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CORK Bibliography: Criminal Justice System

95 citations. September 2011 to present

Prepared: September 2012

Akhgari M; Jokar F; Bahmanabadi L; Aleagha AE. Street-level heroin seizures in Iran: A survey of components. Journal of Substance Use 17(4): 348-355, 2012. (40 refs.)

Background: Street-level heroin is one of the most abused drugs in Iran. Law enforcement agencies and police try to seize illicit heroin and ban the trafficking of this opioid. Toxicological analysis of heroin samples is one of the major work loads of forensic toxicology laboratories in Iran. Design: The aim of this study was to analyse heroin samples qualitatively over 2 years study. In a cross-sectional study 85 heroin samples were analysed in Tehran Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Findings: About 91% of samples contained diacetylmorphine. The most frequently occurring synthesis by-products and adulterants were acetylcodeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, caffeine, papaverine, noscapine, dextromethorphan, morphine, codeine, phenobarbital and diazepam. Conclusions: In conclusion, the chemical composition of street-level heroin (Iranian Crack) varies not only with heroin content, but also in the adulterants added to cut the heroin. Illicit manufacture of street heroin results in the formation of some synthesis by-products. Identifying the composition of illicit heroin based on the presence or absence of other pharmaceuticals and by-products is presented in this study.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Arfsten DP; Moralez JF; Chester LL; Mohamad P; Weber TH. Drug use among the Afghanistan National Police: A national assessment. Military Medicine 177(1): 85-90, 2012. (12 refs.)

The Afghanistan Ministry of Interior (Mol) conducted nationwide urinary drug screening of Afghanistan National Police (ANP) officers for tetrahydrocannabinol, opiates, d-Methamphetamine, and benzoylecgonine-commonly referred to as cocaine-between November 2009 and July 2010. The testing was accomplished in concert with the Mol's Personnel Asset Inventory. ANP members used standardized kits from the United States. Of the 100,518 ANP tested, 9% (9,034) were positive for at least one of the target drugs: 80.5% (7,269) screened positive for tetrahydrocannabinol, 15.5% (1,399) for opiates, 2.5% (226) for d-Methamphetamine, and 1.5% (140) for benzoylecgonine. The drug-positive rate for ANP decreased from a high of 21% in November 2009 to 4% in June 2010 (p <= 0.001), suggesting that the newly established Mol antidrug policy and drug screening may have discouraged drug use among ANP officers. The Mol needs to continue to educate its officers on the antidrug policy, improve drug testing procedures, and take appropriate disciplinary action against offenders in order to continue to improve the effectiveness of its nascent antidrug actions.

Copyright 2012, Association of Military Surgeons US

Belenko S; Fabrikant N; Wolff N. The long road to treatment models of screening and admission into drug courts. Criminal Justice and Behavior 38(12): 1222-1243, 2011. (64 refs.)

Drug courts are quite popular but admit relatively small percentages of eligible offenders. Some participants may also not be appropriate for available treatment, further affecting the validity of evaluation findings. The authors used qualitative data from six representative drug courts to examine screening and admission processes in detail. Two distinct screening models were identified: (a) the prosecutor as key initial gatekeeper in diversion drug courts and (b) drug court staff as gatekeeper in post-plea courts. Each had three stages: initial eligibility screening using formal eligibility criteria, evidence-based eligibility assessment incorporating clinical assessments and other screening, and judicial and client approval. Drug court admission is complex, with many decision points, gatekeepers, formal and informal criteria, and opportunities for rejection or refusal. The findings help explain drug courts' low population penetration and suggest the importance of documenting admission processes to identify selection effects in evaluations and inform strategies to improve targeting and admissions.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Beletsky L; Martinez G; Gaines T; Nguyen L; Lozada R; Rangel G et al. Mexico's northern border conflict: Collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups. Pan American Journal of Public Health 31(5, special issue): 403-410, 2012. (44 refs.)

Objective. To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. Methods. Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009). Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. Results. Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P < 0.001). Reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in Tijuana, 36.5% in Ciudad Juarez, P = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in Tijuana, 18.3% in Ciudad Juarez) by police were commonplace. Prevalence of STIs was significantly lower in Tijuana than in Ciudad Juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, P < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. Ciudad Juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, P < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (US$ 10 versus US$ 20, P < 0.001) (in the past month). Relative to Tijuana, security deployment, especially the army's presence, was perceived to have increased more in Ciudad Juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Collateral damage from police practices in the context of Mexico's drug conflict may affect public health in the Northern Border Region. Itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. The urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed.

Copyright 2012, Pan American Health Organization

Bertoni N; Singer M; Silva CMFP; Scott Clair S; Malta M; Bastos FI. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Harm Reduction Journal 8: article 5, 2011. (39 refs.)

Background: Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective: To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and testing methods for human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results: Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions: IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central

Biswas B; Vaughn MG. Really troubled girls: Gender differences in risky sexual behavior and its correlates in a sample of juvenile offenders. Children and Youth Services Review 33(11): 2386-2391, 2011. (40 refs.)

Despite numerous studies on the myriad of psychosocial factors that affect youthful offenders, research on gender differences with respect to risky sexual behavior are limited. Using data on juvenile offenders in a residential facility, we analyzed impact of gender on sexual behavior (N = 227). Girls reported higher likelihood of diagnosis with sexually transmitted diseases, and injecting drug use including heroin and cocaine than boys. Multivariate analysis indicated that number of sexual partners, childhood trauma, and services received from emergency shelter and psychiatric settings were associated with risky sexual behavior. Discouraging, abusive and dysfunctional home environment with little support from parents/caregivers, or teachers, priests/religious leaders appear to dispose youth to a life of risky sex, drugs and delinquency.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Bright DA; Hughes CE; Chalmers J. Illuminating dark networks: A social network analysis of an Australian drug trafficking syndicate. Crime, Law and Social Change 57(2, special issue): 151-176, 2012. (44 refs.)

A small but growing number of analysts of criminal activity have used social network analysis (SNA) to characterise criminal organisations and produce valuable insights into the operation of illicit markets. The successful conduct of SNA requires data that informs about links or relationships between pairs of individuals within the group. To date analyses have been undertaken with data extracted from offender databases, transcripts of physical or electronic surveillance, written summaries of police interrogations, and transcripts of court proceedings. These data can be expensive, time-consuming and complicated to access and analyse. This paper presents findings from a study which aimed to determine the feasibility and utility of conducting SNA using a novel source of data: judges' sentencing comments. Free of charge, publically accessible without the need for ethics clearance, available at the completion of sentencing and summary in nature, this data offers a more accessible and less expensive alternative to the usual forms of data used. The judges' sentencing comments were drawn from a series of Australian court cases involving members of a criminal group involved in the manufacture and distribution of methamphetamine during the 1990s. Feasibility is evaluated in terms of the ability to produce a network map and generate the types of quantitative measures produced in studies using alternate data sources. The utility of the findings is judged in relation to the insights they provide into the structure and operation of criminal groups in Australia's methamphetamine market.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Bukten A; Skurtveit S; Stangeland P; Gossop M; Willersrud AB; Waal H et al. Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment.: A longitudinal national cohort study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 41(4): 407-414, 2011. (42 refs.)

This study investigates frequency and types of criminal convictions among a national sample of heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). All heroin users (N = 3,789) in Norway who applied for and were eligible for OMT (1997-2003) were included. The OMT records were cross-linked to Norwegian crime statistics. During observation, 24,478 convictions were recorded among 60.9% of the sample. Differences of criminal convictions were found within the group; a large proportion (39.1%) had no convictions, whereas 10% of the sample was responsible for 37.8% of all convictions. Convictions for acquisitive crimes and drug crimes were the most common. Variations in the cohort's individual crime sequences were found. The heavy involvement of heroin users with the criminal justice system provides an opportunity to intervene with dependent offenders. Coordination between treatment providers and police or courts can play an important role in improving outcomes through better access to treatment.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Burdon WM; St De Lore J; Prendergast ML. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2011(7): 40-50, 2011. (24 refs.)

Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or non-compliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

Copyright 2011, Haight-Asbury Publishing

Campbell-Heider N; Baird C. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: An overview of the issues. (editorial). Journal of Addictions Nursing 23(1): 7-13, 2012. (39 refs.)

Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Cartwright T. "To Care for Him Who Shall Have Borne the Battle": The Recent Development of Veterans Treatment Courts in America. Stanford Law & Policy Review 22: 295, 2011. (142 legal refs.)

... By working to expand and study veterans treatment courts and other sentencing reforms for veterans, advocates and researchers can both help those who sacrificed for their country and learn more about what diversion methods really work. ... Apart from those individual efforts, the most notable response came from California, which enacted legislation in 1984 allowing Vietnam veterans who were convicted of felonies and suffering from mental health or substance abuse problems to spend their sentences receiving treatment in federal correctional facilities. ... Then, at Fort Carson, Colorado, eight homicides were committed in twelve months by six soldiers; ultimately, between 2006 and 2009, ten members of a 3500-person brigade at Fort Carson would be charged with murder, attempted murder, or manslaughter. ... But for combat veterans, their underlying problem is not their substance abuse, or even their PTSD - it is their combat trauma, and that is something that cannot be addressed as effectively in a traditional drug or mental health court. ... In fact, ensuring that veterans get the federal services they are eligible for frees up more state and local resources for civilian participants in drug or mental health courts. ... For example, along with involvement after veterans begin court proceedings, the Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) program aims to divert veterans into appropriate treatment when they first come into contact with law enforcement or emergency services. ... Conclusions and Recommendations The rapid development of veterans treatment courts has implications not only for veterans who encounter the criminal justice system, but for all veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as for the development of other types of treatment courts. ... Many combat veterans live outside of the areas served by the treatment courts and cannot access them; many veterans suffering from severe combat stress are ineligible because their first crimes were violent; and focusing on veteran status rather than combat-related stress might not serve the original purpose of the courts.

Copyright 2011, Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

Cavanaugh D; Kraft MK; Muck R; Merrigan DM. Toward an effective treatment system for adolescents with substance use disorders: The role of the states. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s16-s22, 2011. (14 refs.)

A 2002 national expert panel found that the treatment system for adolescents with substance use disorders was inadequate and underdeveloped. The panel recommended immediate improvement in five areas: youth-serving agency collaboration, treatment system financing, workforce development, the implementation of evidence-based practices, and family involvement in all aspects of treatment. In 2004, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), designed the State Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Coordination Grant program (SAC) and implemented it in 2005 to address the critical need in the field. This paper reviews the adolescent substance use disorders treatment system, discusses selected drivers for change and the design of the SAC grant program, and summarizes some of the program's results. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis document that substantive systems development occurred within each of the sixteen grantees and that federal-state partnerships are useful in creating systemic change.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Chamberlain AW. Offender rehabilitation: Examining changes in inmate treatment characteristics, program participation, and institutional behavior. Justice Quarterly 29(2): 183-228, 2012. (99 refs.)

The efficacy of offender rehabilitation has been a topic of much debate over the past few decades. While much of the corrections literature has focused on program effectiveness, less attention has been placed on the expansion and delivery of services to incarcerated offenders, and whether the advances that have been made with regard to rehabilitation have changed the nature of treatment delivery to inmates. Using data from three time points collected as part of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) survey of state inmates, this paper examines the criminogenic needs of offenders and how those needs have changed over time, the role inmate needs play in driving participation in institutional programs, and whether inmates with unmet treatment needs commit a disproportionate number of institutional infractions. The results suggest that inmate needs have changed substantially over the past decade, with the most extensive needs concentrated in a small proportion of inmates. Consequently, correctional institutions are not always been able to match offenders to the appropriate services, which may have a direct impact on institutional safety.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Clark BC; Perkins A; McCullumsmith CB; Islam AM; Sung J; Cropsey KL. What does self-identified drug of choice tell us about individuals under community corrections supervision? Journal of Addiction Medicine 6(1): 57-67, 2012. (26 refs.)

Objectives: The term "drug of choice" (DOC) refers to substance abusers' preferred drug and this information often adds to the clinical picture of the patient because substance users often meet diagnostic criteria for dependence on multiple drugs. Characteristics such as age, race, marital status, and psychiatric illnesses have been shown to differentiate among individuals with different DOC preferences. However, no studies have examined DOC in the context of criminal behavior and other drug dependencies. Methods: The participants (N=15, 475) of a community corrections program, Treatment Alternatives for Safer Communities (TASC), were classified by DOC for the 4 main drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opioids) and each drug class was compared with the other 3 DOC using binary logistic regression. Results: Alcohol as DOC was associated with being older, white, male, having private health insurance, being medicated for a mental health disorder, and having a criminal history of person offenses. Cocaine as DOC was associated with being older, black, female, attempting suicide, having less than a high school education, living in a shelter or with relatives, being unemployed, being uninsured, being physically and sexually abused, and committing property and court offenses but not person or substance offenses. Marijuana as DOC was associated with being younger, black, male, never being married, and committing substance but not property or court offenses. Opioids as DOC were associated with being white, female, being married, higher education, being unemployed, and being medicated for a mental health disorder. Conclusions: Overall, there were substantial differences between the 4 DOC groups, and the results are commensurate with expectations based on the abuse and dependency literature.

Copyright 2012, Lippinocott, Williams & Wilkins

Clarke JG; Martin RA; Stein LAR; Lopes CE; Mello J; Friedmann P; Bock B. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E.) study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison. BMC Public Health 11: 767, 2011. (49 refs.)

Background: Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U. S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design: This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion: Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central

Committee on Adolescence; Braverman PK; Adelman WP; Breuner CC; Levine DA; Marcell AV; Murray PJ et al. Health care for youth in the juvenile justice system. (policy statement). Pediatrics 28(6): 1219-1235, 2011. (87 refs.)

Youth in the juvenile correctional system are a high-risk population who, in many cases, have unmet physical, developmental, and mental health needs. Multiple studies have found that some of these health issues occur at higher rates than in the general adolescent population. Although some youth in the juvenile justice system have interfaced with health care providers in their community on a regular basis, others have had inconsistent or nonexistent care. The health needs of these youth are commonly identified when they are admitted to a juvenile custodial facility. Pediatricians and other health care providers play an important role in the care of these youth, and continuity between the community and the correctional facility is crucial. This policy statement provides an overview of the health needs of youth in the juvenile correctional system, including existing resources and standards for care, financing of health care within correctional facilities, and evidence-based interventions. Recommendations are provided for the provision of health care services to youth in the juvenile correctional system as well as specific areas for advocacy efforts. [NB. This policy statement that also includes discussion of subsstance use and related problems.]

Copyright 2011, American Academy of Pediatrics

Cropsey KL; Lane PS; Hale GJ; Jackson DO; Clark CB; Ingersoll KS et al. Results of a pilot randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine for opioid dependent women in the criminal justice system. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 119(3): 172-178, 2011. (34 refs.)

Aims: Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. Methods: 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n = 15) or placebo (n = 12: double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through 3 month follow-up. Results: The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M +/- SD = 31.8 +/- 8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M +/- SD = 12 +/- 1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At end of treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square = 10.9, df = 1; p < 0.001). However, by the three month follow-up point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Conclusions: Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12 weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Csete J; Kaplan K; Hayashi K; Fairbairn N; Suwannawong P; Zhang R et al. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. BMC International Health and Human Rights 11: 12, 2011. (33 refs.)

Background: Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods: We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results: In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion: These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central

Curry-Stevens A; Nissen LB. Reclaiming Futures considers an anti-oppressive frame to decrease disparities. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s54-s59, 2011. (53 refs.)

The Reclaiming Futures mandate is to improve substance abuse service interventions within the juvenile justice system, and concurrently to ensure that racial disparities are avoided. But traditional efforts to reduce disparities have not been adequate to preclude these almost universal trends from reappearing in the initiative. In response, the authors have introduced anti-oppressive practice (AOP) to the initiative, beginning first with workshops at the national gatherings, and following up with webinars, discipline-specific training for judges, probation professionals, alcohol and drug treatment professionals, community members, and project directors, and finally, an in-depth course to advance the approach more deeply into the initiative. This paper begins with a review of the status of racial disparities in the United States, and shares details of the evolution of Reclaiming Futures to consider an innovative response to such disparities, namely anti-oppressive practice. We detail the ways in which AOP has been incorporated into Reclaiming Futures. The paper then discusses two key elements of our initiative: the theoretical and conceptual elements of AOP that make it a desirable approach to reducing disparities, and an introduction to the core competencies that are affiliated with AOP. We anticipate that this paper will be of interest to program administrators and service providers who are searching for practice innovations that offer a positive prognosis for reducing racial disparities.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

DeBeck K; Wood E; Zhang R; Buxton J; Montaner J; Kerr T. A dose-dependent relationship between exposure to a street-based drug scene and health-related harms among people who use injection drugs. Journal of Urban Health 88(4): 724-735, 2011. (47 refs.)

While the community impacts of drug-related street disorder have been well described, lesser attention has been given to the potential health and social implications of drug scene exposure on street-involved people who use illicit drugs. Therefore, we sought to assess the impacts of exposure to a street-based drug scene among injection drug users (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Data were derived from a prospective cohort study known as the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study. Four categories of drug scene exposure were defined based on the numbers of hours spent on the street each day. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with varying levels of drug scene exposure (2-6, 6-15, over 15 hours) during the period of December 2005 to March 2009. Among our sample of 1,486 IDU, at baseline, a total of 314 (21%) fit the criteria for high drug scene exposure (> 15 hours per day). In multivariate GEE analysis, factors significantly and independently associated with high exposure included: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 9.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.36-14.20); daily crack use (AOR = 2.70; 95% CI, 2.07-3.52); encounters with police (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.75); and being a victim of violence (AOR = 1.49; 95 % CI, 1.14-1.95). Regular employment (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and engagement with addiction treatment (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.75) were negatively associated with high exposure. Our findings indicate that drug scene exposure is associated with markers of vulnerability and higher intensity addiction. Intensity of drug scene exposure was associated with indicators of vulnerability to harm in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings highlight opportunities for policy interventions to address exposure to street disorder in the areas of employment, housing, and addiction treatment.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Dembo R; Briones R; Gulledge L; Karas L; Winters KC; Belenko S et al. Stress, mental health, and substance abuse problems in a sample of diversion program youths: An exploratory latent class analysis. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 21(2): 130-155, 2012. (49 refs.)

Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health, and substance abuse issues; and Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths' latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice are presented.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Dias AC; Vieira DL; Gomes LS; Araujo MR; Laranjeira R. Longitudinal outcomes among a cohort of crack users after 12 years from treatment discharge. Journal of Addictive Diseases 30(3): 271-280, 2011. (50 refs.)

Follow-ups of crack consumption are scarce in literature. The aim of this article was to investigate the evolution of a cohort of crack users and identify longitudinal outcomes. For the study, 131 consecutive crack users who were admitted to treatment (1992-1994) were interviewed. After 12 years, 107 participants were assessed. Among them, 43 were abstainers, 22 were crack users, 13 had been arrested, 2 were missing, and 27 were dead. The study showed dynamic changes of crack use patterns over time and a high involvement in illegal activities (p = 0.00) among drug users. Discontinuation of care and stigmatization of crack users has been discussed.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Elliott L; Golub A; Dunlap E. Off the street and into "the cut": Deterrence and displacement in NYC's quality of life marijuana policing. International Journal of Drug Policy 23(3): 210-219, 2012. (73 refs.)

This paper examines the accounts of NYC marijuana smokers about the information and values underlying decisions about where to smoke. We do so to assess the deterrent value of NYC's "quality of life" policing of marijuana in public view. Participants indicated a general awareness of escalated marijuana policing and its attendant risks and almost universally spoke of avoiding public use in high-traffic locations and in the city's cultural and commercial centres. Beyond that, however, the deterrent value of aggressive marijuana policing appears limited. Individuals without access to private space reported outdoor marijuana use as a normalized peer group activity that has increasingly been displaced to marginal and interstitial public spaces that were collectively referred to by participants as "the cut."

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Evans E; Huang D; Hser YI. High-risk offenders participating in court-supervised substance abuse treatment: Characteristics, treatment received, and factors associated with recidivism. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 38(4): 510-525, 2011. (51 refs.)

High-risk offenders treated by California's Proposition 36 court-supervised drug treatment initiative account for a disproportionate number of re-arrests (Hawken 2008) undermining the many successes of the program, yet little is known about their characteristics, treatment experiences, or factors that influence re-arrest. To better understand this group, self-reported and administrative data were analyzed on 78 high-risk (five or more convictions in the previous 5 years) and 1,009 low-risk offenders enrolled during 2004. At intake, high-risk offenders were younger, more were male, and more had prior contact with psychiatric and criminal justice systems. Treatment received and the proportion recidivated during the 30-months after treatment assessment were similar across groups, but high-risk offenders had a greater number of re-arrests. The number of re-arrests was increased by high-risk classification, but decreased by receipt of more treatment services and longer treatment length. Moreover, the number of re-arrests was highest among high-risk offenders with shorter treatment lengths, whereas it was similar to that among low-risk offenders if treatment length was longer. To reduce recidivism among high-risk offenders in court-supervised drug treatment, consideration of psychiatric problems and criminal history is needed, as is receipt of sufficient treatment.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Ewing SWF; Venner KL; Mead HK; Bryan AD. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: A preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth. BMC Pediatrics 11: article 71, 2011. (65 refs.)

Background: Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2) the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3) individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods: To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years); 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native). All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use) and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors). Results: As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions: This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches, by racial/ethnic group for justice-involved youth. Additionally, this study highlights the need for timely, empirically supported (developmentally and cross-culturally) substance abuse interventions for all justice-involved youth.

Copyright 2011, Biomed Central

Ferri M; Davoli M; Perucci CA. Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin-dependent individuals. (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12: e-article CD003410, 2011. (67 refs.)

Background: Several types of medications have been used for stabilizing heroin users: Methadone, Buprenorphine and levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol (LAAM.) The present review focuses on the prescription of heroin to heroin-dependent individuals. Objectives: To compare heroin maintenance to methadone or other substitution treatments for opioid dependence regarding: efficacy and acceptability, retaining patients in treatment, reducing the use of illicit substances, and improving health and social functioning. Search methods: A review of the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to november 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2005) and CINAHL until 2005 (on OVID) was conducted. Personal communications with researchers in the field of heroin prescription identified ongoing trials. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of heroin maintenance treatment (alone or combined with methadone) compared with any other pharmacological treatment for heroin-dependent individuals. Data collection and analysis: Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: Eight studies involving 2007 patients met the inclusion criteria. Five studies compared supervised injected heroin plus flexible dosages of methadone treatment to oral methadone only and showed that heroin helps patients to remain in treatment (valid data from 4 studies, N=1388 Risk Ratio 1.44 (95% CI 1.19-1.75) heterogeneity P=0.03), and to reduce use of illicit drugs. Maintenance with supervised injected heroin has a not statistically significant protective effect on mortality (4 studies, N=1477 Risk Ratio 0.65 (95% CI 0.25-1.69) heterogeneity P=0.89), but it exposes at a greater risk of adverse events related to study medication (3 studies N=373 Risk Ratio 13.50 (95% CI 2.55-71.53) heterogeneity P=0.52). Results on criminal activity and incarceration were not possible to be pooled but where the outcome were measured results of single studies do provide evidence that heroin provision can reduce criminal activity and incarceration/imprisonment. Social functioning improved in all the intervention groups with heroin groups having slightly better.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Folino JO; Mayer EL. Juvenile offenders assessment. (review). Current Opinion in Psychiatry 24(5): 436-441, 2011. (51 refs.)

Purpose of review: Evaluation of juveniles is an integral process that includes a broad bio-psycho-social clinical perspective together with the use of auxiliary instruments. The aim of this review is to report relevant issues for this process found in recent publications. Recent findings: Several evidences lead to broadening the assessment process of children and youngsters to include family functioning style. Mental health services allow the evaluation of multiple factors associated with antisocial behavior that may lead to devising preventive actions. In the Juvenile Justice System a wide-ranging evaluation must include the exploration of general personality characteristics and psychopathic traits in particular; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; intelligence; substance abuse and conduct disorder must be considered. Summary: A number of factors that have an impact on juvenile antisocial behavior have been identified and can be assessed using the appropriate methodology. The exploration of these factors at different developmental stages and in their various manifestations provide guidelines for devising preventive and therapeutic actions as well as for supporting judicial decisions. Though enriching the present state of the art is always a challenge, it is imperative to encourage the governments to utilize this knowledge to improve the care system of children and adolescents.

Copyright 2011, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Forsberg LG; Ernst D; Sundqvist K; Farbring CA. Motivational interviewing delivered by existing prison staff: A randomized controlled study of effectiveness on substance use after release. Substance Use & Misuse 46(12): 1477-1485, 2011. (31 refs.)

A sample of 296 drug-using inmates in 14 Swedish prisons was randomized during 2004-2006 into three intervention groups; Motivational Interviewing delivered by counselors with workshop-only training, or by counselors with workshop training followed by peer group supervision, and controls. Drug and alcohol use was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) at intake and at 10 months after release. Complete data from 114 clients were analyzed by a stepwise regression analysis. All three groups reduced alcohol and drug use. Limitations in the study are discussed and future research is suggested. The study is financed by grants from the Research Committee of the National Prison and Probation Administration.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Friedmann PD; Green TC; Taxman FS; Harrington M; Rhodes AG; Katz E. Collaborative behavioral management among parolees: Drug use, crime and re-arrest in the Step'n Out randomized trial. Addiction 107(6): 1099-1108, 2012. (37 refs.)

Aims: To determine whether collaborative behavioral management (CBM) reduces substance use, crime and re-arrest among drug-involved parolees. Design: Step'n Out was a randomized behavioral trial of CBM versus standard parole (SP) during 200408. CBM adapted evidence-based role induction, behavioral contracting and contingent reinforcement to provide parole officer/treatment counselor dyads with positive tools in addition to sanctions to manage parolees' behavior over 12 weeks. Setting Six parole offices in five states in the USA. Participants: Parolee volunteers with a mandate for addiction treatment and a minimum of 3 months of parole (n = 476). Follow-up was 94% at 3 months and 86% at 9 months. Measurements: Drug use and crime in a given month from calendar interviews 3 and 9 months after parole initiation, and re-arrests from criminal justice administrative data. Findings The CBM group had fewer months in which they used their primary drug [adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05, 0.78, P = 0.02] and alcohol (ARR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.66, P = 0.006) over follow-up. CBM had its greatest effects among parolees who reported marijuana or another non-hard drug as their primary drug; parolees who preferred stimulants or opiates did not benefit. No differences were seen in total crime, re-arrests or parole revocations. Conclusions: Collaborative behavioral management may reduce substance use among primary marijuana or other non-hard drug-using parolees without increasing revocations. Because the majority of drug violation arrests in the United States are for marijuana, these findings have important implications for the management of a substantial proportion of the US community correctional population.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Friedmann PD; Hoskinson R; Gordon M; Schwartz R; Kinlock T; Knight K et al. Medication-assisted treatment in criminal justice agencies affiliated with the criminal justice-drug abuse treatment studies (CJ-DATS): Availability, barriers, and intentions. Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 9-18, 2012. (25 refs.)

Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is underutilized in the treatment of drug-dependent, criminal justice populations. This study surveyed criminal justice agencies affiliated with the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) to assess use of MAT and factors influencing use of MAT. A convenience sample (N = 50) of criminal justice agency respondents (e. g., jails, prisons, parole/probation, and drug courts) completed a survey on MAT practices and attitudes. Pregnant women and individuals experiencing withdrawal were most likely to receive MAT for opiate dependence in jail or prison, whereas those reentering the community from jail or prison were the least likely to receive MAT. Factors influencing use of MAT included criminal justice preferences for drug-free treatment, limited knowledge of the benefits of MAT, security concerns, regulations prohibiting use of MAT for certain agencies, and lack of qualified medical staff. Differences across agency type in the factors influencing use and perceptions of MAT were also examined. MAT use is largely limited to detoxification and maintenance of pregnant women in criminal justice settings. Use of MAT during the community reentry period is minimal. Addressing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about MAT may increase its adoption, but better linkages to community pharmacotherapy during the reentry period might overcome other issues, including security, liability, staffing, and regulatory concerns. The CJ-DATS collaborative MAT implementation study to address inadequate knowledge, attitudes, and linkage will be described.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Griffin OH; Miller BL. OxyContin and a regulation deficiency of the pharmaceutical industry: rethinking state-corporate crime. Critical Criminology 19(3): 213-226, 2011. (44 refs.)

On May 10, 2007, three executives of the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma pled guilty in federal court to misleading doctors and patients about the risk of addiction and potential for abuse of OxyContin. Additionally, Purdue Pharma paid over $600 million in fines and other payments to the United States government and the Commonwealth of Virginia. The drug OxyContin was first introduced to the market in December of 1995. Warning signs of the drug's potential for abuse were almost immediate, and there were reports of copious amounts of the drug being diverted into the black market for recreational use. In some cases, criminologists have argued that if the government fails to protect its citizens from the harm of a corporation then such behavior should be considered state-corporate crime. We critically evaluate the case of OxyContin to see if it falls under the state-corporate crime paradigm. Further, we argue the state-corporate crime paradigm can benefit from an increased focus on the organizational structures of regulation agencies.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Gryczynski J; Kinlock TW; Kelly SM; O'Grady KE; Gordon MS; Schwartz RP. Opioid agonist maintenance for probationers: Patient-level predictors of treatment retention, drug use, and crime. Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 30-39, 2012. (35 refs.)

This study examined outcomes and their predictors among 181 probationers enrolling in opioid agonist maintenance with methadone or levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Participants were interviewed at treatment entry and 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Treatment retention and frequency of heroin use, cocaine use, and income-generating criminal activity were examined using survival and longitudinal analyses. Participants reported marked reductions in drug use and crime relative to treatment entry. A number of patient characteristics associated with various outcomes were identified. The findings support engaging probationers in treatment and highlight patient factors that might influence outcomes.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Hakansson A; Bradvik L; Schlyter F; Berglund M. Variables associated with repeated suicide attempt in a criminal justice population. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 41(5): 517-531, 2011. (81 refs.)

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with younger age, opioid analgesics, somatic medication, overdose, maternal psychiatric problems, delirium tremens, cognitive problems, and violent behavior. As in other settings, factors associated with repetition differed from those associated with suicide attempts in general. In this setting, substance use complications and cognitive problems were connected to repetition and should be addressed in risk assessments.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

Hakansson A; Schlyter F; Berglund M. Associations between polysubstance use and psychiatric problems in a criminal justice population in Sweden. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 118(1): 5-11, 2011. (44 refs.)

Background: Polysubstance use is common in substance users, and may complicate their clinical course. This study, in a criminal justice setting in Sweden, examines the association between the number of concurrently used substance types and psychiatric symptoms during 30 days before incarceration, while controlling for background variables such as family history (drug and alcohol problems, psychiatric problems, criminality), demographic data and history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. Methods: The data material comprised 5659 criminal justice clients reporting a substance use problem, examined with the Addiction Severity Index. Variables were compared in a multinomial regression analysis, comparing clients reporting one (n = 1877), two (n = 1408), three (n = 956), four (n = 443) and five or more (it = 167) substance types. Results: The 30-day prevalence of most psychiatric symptoms included in the study (depression, anxiety, cognitive problems, hallucinations, difficulty controlling violent behaviour, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts) was higher in individuals with a higher number of concurrent substance types used. In multinomial regression analysis, while controlling for background variables, these associations remained for concurrent suicidal ideation, cognitive problems, hallucinations and violent behaviour, with the latter two being associated with the higher numbers of substance types. Binge alcohol drinking, tranquilizers, opioids and the number of substance types reported were associated with several of the psychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: In the present criminal justice setting in Sweden, the use of multiple substance types and concurrent psychiatric symptoms appear to be associated, and a sub-group reporting particularly high numbers of concurrent substance types are particularly likely to report potentially severe psychiatric problems.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Harris A; Selling D; Luther C; Hershberger J; Brittain J; Dickman S et al. Rate of community methadone treatment reporting at jail re-entry following a methadone increased dose: Quality improvement effort. Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 70-75, 2012. (24 refs.)

The Rikers Island Key Extended Entry Program (KEEP) has offered methadone treatment for opioid dependent inmates incarcerated in New York City's jails since 1986. In response to a trend toward low-dose methadone maintenance prescribing, a quality improvement (QI) protocol trained KEEP counselors, physicians, and pharmacists in the evidence base supporting moderate-to-high methadone maintenance doses in order to maximize therapeutic effects and rates of successful reporting to community methadone treatment programs (MTPs) post release. Discharge dose level and length of incarceration data were analyzed for 2 groups of KEEP patients discharged pre/post-QI. Among patients incarcerated for 21 or more days, the proportion of those on moderate-to-high doses of methadone increased significantly. Patients who reached a moderate-to-high methadone dose demonstrated higher rates of reporting to community MTP versus lower doses, both pre- and post-QI. Overall, a higher proportion of all patients reported to community MTP post-QI.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Hawthorne WB; Folsom DP; Sommerfeld DH; Lanouette NM; Lewis M; Aarons GA et al. Incarceration among adults who are in the public mental health systemem: Rates, risk factors, and short-term outcomes. Psychiatric Services 63(1): 26-32, 2012. (17 refs.)

Objective: Incarceration of people with mental illness has become a major social, clinical, and economic concern, with an estimated 2.1 million incarcerations in 2007. Prior studies have primarily focused on mental illness rates among incarcerated persons. This study examined rates of and risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration, as well as short-term outcomes after incarceration, among patients in a large public mental health system. Methods: The data set included 39,463 patient records combined with 4,544 matching incarceration records from the county jail system during fiscal year 2005-2006. Risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration were analyzed with logistic regression. Time after release from the index incarceration until receiving services was examined with survival analysis. Results: During the year, 11.5% of patients (N=4,544) were incarcerated. Risk factors for incarceration included prior incarcerations; co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; homelessness; schizophrenia, bipolar, or other psychotic disorder diagnoses; male gender; no Medicaid insurance; and being African American. Patients older than 45, Medicaid beneficiaries, and those from Latino, Asian, and other non-Euro-American racial-ethnic groups were less likely to be incarcerated. Risk factors for reincarceration included co-occurring substance-related diagnoses; prior incarceration; diagnosed schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; homelessness; and incarceration for three or fewer days. Patients whose first service after release from incarceration was outpatient or case management were less likely to receive subsequent emergency services or to be reincarcerated within 90 days. Conclusions: Modifiable factors affecting incarceration risk include homelessness, substance abuse, lack of medical insurance, and timely receipt of outpatient or case management services after release from incarceration.

Copyright 2012, American Psychiatric Association

Hehir AM; Indig D; Prosser S; Archer VA. Evaluation of a smoke-free forensic hospital: Patients' perspectives on issues and benefits. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(5, special issue): 672-677, 2012. (25 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. In 2008, a new high secure forensic mental health inpatient hospital was opened in New South Wales as a smoke-free facility. This study describes the experience of patients and the impact of the smoke-free policy on smoking intentions and practice. Design and Methods. The study methods included: (1) four semi-structured focus groups with 21 current patients; (2) patient surveys collected from 45 current patients; and (3) follow-up survey from 15 discharged patients. All methods included questions related to smoking history, experience of moving to and living in the smoke-free environment and smoking intentions or status post discharge. Results. Many focus group participants indicated that they were now off cigarettes for life while some were angry about the policy. Nearly all (80%) patients surveyed smoked prior to admission. Over one-third (39%) of patients were angry at being forced to stop smoking, while 42% wanted to give up when they were admitted. Most (62%) felt they had gained weight since they stopped smoking; however, 75% indicated that living in a smoke-free environment had a positive effect on their health. Over a third (36%) of patients indicated that they intended to smoke when discharged. Post discharge, of the 12 who smoked prior to admission, seven (58%) remained non-smokers at follow up. Discussion and Conclusions. This study describes promising findings about the experience of patients moving to a smoke-free mental health inpatient facility, including improved health and potential for sustained smoking cessation post discharge.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Hopley AAB; Brunelle C. Personality mediators of psychopathy and substance dependence in male offenders. Addictive Behaviors 37(8): 947-955, 2012. (94 refs.)

Psychopathy and substance dependence (SOD) is highly prevalent in incarcerated populations and tends to co-occur in the same individuals. The factors underlying this relationship are not clearly understood. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether two personality models mediate the relationship between psychopathy and substance misuse in male offenders. Ninety-two inmates in provincial correctional centers in New Brunswick completed questionnaires, including the Sensitivity to Reward Sensitivity to Punishment Questionnaire to measure behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale to measure anxiety sensitivity, introversion/hopelessness, sensation seeking and impulsivity, and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Revised to assess psychopathy levels. Results revealed that high impulsivity indirectly mediated the relationship between psychopathy and stimulant dependence. In addition, low anxiety sensitivity indirectly mediated the relationship between psychopathy and opioid dependence. Finally, impulsivity indirectly and inconsistently mediated the relationship between psychopathy and alcohol dependence. These results suggest that individuals with psychopathic traits are at increased risk of misusing certain drugs due to underlying personality-based differences.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Hornberger S; Smith SL. Family involvement in adolescent substance abuse treatment and recovery: What do we know? What lies ahead? Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s70-s76, 2011. (30 refs.)

Families represent the most important resources that young people have in their journey through treatment toward recovery. Unfortunately, family members are often seen as part of the problem and not as part of the solution to adolescent alcohol and other drug (ACID) treatment and recovery. This attitude and misperception can be changed through education, outreach, and engagement of family members. Family involvement and creating a parent-professional collaborative partnership is a step toward improving the outcomes for adolescents in need of treatment and recovery. It is crucial that families understand the treatment process, as well as the hope, process, and reality of recovery. Without information families may not understand the importance of a treatment and recovery plan for their adolescent, the potential adverse consequences, and the impact of these AOD problems on other family members. Families need to learn the continuum of services and supports available, and how family participation improves treatment outcomes and strengthens the recovery process. Family involvement should be an essential part of intake, treatment, and recovery planning, as well as the foundation for effective parent-professional partnerships.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Horton A. Heroin users: The need for improved treatment for incarcerated women. Social Work in Public Health 26(2): 176-188, 2011. (21 refs.)

This paper addresses the use of drugs, specifically heroin, by women. While women's rate of incarceration in the nation have dramatically increased, tripling in the last decade, prisons have not kept pace with the growth of the number of women in prison and the need for drug treatment and recovery for this population. This paper examines one programmatic effort to provide services to this most vulnerable population in the state of Illinois. The continuum of care model is considered in light of the challenges of high recidivism rates, particularly in the state of Illinois. It identifies a need for more effective evidence-based services at the state level for prison inmates before and after discharge. Effective program evaluation has not been a priority in some states, and perhaps Illinois correction is prototypical. More effective intervention may requiremore community involvement post-release for ex-offenders. Barriers to healthcare, employment and housing, are just as evident with female drug offenders as in the male population.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Humphreys K. Federal policy on criminal offenders who have substance use disorders: How can we maximize public health and public safety? Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 5-8, 2012. (17 refs.)

The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Israelsson M. Welfare, temperance and compulsory commitment to care for persons with substance misuse problems: A comparative study of 38 European countries. European Addiction Research 17(6): 329-341, 2011. (52 refs.)

Aims: The study explores the existence and types of law on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) of adult substance misusers in Europe and how such laws are related to variations in demographics, alcohol consumption and epidemiology in misuse of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, temperance culture heritage, health and welfare expenditure, and involvement and role of the state in welfare distribution. Material and Methods: Legal information on laws on CCC of misusers was obtained primarily through a survey of 38 European countries. Predictors of laws on CCC, and types of such, were analyzed from country descriptors in multivariate models. Results: A majority (74%) of the explored countries have a law concerning CCC. The most common type of CCC law is within criminal justice legislation (45%), but civil CCC is almost as frequent (37%). These two models of CCC legislation are related to differences in cultural heritage and welfare distribution models. Conclusions: Temperance cultures, i.e. countries with a history of a strong temperance movement, and countries with a Beveridgean distribution of welfare, i.e. through the state, tend to favor civil CCC, while countries with a Bismarckian distribution of welfare, i.e. through insurance with less state interference, tend to favor CCC within criminal justice legislation.

Copyright 2011, Karger

Jung H. Increase in the length of incarceration and the subsequent labor market outcomes: Evidence from men released from Illinois state prisons. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30(3): 499-U150, 2011. (46 refs.)

The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for ex-prisoners to reenter society as productive citizens. To investigate this claim I examine how increase in duration of incarceration affects subsequent earnings and employment. Comparing long-serving prisoners with short-serving ones in the Illinois state prison system, I find that the length of incarceration is positively associated with earnings and employment, even though these effects attenuate over time. The positive effects are stronger for individuals convicted of economically motivated and less violent crimes (such as property-and drug-related offenses) than for those convicted of violent crimes (such as person-related offenses). The effect is also stronger for prison entrants with self-reported drug addiction problems. The deterrent effect of lengthy incarceration and rehabilitation during incarceration are possible reasons for this positive effect. However, because this paper analyzes men who served less than four years in Illinois prison and excludes the population of men who served their terms exclusively in jail, readers should be cautious about generalizing findings of this paper.

Copyright 2011, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management

Kelly SM; O'Grady KE; Mitchell SG; Brown BS; Schwartz RP. Predictors of methadone treatment retention from a multi-site study: A survival analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117(2-3): 170-175, 2011. (56 refs.)

Background: Longer tenure in methadone treatment has been associated with positive outcomes such as reductions in drug use and crime, HIV seroconversion, and overdose death. Methods: Retention in treatment was examined for 351 opioid-dependent individuals who had been newly admitted to one of six methadone programs in Baltimore, Maryland. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to predict number of days retained in treatment to 90 days from baseline ASI Composite scores and Treatment Motivation scales. A second analysis predicted days in treatment to 365 days using the same baseline variables plus 3-month Motivation scales, Patient Satisfaction scales, and methadone dose in the 248 individuals who had remained in treatment at least 3 months. Analyses held constant gender, race, age, whether participants had a history of regularly smoking cocaine, whether participants were on parole/probation, and program site. Results: Retention at 90 days was predicted by female gender, and greater baseline Treatment Readiness (p = .005) but lower Desire for Help (p = .010). Retention at 365 days was predicted by higher baseline ASI Medical Composite scores (p = .037) and lower Legal Composite scores (p = .039), higher 3-month Treatment Satisfaction scores (p = .008), and higher dose (p = .046). Conclusions: Greater satisfaction with treatment at 3 months was a significant predictor of retention at 12 months, indicating the importance of understanding the role satisfaction plays in determining retention. Greater severity of legal problems was associated with shorter retention, suggesting that program efforts to increase services to criminal justice patients (e.g., legal counseling) may constitute a useful addition to treatment.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Kimonis ER; Tatar JR; Cauffman E. Substance-related disorders among juvenile offenders: What role do psychopathic traits play? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 26(2): 212-225, 2012. (116 refs.)

Substance use disorders are associated with psychopathy, a personality disorder that is heterogeneous in both adults and youth; secondary variants of psychopathy with comorbid psychopathology and primary variants without comorbidity show distinct correlates and outcomes. In adult criminal populations, secondary variants report greater substance abuse compared with primary variants. The primary aim of this study is to replicate and extend these findings to a juvenile offender population. Compared with primary variants of juvenile psychopathy, secondary variants (a) reported significantly more frequent substance use-particularly alcohol-within the 6 months prior to incarceration (d = .43), (b) were almost twice as likely to abuse substances while incarcerated, and (c) were more likely to be diagnosed with a current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance use disorder. Practical implications for working with justice-involved youth are discussed.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

King DC; Abram KM; Romero EG; Washburn JJ; Welty LJ; Teplin LA. Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Psychiatric Services 62(12): 1430-1438, 2011. (48 refs.)

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and its relationship with current psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Methods: Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version 2.3, in a stratified, random sample of 1, 829 youths detained at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (final sample, N=1, 735). History of maltreatment was also ascertained from Cook County Court Child Protection Division records. Results: More than three-quarters of females and more than two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. Females who experienced various types of abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times as likely as females with no maltreatment to have any disorder. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (range of odds ratios, 1.9-7.9). Among youths who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders among females and attention-deficit hyperactivity or disruptive behavior disorders and substance use disorders among males. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is common among detained youths and is also highly associated with psychiatric disorders. The mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice systems must collaborate to ensure that youths receive protection and care when they return to their communities.

Copyright 2011, American Psychiatric Association

Korcha RA; Polcin DL. Addressing the deluge of early release prisoners into US communities. (editorial). Addiction 107(1): 4-5, 2012. (6 refs.)

Kratz LM; Vaughan EL. Mental health problems, legal involvement, and smoking during pregnancy. Substance Use & Misuse 47(6): 718-725, 2012. (32 refs.)

The current study examined predictors of past 30-day cigarette use among a US nationally representative sample of pregnant women over the age of 18 (N = 1,782). The study consisted of secondary data analysis of the 2005-2007 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression analyses indicated that low-income women, those who experienced mental health problems in the past year, and women who experienced legal problems were more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Limitations to the study as well as implications for future research are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Informa HealthCare

Kreiner ER. Whose applicable guideline range is it anyway? Examining whether nominal career offenders can receive sentence modifications based on retroactive reductions in the crack cocaine guidelines. Columbia Law Review 112(4): 870-911, 2012. (6 refs.)

The recent reductions in the guideline range for federal crack cocaine offenses have spurred tens of thousands of motions for sentence modifications under 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(2) by individuals sentenced pursuant to the old, harsher crack cocaine guidelines. This deluge of 3582(c)(2) motions has forced courts to grapple with difficult eligibility questions far many defendants whose sentences were impacted by the old crack cocaine guidelines. These eligibility questions revolve around the requirement that amendments to the United States Sentencing Guidelines ("Guidelines") reduce a defendant's "applicable guideline range" in order to qualify for a retroactive sentence modification. This Note examines a circuit split regarding the eligibility for 3582(c)(2) sentence modifications of "nominal career offenders"-defendants who were subject to the increased penalties of the Guidelines' career offender provision, but received sentences within the crack cocaine guideline range because career offender status significantly overstated the seriousness of their criminal history. After examining this complex circuit split, this Note argues that nominal career offenders are not eligible for 3582(c)(2) sentence modifications because their applicable guideline range is the career of range, not the crack cocaine range.

Copyright 2012, Columbia Journal Transnational Law Association

Kretschmar JM; Flannery DJ. Displacement and suicide risk for juvenile justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 40(6): 797-806, 2011. (52 refs.)

This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or behavioral health problems. Data collected included youth-reported suicide and self-harm ideation, caregiver reports of previous suicide attempts, and whether the youth had been in an out-of-home placement in the year prior to enrollment in the program. Logistic regression analyses indicated that youth who had recently been in an out-of-home placement reported significantly less suicide ideation and marginally less self-harm ideation than youth who had not been in an out-of-home placement. Out-of-home placement status had no impact on caregiver reports of previous youth suicide attempts.

Copyright 2011, Taylor & Francis

Kroner DG; Takahashi M. Every session counts: The differential impact of previous programmes and current programme dosage on offender recidivism. Legal and Criminological Psychology 17(1): 136-150, 2012. (51 refs.)

Purpose. The present study examined the impact of current treatment dosage on recidivism among offenders. Methods. Using a sample of dropouts from a community treatment programme, current treatment dosage and past completed programmes were used to predict criminal recidivism. Results. After statistically controlling for risk levels, only current dosage was predictive of recidivism. Conclusions. Offenders' current direction, indicated by current dosage, is central to reducing recidivism. Strategies for offenders completing treatment sessions are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Lasnier B; Cantinotti M; Guyon L; Royer A; Brochu S; Chayer L. Implementing an indoor smoking ban in prison: Enforcement issues and effects on tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke and health of inmates. Canadian Journal of Public Health 102(4): 249-253, 2011. (15 refs.)

Objectives: To describe the issues encountered during the implementation of an indoor smoking ban in prison and its effects on self-reported tobacco use, perceived exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and perceived health status of inmates in Quebec's provincial correctional facilities. Methods: Quantitative data were obtained from 113 inmates in three provincial correctional facilities in the province of Quebec, Canada. Qualitative data were obtained from 52 inmates and 27 staff members. Participants were recruited through a self-selection process. Particular efforts were made to enrol proportions of men, women, smokers and non-smokers similar to those generally found among correctional populations. Results: Despite the indoor smoking ban, 93% of inmates who declared themselves smokers reported using tobacco products inside the correctional facilities and 48% did not report any reduction in their tobacco use. Only 46% of smokers declared having been caught smoking inside the facility, and more than half of them (58%) reported no disciplinary consequences to their smoking. A majority of inmates incarcerated before the implementation of the ban (66%) did not perceive a reduction of their exposure to SHS following the indoor ban. Enforcement issues were encountered during the implementation of the indoor ban, notably because of the amendment made to the original regulation (total smoking ban) and tolerance from smokers in the staff towards indoor smoking. They were also related to perceptions that banning indoor smoking is complex and poses management problems. Conclusion: This study's findings emphasize the importance of considering organizational and environmental factors when planning the implementation of an indoor smoking ban in correctional facilities.

Copyright 2011, Canadian Public Health Association

Lee JD; Grossman E; Truncali A; Rotrosen J; Rosenblum A; Magura S et al. Buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance following release from jail. Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 40-47, 2012. (20 refs.)

Primary care is understudied as a reentry drug and alcohol treatment setting. This study compared treatment retention and opioid misuse among opioid-dependent adults seeking buprenorphine/naloxone maintenance in an urban primary care clinic following release from jail versus community referrals. Postrelease patients were either (a) induced to buprenorphine in-jail as part of a clinical trial, or (b) seeking buprenorphine induction post release. From 2007 to 2008, N = 142 patients were new to primary care buprenorphine: n = 32 postrelease; n = 110 induced after community referral and without recent incarceration. Jail-released patients were more likely African American or Hispanic and uninsured. Treatment retention rates for postrelease (37%) versus community (30%) referrals were similar at 48 weeks. Rates of opioid positive urines and self-reported opioid misuse were also similar between groups. Postrelease patients in primary care buprenorphine treatment had equal treatment retention and rates of opioid abstinence versus community-referred patients.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Lee JD; Rich JD. Opioid pharmacotherapy in criminal justice settings: Now is the time. (editorial). Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 1-4, 2012. (11 refs.)

Lewy J. Limited to no responsibility: Addiction, alcoholism and the law in modern Germany. History of Psychiatry 23(2): 169-181, 2012. (46 refs.)

In Germany, a perpetrator had to be of sound mind to be convicted of a crime throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The criminal code was clear, but reality was not. From the moment that physicians accepted alcoholism and drug addiction as diseases of mind and body, the question of what to do with alcoholic and addicted criminals troubled legal theorists. How were judges to maintain the balance of justice if, on the one hand, a potential perpetrator chose to be of unsound mind by drinking or using drugs, but on the other, he was sick, unable to control his actions? As this article demonstrates, the legal system was lenient towards inebriated perpetrators as a by-product of the insistence of German doctors that alcoholism and addiction were diseases.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Lofgren A. A sign of things to come? Drug policy reforms in Arizona, California, and New York. New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy 14: 773, 2011. (220 legal refs.)

... Although some reasons for reform seem applicable to sentencing for other crimes, it is clear from the laws enacted that voters and lawmakers intended the reforms to be limited to addicted offenders who had committed a more minor, but drug-related, offense. ... The central importance of the addiction-as-disease model to New York, Arizona, and California's reforms suggests that low-level drug offenses will likely be the only crimes for which sentences are reduced - that, despite its cost and dubious efficacy, long periods of incarceration will remain the default for crimes that do not result from addiction. ... Like many states, Arizona had ratcheted up sentences for drug crimes in response to the perceived narcotics problem and the "war on drugs." ... Although much of the debate and controversy surrounding Proposition 200 concerned the legalization of medical marijuana, the broader purpose of the law was to "steer people arrested for possessing drugs into treatment programs and away from overcrowded prisons." ... The Goals of Drug Law Reform Two themes motivated the reforms in Arizona, California, and New York: treating drug offenders as addicts in need of medical rehabilitation and saving money for state taxpayers. .

New York University

Lood Y; Eklund A; Garle M; Ahlner J. Anabolic androgenic steroids in police cases in Sweden 1999-2009. Forensic Science International 219(1-3): 199-204, 2012. (31 refs.)

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are considered drugs of abuse and are controlled substances in Sweden since 1999. Traditionally AAS have been used by elite athletes to enhance performance, but in recent years it has become an increasing problem outside elite sport among athletes, bodybuilders and criminals. Use of AAS is associated with psychiatric side effects such as aggression, depression and violent behavior. Supraphysiological doses and long term use can cause serious physical harm such as cardiovascular toxicity and even premature death. We investigated and evaluated the drug analytical findings in forensic cases from suspected perpetrators in cases from the police where a screening for AAS was requested to get information about the prevalence of AAS use and the occurrence of poly-drug abuse. The study was based on samples submitted from the police authorities to the Department of Forensic Toxicology in Sweden during the period 1999-2009. Urines were analyzed by methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. We also analyzed the prevalence of AAS use at the prison and probation services. A total number of 12,141 urine samples (6362 police cases and 5779 inmates) were analyzed and 33.5% of the cases from the police and 11.5% of the inmates were tested positive for AAS. The users of AAS were mainly in 99.2% men with a mean age of 26.2 +/- 6.2 years whereas the women were 29.5 +/- 6.5 years old. The most frequently used AAS was nandrolone followed by testosterone and methandienone. Other illicit and licit drugs were detected in 60% of the cases from the police, strongly indicating a frequent poly-drug abuse among users of AAS.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Macias MS; Furton KG. Availability of target odor compounds from seized ecstasy tablets for canine detection. Journal of Forensic Sciences 56(6): 1594-1600, 2011. (14 refs.)

The aim of this study was to compare seized samples of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) pills, used to train law enforcement detection canine teams, to determine what differences exist in the chemical makeup and headspace odor and their effect on detectability. MDMA solutions were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analysis of these samples showed a wide variance of MDMA (8-25%). Headspace SPME-GC/MS analysis showed that several compounds such as 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanol are common among these MDMA samples regardless of starting compound and synthesis procedure. However, differences, such as the level of the various methylenedioxy starting compounds, were shown to affect the overall outcome of canine detection, indicating the need for more than one MDMA training aid. Combinations of compounds such as the primary odor piperonal in conjunction with a secondary compound such as MDP-2-OH or isosafrole are recommended to maximize detection of different illicit MDMA samples.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

McAdams RH. Present bias and criminal law. University of Illinois Law Review 5(1607-1631), 2011. (76 refs.)

Although "present bias" (or weakness of will, impulsiveness, myopia, or bounded willpower) was flagged as an issue for legal examination by Tom Ulen and Russell Korobkin over a decade ago, the concept has received insufficient attention in the legal field and most of that attention has focused on its implications for the regulation of credit and savings. But, as demonstrated by this Article, the inconsistency of time preferences has wider implications, especially for criminal law. First, present bias may have significant implications for the general deterrence of crime. Individuals with time-inconsistent preferences may give in to immediate temptations to offend, even though they will not plan to exploit more distant opportunities to offend. To create additional deterrence by exploiting the present bias, one must either make the deferred costs of crime immediate or make the immediate benefits of crime deferred. For this reason, present bias heightens the importance of timing arrests closer to the commission of a crime-which suggests overlooked benefits from undercover operations. It also increases the efficiency of private crime prevention when these measures pose costs that occur contemporaneously with the benefits of crime. Second, present bias explains addiction, otherwise puzzling conditions of probation and parole, and the self-control mechanisms for dealing with addiction and tempting criminal behavior. Preventative measures, whether imposed by the state as a condition of probation and parole or imposed by the potential offender through "self-exclusion," work by preventing an individual from having the opportunity to succumb to temptation.

Copyright 2011, University Illinois

Nissen LB; Merrigan D. Helping substance-involved young people in juvenile justice be successful: Conceptual and structural foundations of the Reclaiming Futures model. (review). Children and Youth Services 33(1, special issue): s3-s8, 2011. (36 refs.)

Reclaiming Futures is an innovative evidence-based model and approach to systems and community change that is designed to enable young people who have substance abuse issues and are in the criminal justice system to become successful. Developed in the context of ten different demonstration communities and amidst numerous economic, geographic, political, cultural, and philosophical diversities, the initiative embraces a six-stage integrated service model that supports coordinated individual response and community-directed engagement with care. This article describes the background, rationale, and context of the change effort itself, as well as the conceptual foundations of the Reclaiming Futures framework. The role of the National Program Office (NPO) and the structures designed to support the shared transformational leadership required to launch, implement, and sustain these practice and policy innovations at the local, state, and national levels are discussed.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Nissen LB; Merrigan D. The development and evolution of Reclaiming Futures at the ten-year mark: Reflections and recommendations. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s9-s15, 2011. (36 refs.)

Reclaiming Futures has been a successful national demonstration project, initially funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which seeks to improve a system-wide response to young people in the juvenile justice system with substance abuse issues. The initiative is a multiyear effort that has included complex simultaneous community and cross-system planned change efforts. The intention of the initiative is to develop, test, and disseminate a response to unmet needs and to extensive gaps and fragmentation in the availability and quality of services and opportunities that would have a positive impact not only on the lives of individual youth, but on community capacity to engage and encourage youth success as well. This article summarizes the developmental trajectory of the initiative, with a focus on elements of the planned change process. How change efforts were conceptualized, sequenced, executed, and evaluated are discussed and their implications explored. Now adopted in 29 communities around the nation, this article describes two federal and state dissemination efforts as examples of its continued expansion.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Nissen LB; Pearce J. Exploring the implementation of justice-based alcohol and drug intervention strategies with juvenile offenders: Reclaiming Futures, enhanced adolescent substance abuse treatment, and juvenile drug courts. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s60-s65, 2011. (31 refs.)

There is a need for practice models to match young people in the juvenile justice system with timely and effective alcohol and drug intervention services. This paper reports on a new demonstration effort in which three practice approaches currently operating in the United States are being combined to maximize the potential of each. This public-private partnership combines juvenile drug courts (funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention), adolescent treatment improvement efforts (funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment) and the Reclaiming Futures initiative (funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). Benefits of combining the three strategies are discussed, emergent implementation challenges and lessons are presented, and suggestions for further evolution are provided.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Nordstrom BR; Williams AR. Drug treatments in criminal justice settings. (review). Psychiatric Clinics of North America 35(2): 375+, 2012. (97 refs.)

Studies report that the direct effect of drug-related crime (ie, not including the cost of arrest, prosecution, and incarceration) is the largest single cost related to addiction. Addiction to illicit substances and its connection to people going through the criminal justice system are discussed in this review. Emphasis is on the efficacy of drug treatment in offender populations. Outcomes from large national studies and smaller studies are presented that deal with addiction treatment and criminal offenses; also discussed are operant conditioning in drug addiction, contingency management in a criminal justice context, coercion in the criminal justice setting, and drug courts.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The TEDS Report: Characteristics of Probation and Parole Admissions Aged 18 or Older. (March 3, 2011). Rockville MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 2011. (6 refs.)

In 2008, approximately 4.3 million adults were on probation and nearly 1 million adults were on parole in the United States. Many of the criminal offenses committed by these probationers and parolees were related to substance abuse. As a condition of their probation or parole, some offenders are required to participate in community-based substance abuse treatment programs. This report uses data from the TEDS for 2008 to examine the characteristics of substance abuse treatment admissions referred to treatment by the probation or parole system (hereafter referred to as "probation or parole admissions"). In brief, the most common substances of abuse reported by probation or parole admissions were alcohol (30.6%), marijuana (26.4%), and methamphetamines (15.6%); more than one half reported more than one substance of abuse at admission (59.2%). The majority of probation or parole admissions were male (76.6 percent), had never married (63.1%), were between the ages of 18 and 44 (81.3 percent), and were non-Hispanic White (52.3%). Over one third of the probation and parole admissions had less than a high school education (39.6); the majority of these admissions were unemployed (36.8%) or not in the labor force (26.2%). The majority of probation or parole admissions had been in treatment at least once before (57.5%); 18.4% reported three or more prior treatment episodes.

Public Domain

Oser CB; Harp KLH; O'Connell DJ; Martin SS; Leukefeld CG. Correlates of participation in peer recovery support groups as well as voluntary and mandated substance abuse treatment among rural and urban probationers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 42(1): 95-101, 2012. (41 refs.)

This study explores the correlates of probationers' participation in 12-step programs, voluntary treatment, and mandated treatment, with respect to the geographic location of where the services are being provided as the primary covariate of interest. Data were derived from face-to-face interviews with rural and urban probationers (N=1,464). Results of the three logistic regression models suggested that even when all the covariates are taken into account, urban probationers were significantly more likely to have been involved in 12-step programs, voluntary treatment, and mandated treatment over their lifespan. Despite high levels of self-reported substance use among all participants, treatment services were underused by rural probationers. These data suggest that individuals residing in rural communities may face additional barriers to receiving treatment services and that criminal involvement is associated with participation in peer recovery support groups and treatment. Future studies can investigate criminal involvement as an avenue to enhance recovery and how to overcome treatment barriers in rural areas.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Paschall MJ; Grube JW; Thomas S; Cannon C; Treffers R. Relationships between local enforcement, alcohol availability, drinking norms, and adolescent alcohol use in 50 California cities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(4): 657-665, 2012. (29 refs.)

Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use, and perceived likelihood of getting in trouble with local police.

Copyright 2012, Alcohol Research Documentation

Petry NM; Rash CJ; Easton CJ. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and The Law 39(3): 370-378, 2011. (38 refs.)

Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcement for substance abuse treatment. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance-abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes, in general and in response to CM, compared with those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes, but that CM is effective regardless of the patient's legal status.

Copyright 2011, American Academy of Psychiatry & Law

Pettus-Davis C; Howard MO; Roberts-Lewis A; Scheyett AM. Naturally occurring social support in interventions for former prisoners with substance use disorders: Conceptual framework and program model. Journal of Criminal Justice 39(6): 479-488, 2011. (71 refs.)

Purpose: Naturally-occurring social support is underutilized in interventions with former prisoners with substance use disorders. This paper proposes a conceptual framework followed by a program model to inform the development of naturally-occurring social support interventions with former prisoners with substance use disorders. Methods: We reviewed all published social support interventions designed for former prisoners and people with substance use disorders over a ten year period. Building on the implications of this review, empirical literature, professional experience, and theory, we propose a conceptual framework for naturally-occurring social support programs. Results: Few published programs exist that actively incorporate social support providers into the program model. Of these, even fewer use naturally-occurring support. Expanding on gaps in theory and program approaches, the conceptual model posits that it is the appropriate match of support needs and provision that reinforces emotions, cognitions, and behaviors, that in turn, promote adaptive outcomes. Conclusions: With mounting pressure to identify interventions that will reduce high re-incarceration rates, this paper draws attention to a neglected, potentially effective, and low cost resource -- naturally-occurring social support. The described program, Support Matters, illustrates how social support interventions can be used with former prisoners to promote reduced relapse to substance misuse and crime.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Prendergast ML. Issues in defining and applying evidence-based practices criteria for treatment of criminal-justice involved clients. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2011(7): 10-18, 2011. (39 refs.)

Evidence-based practice (EBP) applies the principles and techniques of evidence-based decision making to interventions intended to improve, or ameliorate, the social or clinical problems of affected individuals, including offenders with drug abuse problems. This article provides a general overview of EBP, particularly as it applies to treatment and other interventions for offenders with problems involving drugs (including alcohol). The discussion includes a definition of EBP, notes the implications of using EBPs to make policy and clinical decisions, lists the various efforts by government and academic organizations to identify practices that can be considered evidence-based, describes the criteria used by such organizations to evaluate programs as being evidence-based, raises some cautions about the use of EBPs, and ends with some challenges in disseminating and implementing EBPs.

Copyright 2011, Haight-Asbury Publishing

Prichard M; Nissen LB; Farrell P; Moore M. Reclaiming futures: Using communication to drive community and systems change. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s34-s40, 2011. (25 refs.)

Reclaiming Futures is a national juvenile justice reform initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. During its 11 years of demonstration and expansion phases, Reclaiming Futures has used a variety of communications strategies, tools, and techniques to achieve its objectives. This paper describes the literature relevant to contemporary use of communications tools to achieve social change, and presents a brief history of how communications contributed to the development of Reclaiming Futures and how communications strategies were implemented at key points. A focus on communication principles and tools in practical terms is highlighted, including strategies for empowering project leaders to be effective messengers and for conducting outreach to community members, professional stakeholders, and elected officials, as well as examples of creative projects developed to advance program goals. Use of techniques such as branding, messaging, and integration of social media are also presented. Implications for other system change efforts are explored.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Provine DM. Race and inequality in the war on drugs. Annual Review of Law and Social Science 7: 41-60, 2011. (133 refs.)

Drug use is pervasive, generally private, and of long standing. The social effects are sometimes problematic, but it is a large step to declare a war on drug use. This review considers how that approach came to be adopted in the United States and why it persists despite its evident shortcomings. This war could not be maintained without societal racism and the manipulation of racial stereotypes to make drugs something to be feared. Beneath society's adherence to a failed criminalization approach is a startling indifference to its racial impact, which includes a vast increase in the number and representation of poor minorities in the prison system, particularly young African American males. Tracing the war on drugs to its roots reveals a broader domain in which harsh legislation, prosecution, and incarceration combine to harm and stigmatize minority populations, while a pervasive ideology of color blindness discourages serious discussion of inherent racial bias in the criminal justice system.

Copyright 2011, Annual Reviews

Raftopoulos A; Flora K. Substance use related behavior of the members of Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous in Greece. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 43(3): 238-244, 2011. (17 refs.)

The aim of this research project is to provide basic information regarding the use of substances and its behavioral consequences such as health problems and criminal offences. It is the first survey in Greece in the field of self-help groups. The main research instrument was a 55-item questionnaire that was administered to members of NA and AA in the Greek cities of Athens, Thessaloniki, Series, Nafplio, Iraklio, and Katerini. This article presents an analysis of the answers given by the respondents to 12 of the 55 items of the questionnaire. It also includes a comparison of the relevant findings with data provided by the central organizations of AA and NA as well as by official therapeutic programs in Greece and by other researchers who have studied the same subject. More specifically, this article presents, examines and analyzes data which focuses on: (a) the age at which a substance was first used, (b) the time it took the individual respondents to acknowledge such use as a problem, (c) the main substance abused at the onset, (d) the main substance in use when the individuals approached the self-help group, (e) the existence or not of another individual with a substance abuse disorder in the immediate family, (f) possible health problems and (g) the entanglement or not with the penal justice system.

Copyright 2011, Haight-Asbury Publishing

Richmond RL; Butler TG; Indig D; Wilhelm KA; Archer VA; Wodak AD. The challenges of reducing tobacco use among prisoners. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(5, special issue): 625-630, 2012. (28 refs.)

Issue. The prevalence of smoking among prisoners is exceptionally high and is often comorbid with alcohol and drug problems, mental illness and other health problems. This review paper summarises the literature and available research related to smoking prevalence and smoking cessation initiatives among prisoners and identifies areas of need for further research and intervention. Approach. This paper highlights three studies conducted in the New South Wales prison system which attempt to address these high rates of smoking including a feasibility study, a focus group study and a randomised controlled trial. Key Findings. The challenges of making systems-level changes to address these high rates of smoking are discussed including a recent National Summit on Tobacco Smoking in Prisons. Implications. Dissemination of research findings has assisted in highlighting the importance of tobacco smoking among prisoners and the need to develop culturally and setting appropriate smoking cessation initiatives for prisoners. Conclusions. As one of the most marginalised and socially disadvantaged populations in Australia, prisoners represent an important population to target for smoking cessation programs and interventions. This paper highlights a number of initiatives undertaken to address this problem and suggests directions for the future.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Robertson AM; Lozada R; Vera A; Palinkas LA; Burgos JL; Magis-Rodriguez C et al. Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Qualitative Health Research 22(4, special issue): 499-510, 2012. (62 refs.)

Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.

Copyright 2012, Sage Publications

Roman JK; Butts JA; Roman CG. Evaluating systems change in a juvenile justice reform initiative. Children and Youth Services Review 33(1, special issue): s41-s53, 2011. (47 refs.)

Evaluating comprehensive, interagency initiatives to reform human services systems presents substantial challenges to traditional research models. Outcomes are observed at the system level rather than the individual level, and the validity of study results may be challenged on a variety of dimensions, particularly small sample sizes and measurement error. We report the results of a cross-site evaluation of the first phase of Reclaiming Futures, a five-year effort to improve services and interventions for justice-involved youth in 10 communities across the United States. We present the evaluation findings and discuss implications for similar research endeavors. The methods used in this study may be useful for other system-level evaluation efforts. A social network analysis analyzes changes in the size, density, and cohesiveness of stakeholder networks. Bivariate models test for associations between Reclaiming Futures implementation and key stakeholder perceptions of effective system change. Multivariate models are used to explore selection effects on item response. In general, we find positive correlations between successful implementation of Reclaiming Futures and indicators of effective and efficient system change.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Romani CJ; Morgan RD; Gross NR; McDonald BR. Treating criminal behavior: Is the bang worth the buck? Psychology, Public Policy and Law 18(1): 144-165, 2012. (58 refs.)

Andrews and colleagues showed that the principles of Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) effectively reduced recidivism. The purpose of this study was to advance Andrews and colleagues' work by examining whether correctional services that adhered to RNR were more expensive than services that did not adhere to RNR. Articles included in the Andrews et al. (1990) meta-analysis of correctional services were gathered and reevaluated based upon a coding process which emphasized the maximum cost of service provision. Results indicated that appropriate correctional services (services that adhered to RNR) were not significantly more expensive than inappropriate correctional services (services that did not adhere to RNR) or traditional criminal sanctions. Also indicated was a practical cost difference between appropriate and inappropriate correctional services, where inappropriate correctional services had increased costs, possibly because of increased time of service provision. The implications of these findings for policy and correctional administrative decision making with regard to offender treatment are discussed.

Copyright 2012, American Psychological Association

Room R; Reuter P. How well do international drug conventions protect public health? Lancet 379(9810): 84-91, 2012. (74 refs.)

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 aimed to eliminate the illicit production and non-medical use of cannabis, cocaine, and opioids, an aim later extended to many pharmaceutical drugs. Over the past 50 years international drug treaties have neither prevented the globalisation of the illicit production and non-medical use of these drugs, nor, outside of developed countries, made these drugs adequately available for medical use. The system has also arguably worsened the human health and wellbeing of drug users by increasing the number of drug users imprisoned, discouraging effective countermeasures to the spread of HIV by injecting drug users, and creating an environment conducive to the violation of drug users' human rights. The international system has belatedly accepted measures to reduce the harm from injecting drug use, but national attempts to reduce penalties for drug use while complying with the treaties have often increased the number of drug users involved with the criminal justice system. The international treaties have also constrained national policy experimentation because they require nation states to criminalise drug use. The adoption of national policies that are more aligned with the risks of different drugs and the effectiveness of controls will require the amendment of existing treaties, the formulation of new treaties, or withdrawal of states from existing treaties and re-accession with reservations.

Copyright 2012, Lancet Ltd

Rotter M; Carr WA. Targeting criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders: Structured clinical approaches. Community Mental Health Journal 47(6): 723-726, 2011. (40 refs.)

Decreasing criminal recidivism in justice-involved individuals with mental illness, is among the most consistently desired outcomes by programs, policy makers and funding agencies. Evidence-based practices with track records of effectiveness in treating mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse, while important clinically, do not necessarily address criminal recidivism. Addressing recidivism, therefore, may require a more targeted criminal justice focus. In this paper, we describe recent challenges to decriminalization approaches and review factors associated with recurrent criminal behavior. In particular, we focus on structured clinical interventions which were created or adapted to target the thoughts and behaviors associated with criminal justice contact.

Copyright 2011, Springer

Rudes DS; Taxman FS; Portillo S; Murphy A; Rhodes A; Stitzer M et al. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: Acceptability and feasibility. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 42(3): 260-270, 2012. (44 refs.)

Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase I of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Small W; Krusi A; Wood E; Montaner J; Kerr T. Street-level policing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver, Canada, during the 2010 winter Olympics. International Journal of Drug Policy 23(2): 128-133, 2012. (39 refs.)

Background: Police presence within street-based drug scenes has the potential to disrupt injection drug users (IDUs) access to health services and prompt increased injection-related risk behaviour. We examined street-level policing in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) of Vancouver during the Olympic Winter games, to assess the potential impact on access to harm reduction services and injection-related risk behaviour. Methods: We analysed data from observational activities documenting police and drug user behaviour, unstructured interviews with drug users in street settings (n = 15), expert interviews with legal and health professionals (n = 6), as well as utilisation statistics from a local supervised injection facility (SIF). Results: Although police presence was elevated within the DTES during the Olympics, there was little evidence to suggest that police activities influenced IDUs' access to health services or injection-related risk behaviour. SIF attendance during the Olympics was consistent with regular monthly patterns. Conclusion: Police presence during the Olympics did not reduce access to health services amongst local IDUs or prompt increased injection-related risk behaviour. Increased cooperation between local law enforcement and public health bodies likely offset the potential for negative health consequences resulting from police activity.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Staring ABP; Blaauw E; Mulder CL. The effects of assertive community treatment including integrated dual diagnosis treatment on nuisance acts and crimes in dual-diagnosis patients. Community Mental Health Journal 48(2): 150-152, 2012. (5 refs.)

We investigated whether Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) combined with Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment (IDDT) is associated with a decrease in nuisance acts and crime convictions in dual-diagnosis repeated offenders. Forty-three patients were monitored from 21 months before until 12 months after the start of ACT-IDDT, using police data and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Results show that while nuisance acts and convictions increased in the 21 months before the start of ACT-IDDT, nuisance acts decreased and convictions stabilized during the next 12 months. The decrease in nuisance acts was associated with a decrease in substance abuse.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Stein LAR; Clair M; Lebeau R; Colby SM; Barnett NP; Golembeske C et al. Motivational interviewing to reduce substance-related consequences: Effects for incarcerated adolescents with depressed mood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 118(2-3): 475-478, 2011. (23 refs.)

Background: The impact of depressed mood on Motivational Interviewing (MI) to reduce risky behaviors and consequences in incarcerated adolescents was examined in this brief report. Methods: Adolescents (N=189) were randomly assigned to receive MI or Relaxation Training (RT). Results: At 3-month follow-up assessment, MI significantly reduced risks associated with marijuana use, with a trend towards reducing risks associated with alcohol use. There was also a trend for depressive symptoms to be associated with reduced risks after release. Interaction effects were non-significant, indicating no moderating effects for depressed mood on treatment outcome. Conclusions: MI may be a useful treatment for incarcerated adolescents in order to reduce risks and consequences associated with substance use after release.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Stemen D; Rengifo AF. Reconciling the multiple objectives of prison diversion programs for drug offenders: Evidence from Kansas' Senate Bill 123. Evaluation Review 35(6): 642-672, 2011. (40 refs.)

Background: In recent years, several states have created mandatory prison-diversion programs for felony drug possessors. These programs have both individual-level goals of reducing recidivism rates and system-level goals of reducing prison populations. Objective: This study examines the individual level and system level impact of Kansas' Senate Bill 123 (SB 123), which created mandatory probation/treatment sentences for felony drug possessors. Reseaarch Design: A nonrandomized quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the recidivism rates of drug possessors sentenced to SB 123 relative to drug possessors sentenced to standard probation, intensive probation, or prison. Propensity score matching techniques were used to identify comparison groups. Changes in probabilities of prison sentences preimplementation and postimplementation were used to assess changes in prison admissions and prison populations. Subjects: The treatment group included all eligible drug possessors sentenced to SB 123 between November 1, 2003, and October 31, 2006. The comparison groups included all eligible drug possessors sentenced to standard probation, intensive probation, or prison during the same time period. Measures: Arrests, violations, revocation resulting in a prison sentence, and reconviction resulting in a prison sentence within 24 months of risk in the community served as the key individual-level outcome measures. Prison admissions and bed days served as the key system-level outcome measures. Results: At the individual level, SB 123 increased likelihood of recidivism compared to standard probation and had no significant effect compared to intensive probation or prison. At the system level, SB 123 diverted offenders from prison at sentencing but only marginally reduced prison admissions or saved bed days. Conclusions: Conflicting impacts are a consequence of program design-eligibility requirements diverting probation-bound offenders, mandatory sentencing requiring the same diversion sentence for all offenders, and diversion sentences longer than those imposed preimplementation. Results cast doubt on the effectiveness of mandatory diversion programs to achieve both individual-level and system-level impacts.

Copyright 2011, Sage Publications

Sung HE. Pregnancy and drinking among women offenders under community supervision in the United States: 2004-2008. Journal of Urban Health 89(3): 500-509, 2012. (21 refs.)

Drinking during pregnancy raises risks of pregnancy, labor, and delivery complications in mothers and lasting neurological or behavioral consequences in babies. This public health issue has recently attracted the attention of criminal justice (CJ) researchers, as the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) appears to be unusually high among offender populations. Nevertheless, in addition to becoming a main caretaker of individuals with FASDs, the CJ system already may have under its care some of the women at the highest risk of drinking during pregnancy. This study sets out to determine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of alcohol consumption among women offenders on probation or parole in the United States. Analysis of data collected from seven waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2004-2008) were performed on women who were under community supervision during the year prior to the survey interview. Results revealed that 1.9% of women of child-bearing ages of 12-44 years in the general population were pregnant, as compared to 4.7% of comparable women under community supervision. Pregnant offenders were more likely to come from minority groups and be socially disadvantaged than their non-CJ-involved counterparts. Alarmingly, they were nearly three times as likely to have engaged in problem drinking (e.g., two drinks a day for a month) than non-CJ-involved women. Negative behavioral consequences resulting from alcohol consumption and concurrent use of other substances were also significantly more pervasive among drinkers under community supervision. Effective prevention and control of the problem requires rethinking the role of corrections systems in health promotion. Concrete recommendations are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Springer

Sung HE; Chu D. The impact of substance user treatment participation on legal employment and income among probationers and parolees. Substance Use & Misuse 46(12): 1523-1535, 2011. (83 refs.)

Employment is essential for recovery. But treatment could conflict with work schedules, and employment gains could be short lived. This study examined how employment and income varied during and after treatment, what aspects of treatment impacted on employment, and whether treatment improved income. Baseline and follow-up data were analyzed for 760 probationers and parolees in 11 US cities that participated in the 1992-1995 Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study. Results showed that only residential/inpatient treatment was associated, temporarily, with employment. Retention, compliance, and self-efficacy were correlated to posttreatment employment. However, treatment had no impact on income, which was determined by education and work history.

Copyright 2011, Informa Healthcare

Trigg BG; Dickman SL. Medication-assisted therapy for opioid-dependent incarcerated populations in New Mexico: Statewide efforts to increase access. Substance Abuse 33(1, special issue): 76-84, 2012. (30 refs.)

An acute awareness of the profound social and medical costs associated with heroin and opiate addiction in New Mexico has led a group of advocates from public health, state and local governments, corrections, academia, and community activists to collaborate for the purpose of increasing access to medication-assisted therapy (MAT) with buprenorphine and methadone in New Mexico. This paper describes these collaborations, with a focus on the evolution of harm reduction approaches to substance abuse disorders and successful efforts to make MAT available to incarcerated persons.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Urada D; Rutkowski BA; Rawson RA; Freese TE. Editors' Introduction: Identifying and Assessing Promising Practices for Criminal Justice Clients-California Substance Abuse Research Consortium (SARC) Meetings, 2010. (editorial). Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2011(7): 3-9, 2011. (20 refs.)

Although some practices clearly have stronger supporting evidence than others, a single authoritative list of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that can be applied in the treatment of criminal justice clients does not exist. Nationally, use of EBPs is low, and such practices are generally only implemented under certain circumstances. To clarify these issues, experts from around the nation were invited to California for two research-to-policy meetings focused on EBP identification and implementation. Their presentations and the resulting series of articles in this special theme issue describe the current state of EBP research for criminal justice clients. To advance the field beyond the compilation of EBP lists, which can only represent a partial solution at best, next steps should include a greater focus on quality of implementation, intensity of quality assurance and monitoring, and training for underlying skills and principles.

Copyright 2011, Haight-Asbury Publishing

van den Bergh BJ; Gatherer A; Fraser A; Moller L. Imprisonment and women's health: Concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 89(9): 689-694, 2011. (24 refs.)

The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance. Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children. National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

Copyright 2011, World Health Organization

van Oorsouw K; Merckelbach H. The effects of alcohol on crime-related memories: A field study. Applied Cognitive Psychology 26(1): 82-90, 2012. (40 refs.)

This field study investigated to what extent memory of criminally relevant details is affected at (close to) zero (MBAC?=?0.00%), moderate (MBAC?=?0.06%), and high (MBAC?=?0.16%) levels of alcohol intoxication. Participants (N?=?76) were approached in bars and were invited to watch a mock crime from a perpetrator perspective. We also measured their blood alcohol concentration levels. After 35?days, when participants were sober, they underwent a free and cued recall task about the mock crime. Compared with sober controls, both moderately and highly intoxicated individuals were less complete when recollecting crime details, recalling up to 33% fewer correct details. Overall, intoxicated participants were less accurate during the cued recall task (i.e. they produced more errors) relative to sober participants. These accuracy effects were dose-dependent for cued recall of salient features. Implications for police interrogations of defendants are discussed.

Copyright 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

Voas RB; DuPont RL; Talpins SK; Shea CL. Towards a national model for managing impaired driving offenders. (review). Addiction 106(7): 1221-1227, 2011. (38 refs.)

Aims: To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Setting: Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. Intervention A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Findings: Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Conclusions: Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender.

Copyright 2011, Society for the Study of Addiction

Voas RB; Fell JC. Preventing impaired driving: Opportunities and problems. Alcohol Research & Health 34(2): 225-235, 2011. (72 refs.)

Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested.

Copyright 2011, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Volkmann T; Lozada R; Anderson CM; Patterson TL; Vera A; Strathdee SA. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico. Harm Reduction Journal 8: article 7, 2011. (41 refs.)

Objective: To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods: IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling questionnaires and testing for HIV. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results: Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions: IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

Copyright 2011, BioMed Central

White MD; Mulvey P; Fox AM; Choate D. A hero's welcome? Exploring the prevalence and problems of military veterans in the arrestee population. Justice Quarterly 29(2): 258-286, 2012. (74 refs.)

The potential for veterans to end up in the criminal justice system as a result of physical and psychological problems that may be combat-related has generated much interest, illustrated most recently by the development of specialized veterans' courts. However, little is known about how often veterans are arrested and incarcerated, the nature of their problems, or the extent to which their military service has contributed to their criminality. Using interview data from 2,102 arrestees booked in Maricopa County (AZ) during 2009, this paper examines the problems and prior experiences of arrested military veterans and compares veteran and non-veteran arrestees along a range of measures. Results indicate that veterans comprise 6.3% of the arrestee population, and that more than 50% of veterans report suffering from at least one combat-related problem including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental health problems, and substance abuse. Multivariate analysis indicates that veteran arrestees differ from non-veterans on a number of key measures, most notably more frequent arrests for violent offenses and greater use of crack cocaine and opiates. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the potential link between military service and criminality as well as for criminal justice policy and practice.

Copyright 2012, Taylor & Francis

Yunker JA. Estimated optimal drug law enforcement expenditures based on US annual data. Journal of Policy Modeling 34(3): 356-371, 2012. (30 refs.)

This research develops and implements a simple model for the determination of optimal national expenditures on drug law enforcement. The key components of the model are an econometrically estimated linear drug violations equation relating drug violations to drug enforcement expenditures and other factors, a parameter measuring per capita costs of drug violations, and a Cobb-Douglas function relating social welfare to: (1) net consumption after drug costs and drug enforcement expenditures, and (2) benefits to users of illegal drugs. The parameters of the model are estimated from annual time series data for the United States from 1981 through 2007. It is determined that if the parameters of the social welfare function are such that the elasticity of social welfare with respect to net consumption (alpha) is near to unity and the elasticity of social welfare with respect to user benefits (beta) is near to zero, the estimated optimal expenditures on drug law enforcement are in the vicinity of the actual expenditures. However, comparative statics analysis of the optimum demonstrates two situations in which significantly reduced expenditures might be indicated: (1) if the alpha parameter in the social welfare function is significantly below unity and/or the beta parameter is significantly above zero; (2) if the drug cost parameter delta is in fact significantly less than estimates based on 1992-2002 data. The latter possibility might be the more relevant, because it seems more likely that society might be incorrectly estimating the costs of drug use (a positive issue) than that society is misperceiving its social welfare values (a normative issue).

Copyright 2012, Society for Policy Modeling

Zhou ZH; Xiong HY; Jia R; Yang GY; Guo TY; Meng ZY et al. The risk behaviors and mental health of detained adolescents: A controlled, prospective longitudinal study. PLoS ONE 7(5): e-article 37199, 2012. (31 refs.)

Background: To assess the behavioral risk factors and mental health needs of adolescents in juvenile detention centers (JDC). Method: A total of 238 boys aged 12-17 years was surveyed who had been admitted to a detention center and compared them with boys from the community (n = 238) matched for sex and age. We assessed behavioral risk factors and mental health problems by using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire (YRBS) and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire (YSR). Results: Young offenders had significantly higher YRBS scores than controls for drug use (odds ratio (OR) 5.16, 95% CI 2.27-7.84), sexual intercourse (OR, 2.51; 95% CI 1.55-2.90), irregular diet (4.78, 2.11-7.51), suicide attempts (1.96, 1.32-5.85), and physical fighting behavior (3.49, 1.60-7.07), but not for tobacco use, alcohol use, and high-risk cycling. Young offenders at the time of admission (6.61, 2.58-15.2), at 6 months (3.12, 1.81-10.1), and at 12 months (5.29, 1.98-13.3) reported statistically higher levels of total mental health problems than adolescents in a community sample. Conclusions: Young offenders have a high rate of mental and behavioral disorders. In the detention period, aggressive behavior, self-destructive/identity, and externalizing of problems improved while withdrawn, anxious or depressed, and internalizing of problems worsened.

Copyright 2012, Public Library of Science