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CORK Bibliography: Adolescents and Driving

34 citations. January 2009 to present

Prepared: December 2012

Adams S; Blackburn ML; Cotti CD. Minimum wages and alcohol-related traffic fatalities among teens. Review of Economics and Statistics 94(3): 828-840, 2012. (29 refs.)

Using cross-state variation in minimum wages, we observe a positive relationship between the minimum wage and the number of alcohol-related accidents involving teen drivers. A similar effect is not observed when examining accidents among adults. The results are consistent with a positive income elasticity for alcoholic beverages and driving activities among young people, in particular for consumption out of discretionary income accorded by higher minimum wages. Evidence of a sizable impact of beer taxes on alcohol-related accidents among youths suggests that beer taxes are one avenue for policymakers to consider in counteracting this unintended consequence of minimum wages.

Copyright 2012, MIT Press

Anderson BM; Rizzo M; Block RI; Pearlson GD; O'Leary DS. Sex differences in the effects of marijuana on simulated driving performance. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 42(1): 19-30, 2010. (65 refs.)

In the United States, one in six teenagers has driven under the influence of marijuana. Driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol is equally prevalent, despite the fact that marijuana use is less common than alcohol use. Much of the research examining the effects of marijuana on driving performance was conducted in the 1970s and led to equivocal findings. During that time, few studies included women and driving simulators were rudimentary. Further, the potency of marijuana commonly used recreationally has increased. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on driving performance using a realistic, validated driving simulator. Eighty-five subjects (n = 50 males, 35 females) participated in this between-subjects, double-blind, placebo controlled study. In addition to an uneventful, baseline segment of driving, participants were challenged with collision avoidance and distracted driving scenarios. Under the influence of marijuana, participants decreased their speed and failed to show expected practice effects during a distracted drive. No differences were found during the baseline driving segment or collision avoidance scenarios. No differences attributable to sex were observed. This study enhances the current literature by identifying distracted driving and the integration of prior experience as particularly problematic under the influence of marijuana.

Copyright 2010, Haight-Ashbury Publishing

Begg D; Langley J; Broughton J; Brookland R; Ameratunga S; McDowell A. New Zealand Drivers Study: A follow-up study of newly licensed drivers. Injury Prevention 15(4): e2, 2009. (76 refs.)

Background: Despite significant improvement since graduated licensing was introduced, traffic-related injury remains the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among young New Zealanders. Most research to date has used routinely collected crash data but has been limited in that these databases do not, and realistically cannot, include the level of detail required to ensure that learner driver policy and programmes are based on sound scientific evidence applicable to young drivers in the current New Zealand context. Objectives: To examine the driving-related experiences of newly licensed drivers to identify factors associated with increased or decreased risk of negative traffic outcomes. Design: Multistage prospective cohort study. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: Newly licensed drivers. Variables: Exposures: background demographic details, pre-licence driving, previous crashes, driving intentions, motivations for driving and licensing, sensation seeking, aggression, impulsivity, quality and quantity of driving experience, driving supervision, driving behaviour, alcohol and other drug use, compliance with New Zealand's graduated driver licensing scheme, driver training/education, cell phone use, and sleep. Outcomes: crash, conviction, infringements, risky driving. Data sources: Exposures: participants and their parents. Outcomes: participants and official records. Bias: On the basis of a pilot study, participation and attrition bias are likely to be minimal. A comparison of baseline data for those followed and those not followed will be undertaken. Information bias will be minimised by standardised questionnaires. Information on potential confounders is to be collected and controlled for in analyses. Study size: 5000 (including 1500 Maori). Statistical Methods: Survival analysis, logistic or Poisson regression, generalised estimating equations.

Copyright 2009, BMJ Publishing Group

Bingham CR; Shope JT; Parow JE; Raghunathan TE. Crash types: Markers of increased risk of alcohol involved crashes among teen drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70(4): 528-535, 2009. (49 refs.)

Objective: Teens drink/drive less often than adults but are more likely to crash when they do drink/drive. This study identified alcohol-related crash types for which teen drivers were at greater risk compared with adults. Method: Michigan State Police crash records for drivers ages 16-19 (teens) and 45-65 years (adults) who experienced at least one crash from 1989 to 1996 were used to create alcohol crash types consisting of alcohol-related crashes that included specific combinations of other crash characteristics, such as drinking and driving at night (i.e., alcohol/nighttime). These data were combined with data from the 1990 and 1995 National Personal Travel Surveys and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey to estimate rates and rate ratios of alcohol-related crash types based on person-miles driven. Results: Teens were relatively less likely than adults to be involved in alcohol-related crashes but were significantly more likely to be in alcohol-related crashes that included other crash characteristics. Teen males' crash risk was highest when drinking and driving with a passenger, at night, at night with a passenger, and at night on the weekend, and casualties were more likely to result from alcohol-related nighttime crashes. All the highest risk alcohol-related crash types for teen female drinking drivers involved casualties and were most likely to include speeding, passenger presence, and nighttime driving. Conclusions: The frequency with which passengers, nighttime or weekend driving, and speeding occurred in the highest risk alcohol-related crash types for teens suggests that these characteristics should be targeted by policies, programs, and enforcement to reduce teen alcohol-related crash rates.

Copyright 2009, Alcohol Research Documentation Center

Calafat A; Adrover-Roig D; Blay N; Juan M; Bellis M; Hughes K et al. Which young people accept a lift from a drunk or drugged driver? Accident Analysis and Prevention 41(4): 703-709, 2009. (32 refs.)

Introduction: Riding with a drunk and/or a drugged driver (RDD) is a risk behaviour that has received very little attention in spite of its potential dangers. Young people involved in the recreational nightlife context are especially at risk. Method: 1363 regular users of recreational nightlife from nine European Countries (mean age: 21.75; 51.5% women) filled out a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire (in 2006). Results: 37.2% had practised RDD during the previous month. RDD is related to drunkenness and use of drugs, personality factors such as impulsivity, preferring to use a private car to get to nightlife venues, living in a southern European Country and being unemployed. No significant influence was found for age, gender, educational level or socioeconomic status. Discussion: It is important to raise awareness about the high prevalence of RDD. This lack of awareness can be related to its social acceptance among young people. The use of private cars for going to nightlife venues should be discouraged.

Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science

Catalano RF; Fagan AA; Gavin LE; Greenberg MT; Irwin CE; Ross DA et al. Adolescent health 3: Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health. Lancet 379(9826): 1653-1664, 2012. (115 refs.)

The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention.

Copyright 2012, Elsevier Science

Cavazos-Rehg PA; Krauss MJ; Spitznagel EL; Chaloupka FJ; Schootman M; Grucza RA et al. Associations between selected state laws and teenagers' drinking and driving behaviors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(9): 1647-1652, 2012. (31 refs.)

Background: We examined the associations between selected state-level graduated driving licensing (GDL) laws and use-and-lose laws (laws that allow for the suspension of a driver's license for underage alcohol violations including purchase, possession, or consumption) with individual-level alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among high school youth. Methods: Logistic regression models with fixed effects for state were used to examine the associations between the selected state-level laws and drinking and driving behaviors youth aged 16 to 17years (obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS); responses dichotomized as 0 times or 1 or more times) over an extended period of time (1999 to 2009). Results: A total of 11.7% of students reported having driven after drinking any alcohol and 28.2% reported riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking on 1 or more occasions in the past 30 days. Restrictive GDL laws and use-and-lose laws were associated with decreased driving after drinking any alcohol and riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Conclusions: Restrictive GDL and use-and-lose laws may help to bolster societal expectations and values about the hazards of drinking and driving behaviors and are therefore partly responsible for the decline in these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors.

Copyright 2012, Research Society on Alcoholism

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-41. Rockville MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 2011. (57 refs.)

This report presents the first information from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. In respect to illicit drug use, in 2010, an estimated 22.6 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) illicit drug users. This estimate represents 8.9 percent of the population aged 12 or older. The rise in drug use is largely the result of the increasing use of marijuana. Following an introduction, the first chapters deal with illicit drugs, alcohol use, tobacco use, providing information on use patterns by demographics. The next three chapters examine the initiation of substance use, measures related to prevention (risk and protective factors), and substance dependence and abuse and their treatment. The concluding chapter deals with trends in substance use among adolescents and young adults. Data is summarized in 56 figures and 9 tables.

Public Domain

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-41. Rockville MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 2011. (57 refs.)

This report presents the first information from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. In respect to illicit drug use, in 2010, an estimated 22.6 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) illicit drug users. This estimate represents 8.9 percent of the population aged 12 or older. The rise in drug use is largely the result of the increasing use of marijuana. Following an introduction, the first chapters deal with illicit drugs, alcohol use, tobacco use, providing information on use patterns by demographics. The next three chapters examine the initiation of substance use, measures related to prevention (risk and protective factors), and substance dependence and abuse and their treatment. The concluding chapter deals with trends in substance use among adolescents and young adults. Data is summarized in 56 figures and 9 tables.

Public Domain

Chen CM; Yi H-Y; Williams GD; Faden VB. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2007. Surveillance Report #86. Bethesda MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2009. (44 refs.)

This surveillance report, prepared by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), presents data on underage drinking for 1991- 2007 . This is the third of a series of reports to be published every two years on underage drinking and related attitudes and risk behaviors. Data is derived from three separate national surveys: the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The following are highlights of trends from 1991 through 2007. Prevalence of use: The trends across all three survey data sources show an overall decline in the prevalence of alcohol consumption of "recent" (past 30 days) between 1991 and 2007. In 2007 28.2 percent of youth ages 12-20 reported drinking in the past month. Throughout the decade, rates of underage drinking remained highest among non-Hispanic whites, followed by Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Rates were also higher among youth not enrolled in school. Drinking patterns: The median age of initiating alcohol use increased slightly from 13.65 years in 1991-1993 to 14.06 years in 2005-2007. In addition, there has been a gradual decline over the decade in the proportion of youth reporting initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger. Over the course of the decade, males have maintained higher average frequency, quantity, and volume of consumption in the past 30 days than females. In 2005-2007, those ages 12-20 reported drinking on a mean of 5.84 days in the past 30 days. They consumed an average of 4.79 drinks on the days that they did drank. One survey (NSDUH) indicates that rates of binge drinking have increased among 12- to 20-year-olds between 1993 and 2002, from 12.1 to 19.1 percent, but have leveled off in the recent 5 years. Alcohol-related attitudes: There has been a gradual shift in youth attitudes towards underage drinking, with a decrease during the 1990s, particularly in the early 1990s, in the percentage of youth strongly disapproving of others regularly consuming alcohol or binge drinking, and in the percentage of those who consider regular or binge drinking a great risk (MTF). Recent data indicate these trends may be reversing. Alcohol-related risk behaviors: Between 1991 and 2007 trends from the YRBS show an overall decline in the prevalence of secondary school youth driving while under the influence of alcohol, however, the NSDUH data trends show an increase in prevalence between 1995 and 2002 . The difference is due to the large increase in rates among 18- to 20-year-olds-from 15.6 percent in 1995 to 22.2 percent in 2002-whereas rates among younger youth remained relatively stable. Data is presented in 14 tables and 34 figures.

Public Domain

Dhami MK; Mandel DR; Garcia-Retamero R. Canadian and Spanish youths' risk perceptions of drinking and driving, and riding with a drunk driver. International Journal of Psychology 46(2): 81-90, 2011. (31 refs.)

The present research compared Canadian and Spanish youths' perceptions of the potential benefits and drawbacks of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with a drunk driver (RDD). Eighty (41 female) Canadian and 87 (71 female) Spanish undergraduates completed a survey asking about their past and forecasted engagement in DUI and RDD, and their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of DUI and RDD. A sizeable proportion of both samples reported DUI and RDD in the past year. Past risk takers forecasted significantly greater chances of engaging in these behaviors in the following year compared to those who had not engaged in DUI and RDD. Both samples provided significantly more drawbacks than benefits of DUI and RDD. Whereas the benefits of both behaviors tended to refer to personal effects (e.g., save money, arrive faster) that occurred before, during, or after driving, the drawbacks referred to a range of outcomes (e.g., accident, kill/injure, penal sanction) that mostly occurred during driving. Although Canada and Spain differ in important respects (e.g., potential penalty for DUI), there were similarities in the two samples' perceptions of DUI and RDD. Young people are aware of the costs of these risky behaviors but nevertheless engage in them. These findings can inform theories of the co-occurrence of risky driving behaviors, and the development of prevention programs that focus on perceived outcomes.

Copyright 2011, Psychology Press

Dills AK. Social host liability for minors and underage drunk-driving accidents. Journal of Health Economics 29(2): 241-249, 2010. (24 refs.)

Social host laws for minors aim to reduce teenage alcohol consumption by imposing liability on adults who host parties. Parents cite safety reasons as part of their motivation for hosting parties, preferring their teens and their teens' friends to drink in a supervised and safe locale. Both sides predict an effect of social host liability for minors on alcohol-related traffic accident rates for under-aged drinkers: the effects, however, work in opposite directions. This paper finds that, among 18-20 year olds, social host liability for minors reduced the drunk-driving fatality rate by 9%. I find no effect on sober traffic fatalities. Survey data on drinking and drunk driving suggest the declines resulted mostly from reductions in drunk driving and not reductions in drinking.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

Dols ST; Gonzalez FJA; Aleixandre NL; Vidal-Infer A; Rodrigo MJT; Valderrama-Zurian JC. Predictors of driving after alcohol and drug use among adolescents in Valencia (Spain). Accident Analysis and Prevention 42(6): 2024-2029, 2010. (25 refs.)

Background: Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs has been identified as a risk factor for road traffic crashes. We have assessed the prevalence and predictor factors for driving after alcohol and drug use by adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 11,239 students aged 14-18 years from 252 private and public schools in the Valencia region of Spain was conducted. The prevalence and predictors of driving after alcohol use, alcohol and drug use, or drug use during the previous 6 months were measured. Results: Of the students who reported driving (20%), 45.1% indicated driving after alcohol and drug use. The consumption of various drugs was higher among students who drove a vehicle compared with those who did not. The likelihood of driving after consuming alcohol, or alcohol and drugs, increased in line with the number of standard drink units per week, reports of any lifetime alcohol- or drug-related problems, and poor family relationship. In addition, masculine gender and early alcohol use increased the likelihood of driving after consuming alcohol. Conclusions: Driving after alcohol and drug use is quite prevalent among adolescents in the Valencia region of Spain. There is a need for implementation of targeted policies for adolescents. This should focus on education and information on alcohol/drug use and driving.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science

DuPont RL. Prescription drug abuse: An epidemic dilemma. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 42(2): 127-132, 2010. (27 refs.)

The nonmedical use of prescribed controlled substances has become a major public health problem. This article reviews the extent of prescription drug abuse reflected in drug overdose deaths, youth drug use and drug-impaired driving. Efforts to reduce illegal, nonmedical use of prescribed controlled drugs must be balanced so as not to interfere with appropriate medical use of these medicines. Future policy options include identifying and expanding leadership in the research and medical communities, creation of a national public education campaign, development of abuse-resistant drug formulas, increasing prescription drug monitoring programs and enforcement efforts, establishing effective drugged driving laws, and improving substance abuse treatment.

Copyright 2010, Haight-Ashbury

Hall W. The adverse health effects of cannabis use: What are they, and what are their implications for policy? (review). International Journal of Drug Policy 20(6, Special Issue): 458-466, 2009. (165 refs.)

Background: The adverse health effects of cannabis are a source of contention in debates about policies towards the drug. Methods: This paper provides a review of epidemiological evidence on the major adverse health effects of cannabis use and considers its implications for policy. Results: The evidence strongly suggests that cannabis can adversely affect some users, especially adolescents who initiate use early and young adults who become regular users. These adverse effects probably include increased risks of: motor vehicle crashes, the development of cannabis dependence, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, psychotic symptoms, and adverse outcomes of adolescent development, namely, poorer educational outcomes and an increased likelihood of using other illicit drugs. Conclusions: Politically, evidence of adverse health effects favours the status quo in developed countries like Australia where cannabis policy has been framed by the media as a choice between two views: (1) either cannabis use is largely harmless to most users and so we should legalize, or at the very least decriminalize its use; or (2) it harms some of its users so we should continue to prohibit its use.

Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science

Hall W; Degenhardt L. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. (review). Lancet 374(9698): 1383-1391, 2009. (97 refs.)

For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest --that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science

Humensky JL. Are adolescents with high socioeconomic status more likely to engage in alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood? Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 5(e-journal 19), 2010. (37 refs.)

Background: Previous literature has shown a divergence by age in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and substance use: adolescents with low SES are more likely to engage in substance use, as are adults with high SES. However, there is growing evidence that adolescents with high SES are also at high risk for substance abuse. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship longitudinally, that is, whether wealthier adolescents are more likely than those with lower SES to engage in substance use in early adulthood. Methods: The study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), a longitudinal, nationally-representative survey of secondary school students in the United States. Logistic regression models were analyzed examining the relationship between adolescent SES (measured by parental education and income) and substance use in adulthood, controlling for substance use in adolescence and other covariates. Results: Higher parental education is associated with higher rates of binge drinking, marijuana and cocaine use in early adulthood. Higher parental income is associated with higher rates of binge drinking and marijuana use. No statistically significant results are found for crystal methamphetamine or other drug use. Results are not sensitive to the inclusion of college attendance by young adulthood as a sensitivity analysis. However, when stratifying by race, results are consistent for white non-Hispanics, but no statistically significant results are found for non-whites. This may be a reflection of the smaller sample size of non-whites, but may also reflect that these trends are driven primarily by white non-Hispanics. Conclusions: Previous research shows numerous problems associated with substance use in young adults, including problems in school, decreased employment, increases in convictions of driving under the influence (DUI) and accidental deaths. Much of the previous literature is focused on lower SES populations. Therefore, it is possible that teachers, parents and school administrators in wealthier schools may not perceive as great to address substance abuse treatment in their schools. This study can inform teachers, parents, school administrators and program officials of the need for addressing drug abuse prevention activities to this population of students.

Copyright 2010, BioMed Central

Impinen A; Rahkonen O; Karjalainen K; Lintonen T; Lillsunde P; Ostamo A. Substance use as a predictor of driving under the influence (DUI) rearrests. A 15-year retrospective study. Traffic Injury Prevention 10(3): 220-226, 2009. (37 refs.)

Background: Recidivism is a major problem in the prevention of DUI offenses. It is suggested that impairing substances used by drivers may relate to a higher risk of recidivism. This study aims to determine rearrest rates in different groups of arrested drivers focusing on different substances found in the blood. Material and Methods: The data utilized were obtained from the register of suspected DUI offenders maintained by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL). Data were available for the 15-year period between 1993 and 2007. The number of rearrests was traced from the individuals' ID codes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of the DUI offenders was studied as well as their age at the time of the first arrest. Rearrest rates according to alcohol and drug findings were estimated using survival analysis methods. Results: At the time of the first arrest, the drivers with a single DUI arrest were older and had a lower BAC than those who had a later arrest. The proportion of female drivers decreased as the number of rearrests increased. Drivers with drugs only or a combination of drugs and alcohol had a significantly higher rearrest rate than drivers with alcohol alone. Drivers with amphetamines only had the highest rearrest rates. Findings of benzodiazepine and opioids alone did not increase the risk of rearrest in the long run. Young age, male sex, high blood alcohol level, and arrest during the nighttime and during weekdays constituted a higher risk for rearrest. Conclusions: A third of those suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs are rearrested within 15 years. Drugs, especially amphetamines, are a risk factor for faster rearrest. These results show that the groups at risk of recidivism can be pinpointed. Interventions to prevent recidivism should be developed particularly for drugged drivers. Substance abuse beginning in adolescence seems to be a greater risk.

Copyright 2009, Taylor & Francis

Juric M; Carapina M; Gilja A; Simic G. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of young people related to drinking and driving in Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Collegium Antropologicum 34(Suppl. 1): 39-44, 2010. (15 refs.)

The traffic accidents became the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young population groups during the late 60s and early 70s. Among several European countries that are in transition, Bosnia and Herzegovina takes the leading place in fatal traffic accidents. In this study we have investigated knowledge, attitudes and behavior of young people related to alcohol impaired driving. Our aim was to investigate the patterns and behavior among young people that could be useful for public health intervention among them. This is of special interest as there is a lack of such information from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study was performed in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 189 examinees of both genders, aged between 18 and 24 years, who have been divided in two groups: students of the University of Mostar and those who did not go for further education after high school (nonstudents). Sampling was performed in July 2006 in Mostar and surrounding area. The Gallup organization questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistic test and chi-square were used in statistical analysis. Result of this study could be helpful in taking preventive measures for lowering number of traffic accidents among young people or they could be base in some protective programs for increasing traffic safety.

Copyright 2010, Collegium Antropologicum

Kaminer Y. Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 19(3): 643-+, 2010. (38 refs.)

Energy drinks (EDs) are caffeine-based beverages that commonly contain large doses of sugar, carbohydrates, and a variety of legal stimulants and supplements, such as guarana, taurine, ginseng, and vitamin B complex. These drinks are marketed for young people as natural alternatives that increase fun and improve physical and cognitive performance such as concentration, attention, and alertness. There are commonly held false perceptions that the consumption of EDs can reverse alcohol-related impairment, including motor coordination and visual reaction time, which are crucial for driving safety. This article reviews the literature on EDs and examines problematic use and potential negative consequences in young people. Special emphasis is devoted to safety concerns following combination of EDs with alcohol, which gives the user a false sense of control.

Copyright 2010, W B Saunders/Elsevier Science

Lewis TF; Olds RS; Thombs DL; Ding KL. Driving privileges facilitate impaired driving in those youths who use alcohol or marijuana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 18(1): 106-116, 2009. (20 refs.)

The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after accounting for socio-demographic variables, legal driving privileges were independent risk factors for both alcohol- and marijuana-impaired driving, and more robust than substance use in distinguishing between impaired and non-impaired drivers. Prevention strategies must address conventional licensing policies in addition to social and contextual factors leading to adolescent alcohol and marijuana use and associated risks.

Copyright 2009, Haworth Press

Maldonado-Molina MM; Reingle JM; Delcher C; Branchini J. The role of parental alcohol consumption on driving under the influence of alcohol: Results from a longitudinal, nationally representative sample. Accident Analysis and Prevention 43(6): 2182-2187, 2011. (26 refs.)

Purpose: Many studies have examined the role of peer and parental alcohol use on drinking behaviors among adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined parental influences on driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol. The current study uses data from a longitudinal study to examine the role of parental alcohol use during adolescence on the risk for DUI among young adult men and women. Methods: Data were derived from 9559 adolescents and young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I and III. Survey logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between multilevel risk and protective factors and self-reported DUI. Analyses were stratified by gender and frequency of parental alcohol consumption to understand the role of parental alcohol use on risk for DUI among their youth. Results: Risk and protective factors for DUI were very similar among men and women. Parental alcohol use significantly predicted DUI among women (OR = 1.39, p<0.01) and men (OR = 1.33, p<0.05). When parents did not report alcohol use, peer alcohol use significantly increased risk for DUI for both women (OR = 1.26, p<0.05) and men (OR = 1.31, p<0.001). When parents reported alcohol use, however, peer alcohol use was not a significant independent predictor. Conclusions: Findings suggest remarkable similarities in risk and protective factors for DUI across gender groups. For men and women, parental alcohol consumption was a risk factor for DUI. Peers' alcohol use predicted DUI only when parents did not use alcohol.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Marko TL; Watt T. Employing a youth-led adult-guided framework "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign. Family & Community Health 34(4): 319-330, 2011. (10 refs.)

The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects ofmarijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the " Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.

Copyright 2011, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Maxwell JC; Freeman J; Davey J. Too young to drink but old enough to drive under the influence: A study of underage offenders as seen in substance abuse treatment in Texas. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 104(1-2): 107-112, 2009. (32 refs.)

Driving under the influence (DUI) is a major road safety problem. Historically, alcohol has been assumed to play a larger role in crashes and DUI education programs have reflected this assumption, although recent evidence suggests that younger drivers are becoming more likely to drive drugged than to drive drunk. This is a study of 7096 Texas clients under age 21 who were admitted to state-funded treatment programs between 1997 and 2007 with a past-year DUI arrest, DUI probation, or DUI referral. Data were obtained from the State's administrative dataset. Multivariate logistic regressions models were used to understand the differences between those minors entering treatment as a DUI as compared to a non-DUI as well as the risks for completing treatment and for being abstinent in the month prior to follow-up. A major finding was that over time, the primary problem for underage DUI drivers changed from alcohol to marijuana. Being abstinent in the month prior to discharge, having a primary problem with alcohol rather than another drug, and having more family involved were the strongest predictors of treatment completion. Living in a household where the client was exposed to alcohol abuse or drug use, having been in residential treatment, and having more drug and alcohol and family problems were the strongest predictors of not being abstinent at follow-up. As a result, there is a need to direct more attention towards meeting the needs of the young DUI population through programs that address drug as well as alcohol consumption problems.

Copyright 2009, Elsevier Science

McCarthy DM; Pedersen SL. Reciprocal associations between drinking-and-driving behavior and cognitions in adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70(4): 536-542, 2009. (41 refs.)

Objective: The present study tested reciprocal associations between drinking-and-driving behavior and cognitions as youths transition to driving independently. We hypothesized that experience with driving and experience with drinking and driving would effect changes in cognitions about drinking and driving over time. We also tested cognitions as predictors of later drinking-and-driving behavior. Method: Two hundred and two high school youths completed mailed questionnaire measures at two time points, approximately 8 months apart. Questionnaire measures assessed youths' drinking-and-driving behavior, riding with a drinking driver, drinking-and-driving attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived negative consequences at both time points. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, prior drinking-and-driving experience influenced changes in drinking-and-driving cognitions. Youths with drinking-and-driving experience at Time 1 saw drinking and driving as more dangerous over time; however, they perceived their peers as more accepting of this behavior. Time 1 attitudes predicted increased drinking-and-driving frequency at Time 2, and normative beliefs predicted increased frequency of riding with a drinking driver. Conclusions: These results support reciprocal associations between drinking-and-driving cognitions and behavior. Results of this study may have implications for the timing and content of drinking-and-driving interventions to reduce drinking and driving as well as riding with a drinking driver.

Copyright 2009, Alcohol Research Documentation Center

McGuire F; Dawe M; Shield KD; Rehm J; Fischer B. Driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol in a cohort of high-frequency cannabis users: Prevalence and reflections on current interventions. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 53(2): 247- 259, 2011. (39 refs.)

Driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis is a major public health concern, as both are major risk factors for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Prevalence levels for both driving-risk behaviours have increased in Canada in recent years, despite punitive laws and enforcement aimed at impaired driving. Young drivers are a major risk group, due to their common substance use and MVA involvement. Data from a cohort of N = 102 high-frequency cannabis users [18-28 years old, 70 males and 32 females] who were also active alcohol users, recruited by mass advertising from university student populations in Toronto, indicated that a significantly (p = 0.009) higher proportion of the sample [35.0%] had driven a car while under the influence of cannabis than had driven while under the influence of alcohol [4.9%] or of a combination of cannabis and alcohol [3.9%] in the 30 days prior to the assessment. Multiple explanations of this finding are possible. First, law-enforcement and practical deterrence effects for alcohol- versus cannabis-impaired driving in Canada may be substantially different. Second, cannabis users may generally believe that the impairment effects of cannabis are limited, and frequent users may specifically believe in their ability to control cannabis's effects on driving. Implications for interventions and policy are discussed.

Copyright 2011, University of Toronto Press

Pizza F; Contardi S; Antognini AB; Zagoraiou M; Borrotti M; Mostacci B et al. Sleep quality and motor vehicle crashes in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 6(1): 41-45, 2010. (40 refs.)

Study objectives: Sleep-related complaints are common in adolescents, but their impact on the rate of motor vehicle crashes accidents is poorly known. We studied subjective sleep quality, driving habits, and self-reported car crashes in high-school adolescents. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires (with items exploring driving habits) were distributed to 339 students who had a driver's license and attended 1 of 7 high schools in Bologna, Italy. Statistical analysis were performed to describe lifestyle habits, sleep quality, sleepiness, and their relationship with the binary dependent variable (presence or absence of car crashes) to identify the factors significantly affecting the probability of car crashes in a multivariate binary logistic regression model. Results: Nineteen percent of the sample reported bad sleep, 64% complained of daytime sleepiness, and 40% reported sleepiness while driving. Eighty students (24%), 76% of which were males, reported that they had already crashed at least once, and 15% considered sleepiness to have been the main cause of their crash. As compared with adolescents who had not had a crash, those who had at least 1 previous crash reported that they more frequently used to drive (79% vs 62%), drove at night (25% vs 9%), drove while sleepy (56% vs 35%), had bad sleep (29% vs 16%), and used stimulants such as caffeinated soft drinks (32% vs 19%), tobacco (54% vs 27%), and drugs (21% vs 7%). The logistic procedure established a significant predictive role of male sex (p < 0.0001; odds ratio = 3.3), tobacco use (p < 0.0001; odds ratio = 3.2), sleepiness while driving (p 0.010; odds ratio = 2.1), and bad sleep (p = 0.047; odds ratio 1.9) for the crash risk. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high prevalence of sleep-related complaints among adolescents and highlight their independent role on self-reported crash risk.

Copyright 2010, American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Shope JT. Adolescent motor vehicle crash risk: What's needed to understand and reduce the risk? Journal of Adolescent Health 46(1): 1-2, 2010. (15 refs.)

Sise CB; Sack DI; Sise MJ; Riccoboni ST; Osler TM; Swanson SM et al. Alcohol and high-risk behavior among young first-time offenders. Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 67(3): 498-502, 2009. (27 refs.)

Background: Underage drinking carries a high risk of injury. An important approach for reducing underage drinking is limiting youth access to alcohol. Underage drinkers obtain alcohol from multiple sources and patterns of access may vary by region. We examined patterns of access to alcohol and alcohol use among youth in a local court-ordered diversion program for first-time adolescent alcohol offenders as a basis for designing and evaluating community prevention efforts. Methods: Youth in the program completed a survey of demographic data, type of offense, source, setting, and quantity of alcohol consumed at time of offense, and 1-year alcohol-related high-risk behaviors. Significance was attributed to p <= 0.05. Results: Completed surveys were obtained from 1,158 (84.8%) of 1,366 eligible participants during the 23-month study period. There were 71% males and 29% females with a mean age of 17.2 years (range, 12-24 years). Respondents were Caucasian (64.5%), Hispanic/Latino (19.9%), Asian (3.5%), African American (2.5%), and others (9.6%). Offenses included minor in possession (55.8%), driving under the influence (21.2%), and drunk in public (20.4%). Consumption at time of offense was one or less drinks in 36.3%, two to five drinks in 31.7%, and 32.0% reported six or more drinks. Social sources of alcohol (got it from someone else) were reported by 72.9% and commercial sources (bought it or took it from a store) were reported in 11.9%. The two most common places of consumption were someone else's home (30.7%) and the beach (14.6%). Multiple 1-year high-risk behaviors were reported and 41.0% drove after drinking or rode with someone else who had been drinking. Binge drinking (5 or more drinks for males; 4 or more drinks for females) was reported by 43.1% of males and 36.7% of females. All high-risk behaviors were more common in binge drinkers (p < 0.001). Drinking and driving or riding with a drinking driver was reported in 54.2% of those who binged. Females who hinged reported a higher rate than males in 8 of 10 high-risk behaviors. Conclusions: This study revealed the predominance of social sources of alcohol among young first-time alcohol offenders. Drinking and driving or riding with a drinking driver was reported at an alarmingly high rate. Other alcohol-related high-risk behaviors were also common. Efforts to prevent alcohol-related trauma should target social access to alcohol, the resulting high-risk behaviors, and include a special focus on young females.

Copyright 2009, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Song EY; Smiler AP; Wagoner KG; Wolfson M. Everyone says it's OK: Adolescents' perceptions of peer, parent, and community alcohol norms, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Substance Use & Misuse 47(1): 86-98, 2012. (50 refs.)

An adolescent's perception of norms is related to her or his engagement in alcohol-related behaviors. Norms have different sources, such as parents, peers, and community. We explored how norms from different sources were simultaneously related to different alcohol-related behaviors (current drinking, drunkenness, heavy episodic drinking, driving under the influence or riding with a impaired driver, and alcohol-related nonviolent consequences) using data collected in 2004 from 6,958 adolescents from 68 communities in five states. Results revealed that parent, friend, and community norms were related to adolescents' alcohol-related behavior, but the strength of these impacts varied across behaviors. The pattern of results varied when the analysis relied on all adolescents or just those who had consumed alcohol in the last year.

Copyright 2012, Informa Healthcare

Stewart TC; Polgar D; Girotti MJ; Vingilis E; Caro D; Corbett BA et al. Evaluation of an adolescent hospital-based injury prevention program. Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 66(5): 1451-1459, 2009

Background: IMPACT (Impaired Minds Produce Actions Causing Trauma) is an adolescent, hospital-based program aimed to prevent injuries and their consequences caused by alcohol or drug impairment and other high-risk behaviors. The overall objective of this evaluation was to determine the effect of the program on students' knowledge and behavior regarding drinking and driving, over time. Methods: A randomized control trial between students randomly selected to attend IMPACT and those not selected served as a control group. Students completed a questionnaire before the program and at three posttime periods (1 week, 1 month, and 6 months). Panel data models were used to analyze the effects of the experiment on students' knowledge of alcohol and crash issues and negative driving behaviors (no seat belt, driving while using a cell phone, involved in conversation, eating, annoyed with other drivers, and drowsy). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyze the effect of IMPACT on students' influence on friends and family about road safety. Results: This study consisted of 269 students (129 IMPACT; 140 control) with an overall response rate of 84% (range, 99% presurvey to 71% at 6 months). The IMPACT group had a 57%, 38%, and 43% increase in the number of correct answers on alcohol and crash issues during the three time periods, respectively (p < 0.05). Students in the IMPACT group would try to influence friends and family to improve their road safety twice as often as 1-week postprogram (odds ratio 1.94, confidence interval 1.07, 3.53). The models did not suggest that the program had an effect on negative driving behaviors. Men and students who drove more frequently had worse driving behavior. Conclusions: Our evaluation demonstrates that the IMPACT program had a statistically significant, positive effect on students' knowledge of alcohol and crash issues that was sustained over time. IMPACT had an initial effect on students' behaviors in terms of peer influence toward improving road safety (i.e., buckling up, not drinking, and driving) 1 week after the program, but this effect diminished after I month. Other negative driving behaviors had low prevalence at baseline and were not further influenced by the program.

Copyright 2009, Lippincott, Williams and Wilcox

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2011. (1,892 refs.)

This Report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for our entire population. This report is a wake-up call for all of us, regardless of whether we seek to win the future by investing in our youth or seek to cut public spending to avoid a back-breaking financial burden on our children and grandchildren. The findings and recommendations in this report offer common ground and opportunity to help achieve both objectives. The Report is organized into eleven sections. The first section consists of an introduction and executive summary. Section II, Understanding Teen Substance Use and Addiction deals with physiological factors that make adolescents vulnerable to substance use and addiction. Section II considers the dimensions of the problem providing data on the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders, by substance, i.e. alcohol, nicotine, polydrug use, marijuana, prescription medication and other psychoactive substances. Section IV discusses the consequences of teen substance use, in terms of substance use disorders, mental health and physical health problems, mortality, suicide, risk of dangerous behaviors, impaired academic and career performance, impaired social functioning, second-hand effects, and financial costs. Section V discusses pervasive cultural influences that promote teen substance use, in respect to parental, school, community, and media influences, as well accessibility to addictive substances. Section VI focuses upon teen perceptions and expectation about substance use. Section VII discusses a range of factors that compound the risk of teen substance use and addiction: genetic predisposition; family history of high risk substance use; mental health disorders; temperament and self-esteem; part-time employment; divorced and single parent families; risky behavior affecting health and safety, i.e., driving, weight control, risky driving, sleep problems, and fighting and aggression; and high risk groups. Section VIII identifies factors that reduce the risk of teen substance use -- parental engagement, role models and positive peer influence, future goals; schools, community and athletic involvement; and religious involvement. Section IX is devoted to prevention approaches and barriers to improvement: screening and brief interventions; taxation and government regulation and enforcement; public awareness and education; school-based policies; and school-based prevention initiatives. Section X considers treatment and the gap between evidence and practice, and the barriers to treatment. Section XI, the concluding section, sets forth recommendations and next steps. Appendices include the methodology, and the survey of parents, students, high school teachers and school personnel.

Copyright 2012, Project Cork

Zhang LN; Wieczorek WF; Welte JW. Early onset of delinquency and the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving among young males. Addictive Behaviors 36(12): 1154-1159, 2011. (39 refs.)

Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science

Zhang LN; Wieczorek WF; Welte JW; Colder C; Nochajski TH. Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study. Journal of Criminal Justice 38(4): 439-445, 2010. (31 refs.)

The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science