between substance abuse (alcohol and drug) and partner violence and identifies treatment strategies for providers working with these clients.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Klostermann K; Kelley ML; Milletich RJ; Mignone T. Alcoholism and partner aggression among gay and lesbian couples. (review). Aggression and Violent Behavior 16(2): 115- 119, 2011. (79 refs.)

The link between alcoholism and intimate partner violence (IPV) among heterosexual couples has received a great deal of attention in both the scientific and lay press. However, relative to heterosexual couples, IPV among alcohol-disordered homosexual couples has been grossly understudied. Despite the limited knowledge based on this topic, previous studies suggest that homosexual couples may experience more problematic drinking behaviors, higher rates of IPV, and in general, display more negative factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviors than heterosexual couples. In addition, because the study of alcoholism and IPV among homosexuals is a relatively new phenomenon, research on alcohol use patterns, dyadic adjustment, and partner violence is greatly lacking. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of these comorbid conditions among lesbian and gay couples, discuss the link between alcohol misuse and partner violence in this population, identify factors that may reduce treatment-seeking behavior among same sex couples, and describe possible treatment approaches.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Krienert JL; Walsh JA. My Brother's Keeper: A contemporary examination of reported sibling violence using national level data, 2000-2005. Journal of Family Violence 26(5): 331-342, 2011. (47 refs.)

Identified as a social problem in 1980, sibling violence has been labeled the most common and least researched form of family violence in the United States (Eriksen and Jensen 2006, 2008). Extant research has limitations including definitional inconsistencies, overreliance on small retrospective clinical samples, and limited use of officially reported national level data for profiles of victims and offenders. Although often trivialized as a "normal" part of growing up, sibling violence has links to an array of complications manifesting later in life including physical and emotional disorders, school bullying, substance abuse, and domestic violence. This work draws on 6 years of National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data (2000-2005) (n = 33,066) to provide the most comprehensive source of baseline information on this understudied form of intrafamilial violence. The research explores demographic and incident characteristics extending the knowledge beyond typical victim descriptives to incorporate offender profiles and incident level information including the type of violence/victimization, substance use, weapon use, and degree of injury sustained. Findings, in part, suggest several gender based victim and offender differences with female siblings involved in more serious injury incidents than their male sibling counterparts.

Copyright 2011, Springer

LaPota HB; Donohue B; Warren CS; Allen DN. Incorporating a healthy living curriculum within family behavior therapy: A clinical case example in a woman with a history of domestic violence, child neglect, drug abuse, and obesity. Journal of Family Violence 26(3): 227-234, 2011. (40 refs.)

Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Lipsky S; Caetano R. Intimate partner violence perpetration among men and emergency department use. Journal of Emergency Medicine 40(6): 696-703, 2011. (41 refs.)

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and emergency department (ED) use share common risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviors, but little is known about the relationship between IPV perpetration and ED use or the effect of risk-taking on this relationship. Study Objectives: This study examined the relationship between IPV perpetration, risk-taking, and ED utilization among men in the general U.S. population. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, focusing on non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic male respondents 18-49 years of age cohabiting with a spouse or partner. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Approximately 38% of IPV perpetrators reported ED use in the previous year, compared to 24% of non-perpetrators. Several risk-taking factors (e.g., perception of risk-taking, transportation-related risk-taking, and aggression-related arrest), alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse or dependence, and serious mental illness were positively associated with IPV perpetration. Men reporting IPV were 1.5 times (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13) more likely than non-perpetrators to utilize the ED, after taking all factors into account. Drug abuse or dependence, transportation-related risk behaviors, and serious mental illness also were independently associated with ED use. Conclusions: The results indicate that men who perpetrate IPV are more likely than non-perpetrators to use ED services. These findings suggest that screening for IPV, as well as risk-taking and mental illness among men accessing ED services may increase opportunities for intervention and referral.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Lipsky S; Caetano R; Roy-Byrne P. Triple jeopardy: Impact of partner violence perpetration, mental health and substance use on perceived unmet need for mental health care among men. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 46(9): 843-852, 2011. (86 refs.)

Objectives To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, serious mental illness, and substance use and perceived unmet need for mental health treatment in the past year among men in the general population using the behavioral model for health-care use (Aday and Anderson in Health Services Research 9: 208-220, 1974; Andersen in A behavioral model of families' use of health services, 1968; Andersen in Medical Care 46:647-653, 2008). Methods Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white males aged 18-49 years and cohabiting with a spouse/partner were included in this analysis of the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results: The proportion of men reporting unmet treatment need was greater among IPV perpetrators than nonperpetrators (12.1 vs. 3.4%, respectively). Hazardous drinking, illicit drug use, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and SMI were also more common among perpetrators. Perpetrators were twice as likely to report unmet need for treatment after taking predisposing, enabling, and need factors into account (AOR 2.00, CI 1.13-3.55). Alcohol abuse/dependence (AOR 2.96, CI 1.79-4.90), drug abuse/dependence (AOR, 1.79, CI 1.01-3.17), substance abuse treatment (AOR 3.09, CI 1.18-8.09), and SMI (AOR 8.46, CI 5.53-12.94) were independently associated with perceived unmet need for treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that men who perpetrate IPV are at increased risk of perceived unmet need for mental health care. This study also emphasizes the need to identify substance use disorders and mental health problems among IPV perpetrators identified in health, social service, or criminal justice settings. Further research should address barriers to care specific to men who perpetrate IPV beyond economic factors.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Mallow A; Ward K. Helping students to understand the link between substance use and intimate partner violence. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions 8(1/2): 51-64, 2009. (38 refs.)

Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of addiction and IPV and the connection between the two, and to promote classroom discussion as to how to intervene when both issues are present in a client's life.

Copyright 2009, Taylor & Francis

Martin SL; Gibbs DA; Johnson RE; Sullivan K; Clinton-Sherrod M; Walters JLH et al. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses. Violence Against Women 16(11): 1295-1310, 2010. (35 refs.)

Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to have used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions.

Copyright 2010, Sage Publications

Mbilinyi LF; Neighbors C; Walker DD; Roffman RA; Zegree J; Edleson J et al. A telephone intervention for substance-using adult male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Research on Social Work Practice 21(1): 43-56, 2011. (90 refs.)

Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned to the intervention (MET) or comparison group following a baseline assessment. Participants in the MET condition received a personalized feedback report on their IPV and substance-use behaviors, consequences, and social norms beliefs. Results: Results supported the likely effectiveness of MET in short-term reduction of IPV behavior, increasing motivation for treatment seeking, and changing perceived norms for IPV and substance abuse (SA). Conclusions: Applications for brief MET interventions to facilitate voluntary treatment entry among substance-using IPV perpetrators are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publication

McKinney CM; Caetano R; Rodriguez LA; Okoro N. Does alcohol involvement increase the severity of intimate partner violence? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 34(4): 655-658, 2010. (13 refs.)

Background: Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods: We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples >= 18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results: Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions: Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV.

Copyright 2010, Research Society on Alcoholism

Moraes CL; da Silva TDT; Reichenheim ME; Azevedo GL; Oliveira ASD; Braga JU. Physical violence between intimate partners during pregnancy and postpartum: A prediction model for use in primary health care facilities. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 25(5): 478-486, 2011. (50 refs.)

This article offers a simple predictive model of physical intimate partner violence (PIPV) to be used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. The sample comprised 811 mothers of children <5 months old attending PHC facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multinomial logit model was used. Measured by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, PIPV was classified in three levels (absence, at least one episode during pregnancy or postpartum, and presence in both periods). Socio-economic, demographic and life style variables were considered as potential predictors. Maternal age <20 years, an education of <8 years of schooling, raising >2 children under 5, tobacco smoking, alcohol misuse and illicit drug use by the mother and/or partner, and perception of baby's ill-health were identified as predictors of PIPV. The model-projected prevalence of PIPV for pregnancy and/or postpartum was just 10.1% in the absence of these characteristics, whereas this increased to 96.4% when all the seven characteristics were present. Child, maternal and family characteristics greatly increase the likelihood of PIPV and could be used together as screening indicators.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Nabors EL. In-depth exploration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(6): 1043-1063, 2010. (49 refs.)

College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse. Studies using a variety of samples demonstrate that drug use is one such factor. However, research to date fails to identify specific types of drugs linked to college students' use of violence against intimates. In an attempt to fill this void, this exploratory study uses data from the Relationship Characteristics Study, which was conducted in 2001 and includes a sample of 1,938 college students, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between college students' drug use and IPV perpetration than the current literature allows.

Copyright 2010, Sage Publications

Nayak MB; Patel V; Bond JC; Greenfield TK. Partner alcohol use, violence and women's mental health: Population-based survey in India. British Journal of Psychiatry 196(3): 192-199, 2010. (47 refs.)

Background: The relationship between partner alcohol use and violence as risk factors for poor mental health in women is unclear. Aims: To describe partner-related and other psychosocial risk factors for common mental disorders in women and examine interrelationships between these factors. Method: Data are reported on 821 women aged 18-49 years from a larger population study in north Goa, India. Logistic regression models evaluated tine risks for women's common mental disorders and tested for mediation effects in the relationship between partner alcohol use and these disorders. Results: Excessive partner alcohol use increased the risk for common mental disorders two- to threefold. Partner violence and alcohol-related problems each partially mediated the association between partner excessive alcohol use and these mental disorders. Women's own violence-related attitudes were also independently associated with them. Conclusions: Partner alcohol use, partner violence and women's violence-related attituces must be addressed to prevent and treat common mental disorders in women.

Copyright 2010, Royal College of Psychiatry

Oral R; Bayman L; Assad A; Wibbenmeyer L; Buhrow J; Austin A et al. Illicit drug exposure in patients evaluated for alleged child abuse and neglect. Pediatric Emergency Care 27(6): 490-495, 2011. (32 refs.)

Background: Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. Objective: The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. Design and Methods: The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Results: Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with private insurance (OR = 4.49; 95% CI, 1.47-13.66; P = 0.008), history of parental drug abuse versus those without parental history of drug abuse (OR = 3.42; 95% CI, 1.38-8.46; P = 0.008), and history of domestic violence versus those without a history of domestic violence (OR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.08-7.30; P = 0.034). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that an illicit drug screening protocol used in the assessment of children evaluated for child abuse identified almost 15% of the population of allegedly abused and neglected children who were tested according to a protocol being exposed to illicit drugs. Thus, routine drug testing of at least children assessed for neglect and nonaccidental burn and soft tissue injuries, children with a history of either parental drug use or domestic violence is recommended.

Copyright 2011, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Oshiro A; Poudyal AK; Poudel KC; Jimba M; Hokama T. Intimate partner violence among general and urban poor populations in Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(10): 2073-2092, 2011. (28 refs.)

Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants included 905 ever-married women in Kathmandu aged 15 to 49 years. Of the 905 participants, 680 were randomly selected from general population and 225 were recruited from urban poor population, who lived in purposively selected two communities. The prevalence and association between ever experiencing physical IPV and sociodemographic variables were examined. Results showed that the prevalence of physical IPV was 33.8% among the urban poor population (n = 225) and 19.9% among the general population (n = 680; p < .01). Several factors were significantly associated with physical IPV in both populations: the frequency of the husband's drinking, polygyny, and lower household economic status. However, two factors were associated with physical IPV only among the general population: the husband's lower educational level and early marriage. The conclusions of this study are that compared to the general population, the urban poor population showed a significantly higher prevalence of physical IPV and differences in the associated risk factors. The urban poor population requires focused data collection as well as tailored interventions to reduce IPV.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Perez-Diaz C; Hure MS. Heavy drinking and the disposition of intimate partner violence cases in French courts. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5, special issue): 490-495, 2011. (9 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. In 1992, France passed a specific penal law on intimate partner violence. The present study explores the functioning of this new law by examining the characteristics of perpetrators in cases that were tried rather than dismissed. Additionally, the characteristics of heavy drinkers were compared with those of non-heavy drinkers. Design and Methods. We analysed all cases of intimate partner violence processed in the years 1999-2000 by a major court of the Paris metropolitan area. Data were collected on 223 perpetrators (all 166 tried perpetrators and 10% of the 570 perpetrators whose case was dismissed) and how cases were handled institutionally. Logistic regression was used to identify perpetrator characteristics significantly associated with being tried (vs. dismissed) and being a heavy drinker. Results. Being tried was significantly more likely if the perpetrator had inflicted an injury, engaged in prior aggression and was a heavy drinker. Heavy drinking perpetrators were significantly more likely than non-heavy drinkers to have been drinking before the act. They were less likely to be under 40, more likely to be French, part of a stable couple and to have engaged in various types of prior aggression. Discussion and Conclusions. In 2000, heavy drinking was associated with increased risk of being tried and with drinking before the act. Heavy drinkers are more likely to have committed all forms of aggression, but only verbal aggression is significant. In 2000, judges gave heavy drinkers harsher sentences and a 2007 law sanctioned them even more severely. Our results suggest that treatment focused on problem drinking could be a helpful response-perhaps more so than harsher sentences-to intimate partner violence.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Pollack KM; Austin W; Grisso JA. Employee assistance programs: A workplace resource to address intimate partner violence. Journal of Women's Health 19(4): 729-733, 2010. (29 refs.)

Purpose: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with significant impact on the workplace. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are a confidential benefit to assist employees and their families with a variety of problems that may negatively affect their job performance. The purpose of this systematic review is to study the extant literature to identify articles that have explored the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. Methods: We searched Medline, PsychINFO, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for English-language papers that have explored how EAPs can address IPV. Articles published through 2008 were included. Results: Our review yielded nine articles, mostly from EAP-centered journals. Nearly all of the studies were published before the year 2000 and primarily describe the need for EAPs to be more engaged in preventing violence against women. Most of the studies were commentaries, often using case reports to support recommendations on how EAPs could address IPV. Results from the two intervention studies revealed close connections between EAP clients being treated for alcoholism and IPV perpetration and the effectiveness of a standardized tool to identify EAP clients experiencing IPV. Conclusions: Research in this area is in its infancy, and more studies are needed to inform the formulation of evidence-based policies and programs that guide the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. The lack of research on how EAPs address IPV is alarming, as many employers state that they often refer employees affected by IPV to the EAP for assistance.

Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert

Rhodes KV; Kothari CL; Dichter M; Cerulli C; Wiley J; Marcus S. Intimate partner violence identification and response: Time for a change in strategy. Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(8): 894-899, 2011. (35 refs.)

BACKGROUND: While victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) present to health care settings for a variety of complaints; rates and predictors of case identification and intervention are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Examine emergency department (ED) case finding and response within a known population of abused women. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: Police-involved female victims of IPV in a semi-rural Midwestern county. MAIN MEASURES: We linked police, prosecutor, and medical record data to examine characteristics of ED identification and response from 1999-2002; bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses accounted for the nesting of subjects' with multiple visits. RESULTS: IPV victims (N = 993) generated 3,426 IPV-related police incidents (mean 3.61, median 3, range 1-17) over the 4-year study period; 785 (79%) generated 4,306 ED visits (mean 7.17, median 5, range 1-87), which occurred after the date of a documented IPV assault. Only 384 (9%) ED visits occurred within a week of a police-reported IPV incident. IPV identification in the ED was associated with higher violence severity, being childless and underinsured, more police incidents (mean: 4.2 vs 3.3), and more ED visits (mean: 10.6 vs 5.5) over the 4 years. The majority of ED visits occurring after a documented IPV incident were for medical complaints (3,378, 78.4%), and 72% of this cohort were never identified as victims of abuse. IPV identification was associated with the day of a police incident, transportation by police, self-disclosure of "domestic assault," and chart documentation of mental health and substance abuse issues. When IPV was identified, ED staff provided legally useful documentation (86%), police contact (50%), and social worker involvement (45%), but only assessed safety in 33% of the women and referred them to victim services 25% of the time. CONCLUSION: The majority of police-identified IPV victims frequently use the ED for health care, but are unlikely to be identified or receive any intervention in that setting.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Sambisa W; Angeles G; Lance PM; Naved RT; Curtis SL. Physical and sexual abuse of wives in urban Bangladesh: Husbands' reports. Studies In Family Planning 41(3): 165-178, 2010 , 2010. (108 refs.)

Using data from 8,320 husbands' self reports for the 2006 Urban Health Survey, this article examines the prevalence of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by husbands against their wives in Bangladesh and identifies risk markers associated with such violence. Of the men included in the sample for this study, 55 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV against their wives at some point in their married lives, 23 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV in the past year, 20 percent reported ever perpetrating sexual IPV, and 60 percent reported ever perpetrating physical or sexual IPV. Bivariate analyses revealed that men residing in slums had a greater likelihood than those residing in nonslum areas and in district municipalities of perpetrating lifetime and past-year physical IPV, and any lifetime (physical or sexual) IPV. Lifetime sexual IPV prevalence, by contrast, was highest in district municipalities (26 percent), followed by slum (20 percent) and nonslum (17 percent) areas. Net of other factors, low socioeconomic levels were associated with men's increased likelihood of perpetrating IPV. Alcohol and drug use, sexually transmitted disease infection, poor mental health, and holding attitudes supportive of wife beating were predictive of IPV perpetration. These results suggest that IPV-prevention programs targeting men should consider spousal abuse, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors as social and public health problems and should also consider the sociocultural context within which men who abuse their partners are embedded.

Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell

H3>Schumm JA; O'Farrell TJ; Murphy CM; Murphy M; Muchowski P. Test of a conceptual model of partner aggression among women entering substance use disorder treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 72(6): 933-942, 2011. (47 refs.)Objective: Despite extensive intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in substance use disorder treatment, few studies have investigated IPV risk factors within this population. Conceptual models, which have received support in other populations, propose that antisociality and generalized violence, alcohol and drug use, and relationship adjustment may be interrelated pathways that influence IPV. The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model that integrates these individual and relationship pathways to explain IPV among women entering substance use disorder treatment. Method: Women entering substance use disorder treatment (N = 277) who had a male relationship partner completed measures of the following domains about themselves and their male partners: antisociality/generalized violence, heavy alcohol use, drug use, relationship adjustment, and psychological and physical IPV. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses showed that the antisociality/generalized violence of each partner had direct and indirect effects on IPV. Each partner's antisociality/generalized violence was directly related to her or his physical IPV. Female antisociality/ generalized violence was indirectly related to female physical IPV via female drug use and female psychological IPV. Male antisociality/generalized violence was indirectly associated with male physical IPV via male drinking, relationship adjustment, and male psychological IPV. A reciprocal relationship was found between partners' psychological IPV but not physical IPV. When accounting for other individual and relational IPV predictors, male partners' physical IPV influenced women's physical IPV, but women's physical IPV did not influence their male partner's physical IPV. Conclusions: Both partners' antisociality/generalized violence, substance use, and overall relationship adjustment are important in understanding IPV among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

Copyright 2011, Alcohol Research Documentation

Scott MC; Easton CJ. Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 36(6): 357-362, 2010. (26 refs.)

Background: It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. Objectives: This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Methods: From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). Results: African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.

Copyright 2010, Taylor & Francis

Shamu S; Abrahams N; Temmerman M; Musekiwa A; Zarowsky C. A systematic review of African studies on intimate partner violence against pregnant women: Prevalence and risk factors. (review). PLoS ONE 6(3): article e17591, 2011. (58 refs.)

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is very high in Africa. However, information obtained from the increasing number of African studies on IPV among pregnant women has not been scientifically analyzed. This paper presents a systematic review summing up the evidence from African studies on IPV prevalence and risk factors among pregnant women. Methods: A key-word defined search of various electronic databases, specific journals and reference lists on IPV prevalence and risk factors during pregnancy resulted in 19 peer-reviewed journal articles which matched our inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles about pregnant women from Africa published in English between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. At least two reviewers assessed each paper for quality and content. We conducted meta-analysis of prevalence data and reported odds ratios of risk factors. Results: The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 57% (n = 13 studies) with meta-analysis yielding an overall prevalence of 15.23% (95% CI: 14.38 to 16.08%). After adjustment for known confounders, five studies retained significant associations between HIV and IPV during pregnancy (OR1.48-3.10). Five studies demonstrated strong evidence that a history of violence is significantly associated with IPV in pregnancy and alcohol abuse by a partner also increases a woman's chances of being abused during pregnancy (OR 2.89-11.60). Other risk factors include risky sexual behaviours, low socioeconomic status and young age. Conclusion: The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women in Africa is one of the highest reported globally. The major risk factors included HIV infection, history of violence and alcohol and drug use. This evidence points to the importance of further research to both better understand IPV during pregnancy and feed into interventions in reproductive health services to prevent and minimize the impact of such violence.

Copyright 2011, Public Library of Science

Sims C; Sabra D; Bergey MR; Grill E; Sarani B; Pascual J et al. Detecting intimate partner violence: More than trauma team education is needed. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 212(5): 867-872, 2011. (31 refs.)

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an underappreciated cause of morbidity and mortality in female trauma patients. We investigated the impact of a domestic violence education program for trauma residents on the detection of IPV. STUDY DESIGN: In January 2008, an educational IPV program was implemented for all trauma residents. A retrospective review of all female patients evaluated by the trauma service before and after institution of the IPV program was performed. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, injury mechanism, social habits, and IPV documentation. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare patients before and after institution of the educational IPV program. RESULTS: The records of 645 female trauma patients evaluated in 2007 and 2008 were reviewed. Patients were not routinely asked about IPV, despite implementation of the educational program; 39.9% were asked about IPV in 2007 versus 46.1% in 2008 (p = 0.11). The positive disclosure of IPV did not increase from 2007 to 2008 (20.1% versus 21.2%; p = 0.83). Documentation about social habits increased considerably. In 2008, patients were asked more regularly about alcohol (71.8% versus 80.8%; p = 0.01), drugs (64.1% versus 73.7%; p = 0.01), and tobacco use (67.0% versus 78.1%; p = 0.002). Importantly, patients with documented IPV (n = 57) frequently presented to the trauma team with nonviolent mechanisms of injury (n = 30, 52.6%). CONCLUSIONS: IPV is a frequent finding in female trauma patients. Despite increased education, questions about IPV are not documented routinely. In addition, screening at-risk patients by mechanism will underestimate the prevalence of IPV. Universal screening should be mandated to increase IPV detection and enhance opportunities for intervention.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Singh V. Academic men's health: Case studies in clinical practice Intimate partner violence perpetration. Journal of Men's Health 6(4): 383-392, 2009. (47 refs.)

Recent research has addressed ways to identify and treat male patients who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). This phenomenon refers to the person who causes violence or abuse to be inflicted on a victim. A case study will be presented to illustrate a male patient at-risk for IPV perpetration. The goals of this review are to (1) define the prevalence of male patients who perpetrate IPV, (2) describe the pathophysiology and etiologies associated with IPV perpetration, (3) list the methods to diagnose and evaluate male patients who perpetrate IPV, and (4) understand the treatments for IPV perpetration. To meet these objectives, a systematic review of medical and allied health databases was conducted to analyze the case study presented. The prevalence of male primary care and emergency medicine patients who perpetrate IPV is 7-41%. The most widely used measurement tool to detect male IPV perpetration is the Conflict Tactics Scale. Most studies of IPV perpetrators have focused on associations with demographic factors, prior history of violence, mental health diagnoses, and substance use disorders. An 8-question screening tool is available to diagnose IPV perpetration, and at-risk patients should be evaluated for concurrent mental health and substance abuse problems. The most appropriate current treatment for IPV perpetration is referral to a batterer intervention program. An algorithm is presented to address screening, assessment, intervention, and documentation. The review concludes with the case progression and resolution.

Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science

Slep AMS; Foran HM; Heyman RE; Snarr JD. Unique risk and protective factors for partner aggression in a large scale Air Force survey. Journal of Community Health 35(4): 375-383, 2010 , 2010. (45 refs.)

The objective of this study is to examine risk factors of physical aggression against a partner in a large representative Active Duty Air Force sample. A stratified sample of 128,950 United States Active Duty members were invited to participate in an Air Force-wide anonymous online survey across 82 bases. The final sample (N = 52,780) was weighted to be representative of the United States Air Force. Backward stepwise regression analyses were conducted to identify unique predictors of partner physical aggression perpetration within and across different ecological levels (individual, family, organization, and community levels). Relationship satisfaction, alcohol problems, financial stress, and number of years in the military were identified as unique predictors of men's and women's perpetration of violence against their partner across ecological levels. Parental status, support from neighbors, personal coping, and support from formal agencies also uniquely predicted men's but not women's perpetration of violence across ecological levels. This study identified specific risk factors of partner violence that may be targeted by prevention and intervention efforts aimed at different levels of impact (e.g., family interventions, community-wide programs).

Copyright 2010, Springer

Spangaro J; Poulos RG; Zwi AB. Pandora doesn't live here anymore: Normalization of screening for intimate partner violence in Australian antenatal, mental health, and substance abuse services. Violence and Victims 26(1): 130-144, 2011. (43 refs.)

Routine screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely introduced in health settings, yet screening rates are often low. A screening policy was introduced statewide in Australia in antenatal, mental health, and substance abuse services. Annual snapshot indicates a sustained screening rate of 62%-75% since 2003. Focus group research with health care workers from 10 services found that initial introduction of screening was facilitated by brief, scripted questions embedded into assessment schedules, training, and access to referral services. Over time, familiarity and women's favorable reactions reinforced practice. Barriers remain, including lack of privacy, tensions about limited confidentiality, and frustration when women remain unsafe. Screening added to the complexity of work, but was well accepted by workers, and increased awareness of and responsiveness to IPV.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Stockl H; Heise L; Watts C. Factors associated with violence by a current partner in a nationally representative sample of German women. Sociology of Health & Illness 33(5): 694-709, 2011. (59 refs.)

Partner violence is a serious human rights violation and public health issue. Although its pervasiveness is well documented, more research is needed on risk and protective factors to inform interventions. This study is based on a secondary analysis of the first national survey on violence against women in Germany. Women who reported partner violence by their current partner were compared to women who never reported partner violence. The prevalence of physical or sexual violence, or both, by current partners was 17 per cent. Women who experienced violence during their childhood had higher odds of experiencing partner violence. Partner violence was associated with women's drug use in the last 5 years, physical disability or debilitating illness, having more than three children, experiencing violence by a non-partner and feeling socially excluded. The odds of violence also increased if both partners were unemployed or lacked vocational training or if only the woman had vocational skills. Relationships shorter than 5 years or where the man or both partners drank heavily were likewise associated with higher odds of violence. Partner violence interventions should focus on reducing children's exposure to violence and preparing women and men for the job market as well as including interventions that tackle social isolation and substance use.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Stover CS; McMahon TJ; Easton C. The impact of fatherhood on treatment response for men with co-occurring alcohol dependence and intimate partner violence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 37(1): 74-78, 2011. (41 refs.)

Objective: The role of fathers in the lives of children has gained increasing attention over the last several decades, however, studies that specifically examine the parenting role among men who are alcohol dependent and have co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited. This brief report is intended to highlight the need to develop and focus interventions for men with co-occurring substance abuse and IPV with an emphasis on their roles as fathers. Method: Sixty-nine men who participated in a randomized comparison study of a coordinated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment program (SADV) and Twelve Step Facilitation (TSF) provided information about whether they were fathers. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the impact of fatherhood on the outcomes of intimate partner violence and alcohol use during the 12 weeks of treatment. Results: There was a significant interaction between type of treatment (SADV vs. TSF) and fatherhood. SADV resulted in significantly less IPV and use of alcohol over the 12 weeks of treatment than TSF for men without children. There were no significant differences between SADV and TSF for men who were fathers. Conclusion and Scientific Significance: Results indicate a need to further explore the role of fatherhood for men with co-occurring substance abuse and IPV and development of specialized treatments that may improve treatment outcomes for fathers.

Copyright 2011, Informa Health

Sunday S; Kline M; Labruna V; Pelcovitz D; Salzinger S; Kaplan S. The role of adolescent physical abuse in adult intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(18): 3773-3789, 2011. (29 refs.)

This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with other risk factors) a significant predictor of intimate partner physical and emotional violence perpetration or victimization. In this longitudinal study, 67 abused and 78 nonabused adults (of an original sample of 198 adolescents) completed the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and the Jealousy and Emotional Control Scales. Nonabused comparison adolescents were matched for age, gender, and community income. As adults, participants with abuse histories had significantly higher rates of intimate partner physical violence and verbal aggression than did comparison participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that adults with histories of physical abuse were more than twice as likely to be physically violent and almost six times more likely to be verbally aggressive to their intimate partners than were comparison participants. Having had an alcohol use disorder, being married to or living with a partner, and perceiving one's partner as controlling were also significantly associated with physical violence. Jealousy and feeling controlled by one's partner were also significant predictors of verbal aggression. These findings underscore the importance of preventing adolescent abuse as a means of decreasing the incidence of intimate partner physical violence in adulthood.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Thomas MD; Bennett L. The co-occurrence of substance abuse and domestic violence: A comparison of dual-problem men in substance abuse treatment and in a court-ordered batterer program. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 9(3): 299-317, 2009 , 2009

Substance abuse and domestic violence tend to co-occur in about half of the men seen in either substance abuse treatment or batterer intervention programs. The existence of so many dual-problem men suggests that screening for co-occurring problems should occur in all settings serving either substance abusers or batterers, but this is not the case. This study sampled 49 men in treatment at a publicly funded substance abuse treatment center who self-reported battering and 84 men adjudicated for battering who met eligibility criteria for substance abuse. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test hypotheses that dual-problem men in substance abuse treatment would show significantly greater levels of substance abuse behavior than dual-problem men in batterer intervention, but that no differences in domestic violence would be found between the 2 groups. Both hypotheses were supported. Implications for social work practice, including the need for collaboration across fields, universal screening for both problems, and the implementation of interventions specifically designed for dual-problem men, are discussed.

Copyright 2009, Routledge

Valtonen K; Padmore JC; Sogren M; Rock L. Lived experiences of vulnerability in the childhood of persons recovering from substance abuse. Journal of Social Work 9(1): 39-60, 2009 , 2009. (41 refs.)

The aim of the study was to deepen understanding of the context of vulnerability which is associated with drug-taking behaviour and addiction. The researchers sought to identify recurring psychosocial and environmental factors in the childhood and early adulthood backgrounds of the participants. They further scrutinized the data for pairs or co-occurrences of such risk factors across the target groups. Qualitative methodology was employed, based on in-depth interviews. The participants were accessed in drug rehabilitation centres in Trinidad and in Barbados, bringing a cross-national dimension to the work. The Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) method was used to analyse the data. Findings: It is significant that nearly half of the Trinidad group and two-thirds of the Barbados group reported experience of rejection or abandonment in childhood. A profile of stressful or traumatic experiences was compiled for each participant, from which it was possible to identify co-ocurring pairs of stressors, which suggest inter-relationships between the phenomena. Marked co-occurrence was found between domestic violence and alcoholism; domestic violence in the participants' family background and non-attainment of secondary School Certification; non-attainment of Secondary School Certification and rejection; poverty and rejection; domestic violence and rejection. Applications: Case management techniques can benefit from research-generated insights on interrelationships between critical risk-connected phenomena, especially in developing concerted approaches to problems of substance abuse using preventive techniques.

Copyright 2009, Sage Publications

van Wormer KS; Thyer BA, eds. Evidence-Based Practice in the Field of Substance Abuse: A Book of Readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2009. (Chapter refs.)

This anthology of 17 readings, with 35 contributors, focuses upon evidence-based practice in the substance abuse field, It is is organized in three parts. Part I provides an introduction to evidence-based practice. Part II considers assessment, with special attention to standardized instruments, the AUDIT, and its application to those with mental illness, and the Drinking Context Scale (DCS-9) and its use with youth. Part III is directed to issues of gender and culturally-based interventions. It includes attention to issues of domestic violence, gender-specific pathways to delinquency and chronic offending, the impact of PTSD on compliance and relapse, and women and alcohol use disorders. Part IV focuses upon treatment issues and innovations. This section includes material on the natural history of drug use; motivational interviewing; treatment approaches; and the nature and extent of methamphetamine abuse. Part V deals with policy consideration, including housing for homeless with substance use disorders, and the Housing First model; harm reduction in working with adolescents; secondary prevention services for those who are at low risk in drug courts, and concludes with discussion of the challenges in translating research findings into practice.

Copyright 2011, Project Cork

Wiersma JD; Cleveland HH; Herrera V; Fischer JL. Intimate partner violence in young adult dating, cohabitating, and married drinking partnerships. Journal of Marrriage and the Family 72(2): 360-374, 2010. (41 refs.)

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and infrequent, and (d) congruent moderate/heavy-frequent drinkers. Overall, there were no significant main effect differences across relationship type and clusters. The type of relationship and the type of drinking partnership interacted with contexts examined (i.e., type of violence severity, gender, and whether the violence was perpetration or victimization). Given the severity of IPV in couple relationships, additional empirical attention to drinking partnerships is warranted.

Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell

Woodman J; Brandon M; Bailey S; Belderson P; Sidebotham P; Gilbert R. Healthcare use by children fatally or seriously harmed by child maltreatment: Analysis of a national case series 2005-2007. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 96(3): 270- 275, 2011. (31 refs.)

Aim: To determine antecedent patterns of healthcare use by children fatally or seriously harmed by maltreatment. Methods The authors analysed recorded healthcare use for children who were the subject of a serious case review (SCR) in England in 2005-2007. The SCRs were initiated when a child under 18 years old died or was seriously harmed, maltreatment (abuse or neglect) was a factor, and there were lessons for interagency working. The authors analysed a purposive sample (N=40), similar in key demographics to all 189 SCRs in England in 2005-2007. Results: Children had extensive recorded contact with universal (N= 34/40; 85%) and secondary (N= 26/40; 65%) healthcare services and children's social care (N=21/40; 53%). Thirty-one children (78%) had recorded health visitor and/or school nurse contact. Fourteen children (35%) had missed appointments. Almost three-quarters (N=29) had complex family problems recorded (parental domestic violence, alcohol/drug and/or mental health problems). Data quality regarding healthcare use was poor, and the extent and type of 'missing data' varied by age. Conclusions: Complex paediatric and family problems and a high level of contact with services preceded serious adverse events. Universal health services are likely to be well placed for giving ongoing and family-orientated support to vulnerable families. The absence of standardised data collection and any control group limits how far the Biennial Analyses of SCRs can meet their stated objective of identifying national trends and patterns. Linking SCRs to healthcare databases would provide a control group, improve understanding of the population context and diminish demands for data from professionals delivering care.

Copyright 2011, BMJ Publishing

Bennett LW; O'Brien P. The effects of violence acuity and door to service. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 10(2): 139-157, 2010

Despite recent gains in understanding the links between intimate partner violence and substance abuse by women, the service issues related to these cooccurring problems are relatively unexplored. This study addresses 3 practice-related questions critical to the provision of services in coordinated or integrated substance abuse and intimate partner violence programs: (a) Are different doors to service associated with different outcomes? (b) Does the level of substance use prior to the onset of services predict changes in self-efficacy or vulnerability to battering? and (c) How does proximity of violence impact program outcomes? We followed 128 women for 6 months after admission to a state-funded demonstration project on cooccurring substance abuse and intimate partner violence on outcomes of self-efficacy, fear of violence, and substance use. The relationship between outcomes and door to service, substance use, and acuity of violence were examined using contingency analysis, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression. We discuss the findings and applications of the research to practice.

Copyright 2010, Routledge

Wu E; El-Bassel N; Gilbert L; Sarfo B; Seewald R. Criminal justice involvement and service need among men on methadone who have perpetrated intimate partner violence. Journal of Criminal Justice 38(4): 835-840, 2010 , 2010. (41 refs.)

Perpetrators of male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) may be likely to have multiple service needs, the extent of which may vary with respect to criminal justice involvement. The salience of the criminal justice system and the potential impact on service needs due to arrest and incarceration is underscored given the association between substance use and IPV. This study utilized a sample of men in methadone treatment who perpetrated male-to-female IPV in order to examine associations between criminal justice involvement and perceived additional service need(s). Results indicate that the likelihood of having service needs significantly increased as time since most recent arrest or incarceration decreased. These findings highlight the need and potential benefit that can be derived from greater coordination amongst the criminal justice, IPV prevention, and drug treatment systems and service providers.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Yan FA; Howard DE; Beck KH; Shattuck T; Hallmark-Kerr M. Psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence: Victimization among Latino early adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(5): 808-831, 2010. (57 refs.)

This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was physical dating violence; the independent variables included violence, substance use, emotional well-being, prosocial behaviors, and parenting practices. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed and adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were examined. Overall, 13.5% (n = 43) of Latino early adolescents reported being a victim of physical dating violence within the past year. The prevalence was 14.4% for girls and 12.9% for boys. Among the girls, binge drinking was the sole risk behavior associated with dating violence. Gun carrying, alcohol consumption, and having considered suicide were associated with dating violence among the boys. Physical dating violence appears to affect a small but significant proportion of Latino early adolescents and is associated with other risk behaviors. Healthy dating relationship programs are warranted for middle school youth with some tailoring to reflect gender differences in risk profiles.

Copyright 2010, Sage Publications

Zaleski M; Pinsky I; Laranjeira R; Ramisetty-Mikler S; Caetano R. Intimate partner violence and contribution of drinking and sociodemographics the Brazilian national Alcohol Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(4): 648-665, 2010. (36 refs.)

Purpose: To estimate prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Brazilian couples and to assess the contribution of drinking and sociodemographic factors to the risk of IPV. Methods: A sample consisting of 1,445 married or cohabitating males and females in the Brazilian population was interviewed. The survey response rate was 66%. Results: The analyses indicate 10.7% and 14.6% prevalence, respectively for male-to-female and female-to-male IPV. Males were drinking in 38.1% of IPV events and females in 9.2%. The male's partner was drinking in 30.8% and the females' partner in 44.6% of IPV acts. Bivariate associations between violence and sociodemographics were found for age groups, household monthly income and educational level. Logistic regression analysis indicate that younger age for both male and female partners, men with no religious affiiliation and women who are homemakers are significant predictors of violence. Conclusion: This survey provides important information to further IPV research in Brazil.

Copyright 2010, Sage Publictions

Zavala E; Spohn RE. Emotional abuse and controlling behaviors in heterosexual relationships: The role of employment and alcohol use for women and their partners. Sociological Spectrum 30(5): 526-549, 2010 , 2010. (63 refs.)

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of economic resources, status compatibility, and alcohol consumption on forms of nonphysical abuse, such as controlling and emotional abuse. Specifically, we focus on the connections between women's employment, the employment of their partners, alcohol use, and women's risk of abuse in intimate relationships. We hypothesize that women in intimate relationships with men will experience more emotional abuse to the extent that they are economically vulnerable. Moreover, abuse should increase if their employment status, in relation to that of their partner, challenges the man's marital power. Moreover, alcohol use by women and/or their partners is also predicted to be associated with emotional abuse. We find some support for assertions that socioeconomic deprivation, as well as challenges to men's masculinity, is associated with emotionally abusive male partners. However, the prevalence and amount of alcohol use by the male partner stands out as the most consistent predictor of emotional abuse in heterosexual relationships.

Copyright 2010, Taylor & Francis