CORK Bibliography: Hypnosis
18 citations. 1997 to present
Prepared: March 2012
Albedah AM; Khalil MK; Khalil AA; Elolemy AT. Use of the target group index survey to evaluate the cigarette smoking profile in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal 32(10): 1055-1059, 2011To draw a profile, and study the media habits for cigarette smokers in Saudi Arabia using the Target Group Index survey (TGI). A household survey using the TGI sample was conducted in March 2008 in 21 cities in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 7003 individuals aged 15 years or more, male and females, living in town and cities, were randomly selected using the multistage sampling technique. One individual per household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire covering socio-economic profile, media exposure, and cigarette consumer information. The study was conducted in Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cigarette smoking was 35.9% in males, and 2.3% in females. This was significantly higher in the age group 30-49 years compared with younger ages (p=0.001). Among smokers, 22.3% were heavy smokers, 69.3% were using regular flavor cigarettes, and 22.4% tried to quit smoking but failed. The most common methods of quitting smoking were nicotine gum (18.5%), hypnosis (14%), nicotine patch (8%), and acupuncture (3%). Ninety-eight percent of the smokers watched TV daily, noticed mainly big outdoor ads, and 46% used the Internet daily. Favorite TV and radio channels, newspaper, magazine, and interesting topics for the smokers were recorded, and the main smoker profile was drawn. The TGI can be used to draw a smoker profile and identify different segments with the greatest opportunities to send anti-smoking messages.
Copyright 2011, Riyadh Al-Kharj Hospital Programme
Ahijevych K; Yerardi R; Nedilsky N. Descriptive outcomes of the American Lung Association of Ohio Hypnotherapy Smoking Cessation Program. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 48(4): 374-387, 2000. (23 refs.)Hypnosis smoking cessation treatment is one type of program available to smokers. This paper describes a large randomly selected sample from such a program, which has not been previously reported. During 1997, 2,810 smokers participated in single-session, group hypnotherapy smoking cessation programs sponsored by the American Lung Association of Ohio. A randomly selected sample of 452 participants completed telephone interviews 5 to 15 months after attending a treatment session. Twenty-two percent of participants (n = 101) reported not smoking during the month prior to the interview. Use of other smoking cessation strategies since the treatment session were assessed. Interestingly, only 20% of participants who used pharmaceutical products to assist with smoking cessation took them for the recommended treatment duration. Hypnotherapy smoking cessation treatment offers an alternative cessation method, which may meet the unique needs of certain individuals.
Copyright 2000, Sage Publications Inc.
Barber J. Freedom from smoking: Integrating hypnotic methods and rapid smoking to facilitate smoking cessation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 49(3): 257-266, 2001. (12 refs.)Hypnotic intervention can be integrated with a Rapid Smoking treatment protocol for smoking cessation. Reported here is a demonstration of such an integrated approach, including a detailed description of treatment rationale and procedures for such a short-term intervention. Of 43 consecutive patients undergoing this treatment protocol, 39 reported remaining abstinent at follow-up (6 months to 3 years posttreatment).
Copyright 2001, Sage Publications Inc.
Barnes J; Dong CY; McRobbie H; Walker N; Mehta M; Stead LF. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10: CD001008, 2010. (56 refs.)Background: Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Data collection and analysis: Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Main results: Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too wide to infer equivalence. Authors' conclusions: We have not shown that hypnotherapy has a greater effect on six-month quit rates than other interventions or no treatment. There is not enough evidence to show whether hypnotherapy could be as effective as counselling treatment. The effects of hypnotherapy on smoking cessation claimed by uncontrolled studies were not confirmed by analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons
Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group; Abbot NC; Stead LF; White AR; Barnes J. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. (Cochrane Review). IN: Cochrane Library, Volume 1. Update Software: Oxford, 2003. (39 refs.)Background: Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. Objectives: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Selection criteria: We considered randomised trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Subjects lost to follow-up were counted as smokers. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. Main results: Nine studies compared hypnotherapy with 14 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment or to advice. We therefore did not attempt to calculate pooled odds ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of an effect of hypnotherapy compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Conclusions: We have not shown that hypnotherapy has a greater effect on six month quit rates than other interventions or no treatment. The effects of hypnotherapy on smoking cessation claimed by uncontrolled studies were not confirmed by analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Copyright 2003, British Medical Publishing
Douglas D. Stopping smoking: A study on the nature of resistance and the use of hypnosis. IN: Seidman DF; Covey LS, eds. Helping The Hard-Core Smoker. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates Publishing, 1999. pp. 213-224. (13 refs.)As part of a book on treating hard-core, highly addicted smokers, this chapter begins with some of the barriers to successful cessation. These include "comfort seeking;" the vicious cycle of self-lectures to 'stop-smoking'", in which thoughts about the need to stop are relieved by smoking and thus consideration of cessation becomes conditioned to smoking; the stance that one is powerless to an external enemy. In the face of this, the author suggests that "metanoia" (a conversion-like experience, that restructures the personality) is required for cessation. The author then reviews the use of hypnosis, which it is emphasized can only empower a smoker's decisions, not serve as a substitute for them.
Copyright 2000, Project Cork
Green JP; Lynn SJ. Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation: An examination of the evidence. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 48(2): 195-224, 2000. (92 refs.)This article reviews 59 studies of hypnosis and smoking cessation as to whether the research empirically supports hypnosis as a treatment. Whereas hypnotic procedures generally yield higher rates of abstinence relative to wait-list and no-treatment conditions, hypnotic interventions are generally comparable to a variety of nonhypnotic treatments. The evidence for whether hypnosis yields outcomes superior to placebos is mixed. In short, hypnosis cannot be considered a specific and efficacious treatment for smoking cessation. Furthermore, in many cases, it is impossible to rule out cognitive/behavioral and educational interventions as the source of positive treatment gains associated with hypnotic treatments. Hypnosis cannot, as yet, be regarded as a well-established treatment for smoking cessation. Nevertheless, it seems justified to classify hypnosis as a "possibly efficacious" treatment for smoking cessation.
Copyright 2000, Sage Publications, Inc.
Haustein KO. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine dependence. (review). International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38(6): 273-290, 2000. (204 refs.)Withdrawal treatment of cigarette smokers is a task of the utmost urgency in view of the consequences for national health programs and legislative policies of the high morbidity and mortality rates caused by smoking. Smokers need medical consultation in addition to drug- based treatment, but this results in self-willed quitting of the smoking habit in a limited number of smokers only. From the point of view of the criteria of "evidence-based medicine", non-drug methods such as hypnosis therapy and acupuncture are not effective (odds ratio = 1.22). Among the drug-based methods, treatment with nicotine substitution preparations has shown confirmed efficacy in numerous studies (odds ratio 1.63 to 2.67, depending on the application form used) and results in successful withdrawal from the smoking habit in 30 - 40% of cases. A decisive problem in the initial therapeutic phase appears to be the amount of the applied nicotine dose, but beyond that can be mastered above all by combining 2 or 3 application forms (patchs, chewing gum, nasal spray). Treatment is then continued for 4 - 12 weeks, depending on the degree of dependence, with successively reduced nicotine dosage. Two controlled studies with disparate designs have been done on bupropion (odds ratio 2.3/3.0). However, further studies are desirable due to concern about undesirable effects of bupropion described recently. Other substances subjected to trials in years past, such as clonidine, lobeline, mecamylamine and antidepressants including buspirone cannot be recommended on the basis of current data for treatment of smokers seeking a withdrawal cure.
Copyright 2000, Dustri-Verlag DR Karl Feistle
Kinnunen T. Integrating hypnosis into a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention: Comments on past and present studies. (editorial). International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 49(3): 267-271, 2001. (10 refs.)
Kirsch I. The altered states of hypnosis. Social Research 68(3): 795-808, 2001. (14 refs.)This volume provides the proceeedings of the 8th Social Research conference. Sparked by the "War on Drugs" the conference considered the origin of current attitudes toward use of drugs that alter consiciousness, patterns of use through history, and the origins and nature of government control policies, as well as alternatives to current policy. This paper is one of the four papers that were presented in a session that considered other routes to alter consciousness and conceptualization of drug use.
Copyright 2001, Project Cork
Nash MR; Perez N; Tasso A; Levy JJ. Clinical research on the utility of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 57(4): 443-450, 2009. (47 refs.)The authors summarize 4 articles of special interest to the hypnosis community in the general scientific and medical literatures. All are empirical studies testing the clinical utility of hypnosis, and together address the role of hypnosis in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders/conditions. The first is a randomized controlled study of smoking cessation treatments comparing a hypnosis-based protocol to an established behavioral counseling protocol. Hypnosis quit rates are superior to those of the accepted behavioral counseling protocol. A second study with pediatric patients finds hypnosis critically helpful in differentiating nonepileptic seizure-like behaviors (pseudoseizures) from epilepsy. The remaining 2 papers are randomized controlled trials testing whether hypnosis is effective in helping patients manage the emotional distress of medical procedures associated with cancer treatment. Among female survivors of breast cancer, hypnosis reduces perceived hot flashes and associated emotional and sleep disruptions. Among pediatric cancer patients, a brief hypnotic intervention helps control venepuncture-related pain.
Copyright 2009, Taylor & Francis
Pekala RJ; Maurer R; Kumar VK; Elliott NC; Masten E; Moon E; Salinger M. Self-hypnosis relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users: Effects on self-esteem, affect, and relapse. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 46(4): 281-297, 2004. (59 refs.)This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-hypnosis protocol with chronic drug and alcohol patients in increasing self-esteem, improving affect, and preventing relapse against a control, a transtheoretical cognitive-behavioral (TCB), and a stress management (attention-placebo) group. Participants were 261 veterans admitted to Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (SARRTPs). Participants were assessed pre- and postintervention, and at 7-week follow-up. Relapse rates did not significantly differ across the 4 groups at follow-up; 87% of those contacted reported abstinence. At follow-up, the participants in the 3 treatment conditions were asked how often they practiced the intervention materials provided them. Practicing and minimal-practicing participants were compared against the control group for each of the 3 interventions via MANOVAs/ANOVAs. Results revealed a significant Time by Groups interaction for the hypnosis intervention, with individuals who played the self-hypnosis audiotapes "at least 3 to 5 times a week" at 7-week follow-up reporting the highest levels of self-esteem and serenity, and the least anger/impulsivity, in comparison to the minimal-practice and control groups. No significant effects were found for the transtheoretical or stress management interventions. Regression analyses predicted almost two-thirds of the variance of who relapsed and who did not in the hypnosis intervention group. Hypnotic susceptibility predicted who practiced the self-hypnosis audiotapes. The results suggest that hypnosis can be a useful adjunct in helping chronic substance abuse individuals with their reported self-esteem, serenity, and anger/impulsivity.
2004, American Society of Clinical Hypnosis
Seidman DF; Covey LS, eds. Helping The Hard-Core Smoker. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates Publishing, 1999. (chapter refs.)This volume deals with a subset of smokers, who in some respects have been ignored by smoking cessation initiatives, the "hard-core" smoker. The edited volume with 27 authors has fifteen chapters. The volume is organized into five section. The first section considers biological substrates of nicotine addiction. Section II discusses the association on nicotine addiction with other substance use and also its association with psychiatric especially among those who have difficulty in terminating nicotine use. Section III is directed to assessment and treatment with attention to special populations: i.e. children and adolescents, women, pregnant women, and the older smoker. Part IV deals with treatment approaches. Separate chapters consider nicotine replacement, non-nicotine medications, a psychotherapeutic approach, group psychotherapy, and a comprehensive psychological approach to prevent relapse. The final section addresses the role of physicians and dentists in smoking cessation, with specific protocols and approaches outlined. The concluding chapter addresses the challenges the hard-core smoker presents, and the danger of this population being ignored within a public health perspective.
Copyright 2000, Project Cork
Sood A; Ebbert JO; Sood R; Stevens SR. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: A survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 8(6): 767-771, 2006. (25 refs.)Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.
2006, Taylor & Francis
Valbo A; Eide T. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: The effect of hypnosis in a randomized study. Addictive Behaviors 21(1): 29-35, 1996. (32 refs.)At Buskerud Central Hospital in Norway, a county hospital with 2000 deliveries per year, an intervention study, using hypnosis, aimed at smoking cessation and reduction among pregnant women still smoking around 18th week of pregnancy was carried out during the period 1992-1993. Two sessions (each lasting 45 minutes) using conventional induction into a superficial nonsomnabulistic stage of trance were performed. A tape was played, encouraging the pregnant women's wish to quit smoking and her capacity to do so. Relaxation techniques together with self-hypnotic methods were introduced to combat craving. Changes in smoking pattern were investigated at delivery time. No significant effect on smoking cessation or smoking reduction was obtained (p > 0.05). The authors recorded a 10% quit rate in both intervention group and control group, and 42% and 31% reduced their smoking in the intervention group and control group, respectively.
Copyright 1996, Elsevier Science Ltd.
Villano LM; White AR. Alternative therapies for tobacco dependence. Medical Clinics of North America 88(6): 1607+, 2004. (72 refs.)This article explores the use of acupuncture and hypnosis to treat tobacco dependence. For both hypnotherapy and acupuncture, the evidence of any effect is anecdotal. There are insufficient rigorous studies that are homogeneous in design or results to allow a reliable conclusion on whether or not these therapies are effective. At best, individual smokers who choose one of these interventions for preference should not be discouraged provided that they are informed about the state of the evidence.
Copyright 2004, WB Saunders Co.
Walsh BJ. Utilization sobriety: Brief, individualized substance abuse treatment employing ideomotor questioning. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 45(3): 217-224, 2003. (30 refs.)This article presents a substance abuse treatment method that acknowledges and accommodates the personal needs that are being addressed by substance. This method, Utilization Sobriety, bypasses perceived resistances and employs idiosyncratic psychobiological learning to achieve a body-mind gestalt that is complementary to the client's sobriety. It develops a safe framework for addressing any subsequent mental health themes directly or indirectly related to substance misuse. A treatment protocol for the use of Utilization Sobriety as well as relevant clinical material illustrating its application and a discussion of its implications are offered.
Copyright 2003, American Society of Clinical Hypnosis
Young GK. Hypnosis as an adjunctive modality in the relapse prevention component of an alcoholism treatment program. Dissertation Abstracts International 57(8): 5350-B, 1997To evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to a relapse prevention program, 40 patients (23 males, 17 females) in an alcoholism treatment program at O'Connor Hospital in San Jose, California were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. Both groups of 20 received the same treatment and relapse prevention procedures. The experimental group received an intensive (three month) hypnosis intervention in addition. All patients were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39 (SCQ-39), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (HGSHS:A). Posttesting on the SCL-90-R and the SCQ-39 was done 90 days posttreatment. Hypnosis group members were also given a debriefing questionnaire to obtain qualitative information about the effects of the hypnosis intervention on their recovery. The independent variables were treatment group, measured hypnotizability, and interaction (to detect the possible moderating effect of hypnotizability on responsiveness in the hypnotic group). The dependent variables were positive scores on the SCL-90-R and the SCQ-39 and abstinence status at 90-day follow-up. There were no significant results either for the variables considered individually or for the overall multivariate tests. None of the independent variables predicted outcome on the SCL-90-R or the SCQ-39. Abstinence rates were identical for both groups: 17 were abstinent and three had relapsed. In contrast with the nonsignificant effects portrayed in the statistical analyses, content analysis of the debriefing questionnaire responses of the hypnosis group found that every respondent described positive effects. Those responses had five themes: (1) improved stress management (95 percent); (2) better impulse control (80 percent); (3) enhanced feelings of well-being (75 percent); (4) increased ability to focus on recovery (70 percent); and (5) improved sleep (65 percent). These results mirror the previous literature on this question, which shows both a discrepancy in controlled studies and clinical reports that hypnosis has a positive impact in adjunct therapy.
Copyright 1997, University Microfilms International