CORK Bibliography: Employee Assistance Programs
24 citations. 2003 to present
Prepared: March 2012
Anon. Public employees. Alcoholism: Rehabilitated alcoholic keeps job. NYLS citylaw 9: 138, 2003. (2 refs.)At a termination hearing at OATH, Lockhart conceded that the charges were true but asked that he not be terminated because his pro-longed absence from work was attributable to a long standing alcohol and substance abuse problem for which he was now in recovery. ... After hearing testimony from Lockhart's ex-wife, his neighbor, a recovering alcoholic, and his substance abuse counselor regarding Lockhart's remarkable progress, ALJ Raymond E. Kramer was persuaded that, as a matter of discretion, he should not be terminated, finding this a compelling case for mitigation of the penalty.
Copyright 2003, Center for New York City Law
Bamberger P; Biron M. The prevalence and distribution of employee substance-related problems and programs in the Israeli workplace. Journal of Drug Issues 36(4): 755-786, 2006. (67 refs.)We used a national sample of 100 Israeli enterprises to examine the prevalence and distribution of employee substance-related workplace problems, as well as the prevalence and distribution of alternative programs/policies aimed at addressing such problems among Israeli workplaces. Although 29% of the responding firms reported having handled one or more cases involving employee workplace substance use or impairment, across these firms, only 53 actual cases were reported. Given an average enterprise size of 325 employees, this suggests a workforce prevalence rate for such problems of 0.16%. Only 10% of the enterprises studied offered any type of substance-related employee assistance, and only 12% included a specific reference to substance use in their discipline policy. The social policy and workplace implications of these findings are discussed.
2006, Journal of Drug Issues, Inc.
Bennett JB; Patterson CR; Reynolds GS; Wiitala WL; Lehman WEK. Team awareness, problem drinking, and drinking climate: Workplace social health promotion in a policy context. American Journal of Health Promotion 19(2): 103-113, 2004. (42 refs.)Purpose. (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design, A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects. Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention. The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building; and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures. Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling; responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results. Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed no change at 13%. Employees receiving Team Awareness also showed significant improvements in drinking climate. For example, scores on the measure of coworker enabling decreased from pretest (mean = 2.19) to posttest (mean = 2.05) and follow up (mean = 1.94). Posttest measures of drinking climate also predicted alcohol outcomes at 6 months. Conclusion. Employers should consider the use of prevention programming as an enhancement to standard drug-free workplace efforts. Team Awareness training targets work group social health, aligns with employee assistance efforts, and contributes to reductions in problem drinking.
Copyright 2004, American Journal of Health Promotion Inc.
Camazine AC. Drug and alcohol testing: Current employee assistance program dilemmas. IN: Emener WG; Hutchison WS. Jr; eds. Employee Assistance Programs: Wellness/Enhancement Programming (3rd ed.). Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd, 2003. pp. 198-204Recently, employers have become more aware of the impact which substance abuse has on the workplace. Increased accidents, absenteeism workers' compensation claims, and other similar circumstances have made employers aware that substance abuse problems may exist in their work-place. Numerous companies have, as a result, taken steps to attack this growing problem. Many Fortune 500 and smaller companies alike have chosen to institute drug screening programs in an attempt to curtail substance abuse problems. Removing employees with substance abuse problems from the workplace reduces the risk of injury to co-employees and provides a safe workplace.
Copyright 2003, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd
Chan KK; Neighbors C; Marlatt GA. Treating addictive behaviors in the employee assistance program: Implications for brief interventions. Addictive Behaviors 29(9): 1883-1887, 2004. (13 refs.)Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are widely available to assist employees with a variety of problems. This research examined factors related to utilization and outcome by individuals with addictive behaviors (ABs) versus other problem areas. The specific aims of this study were to evaluate referral source and treatment outcome by gender and presenting problem. The sample included 3890 men and women who attended the EAP for a variety of concerns. Men were less likely than women to self-refer and more likely to be mandated to the EAP. Men were also much more likely to present with ABs. Relative to clients presenting with other issues, individuals with ABs were less likely to self-refer, have their problems resolved in the EAP, and were seen for fewer sessions. These results suggest that EAPs may be well suited for implementation of brief interventions (BIs) that have been empirically supported in other contexts.
Copyright 2004, Elsevier Science
Croissant B; Klein O; Lober S; Mann K. Drug prevention at the place of work: Feasibility study in a large chemical company [German]. Gesundheitswesen 66(8-9): 505-510, 2004. (6 refs.)Introduction: In recent years drug prevention at the place of work has became increasingly important for programmes focussing on health promotion at the place of work. Drug prevention programmes aim at reducing cost and protecting the employees from physical harm. There are virtually no reliable figures from surveys in companies. To date intervention programme in companies have hardly been verified. In this feasibility study we intended to examine the practicability of an evaluation of an intervention programme in a large chemical company by means of questionnaires and we present preliminary intervention effects. Methods: In the context of a pilot study we conducted and evaluated a drug prevention programme at the place of work. Focus was on illegal designer drugs. The programme was conducted as a one-day workshop for trainers in superior management positions. We used a feedback form and a detailed questionnaire on drug prevention in the working place. 41 trainers who participated in the seminar were compared with a control group of 12 trainers who did not participate. Results: The intervention programme was well accepted by the participants. Follow-up data demonstrated, that participants in the seminar had far better knowledge of the employment agreement on addiction and drugs and of the possible ways to get help and they were far more active in realising the employment agreement. Conclusion: To achieve a long-term improvement of drug abuse in companies it is not enough to include and implement a passage on drug abuse and addiction in the employment agreement. Well-instructed trainers talk far often with colleagues displaying abnormal or addictive behaviour, resulting in more rapid therapeutic interventions.
Copyright 2004, Georg Thieme Verlag
Deitz D; Cook R; Hersch R. Workplace health promotion and utilization of health services: Follow-up data findings. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 32(3): 306-319, 2005. (25 refs.)This article reports findings from a workplace substance abuse prevention program designed to investigate best practices. The study sought to assess the effects of the worksite wellness program and employee assistance program (EAP) on healthcare utilization and costs, identify predictors of outpatient costs and visits, and assess the affect of the intervention on health attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral health-related costs and visits. Results indicated that visits to the EAP increased as did overall healthcare visits, that utilization of healthcare services and costs were higher in the population receiving substance abuse prevention intervention, and that employees in the substance abuse prevention intervention reported lower heavy drinking and binge drinking. Data suggest that substance abuse prevention may result in higher healthcare costs and utilization in the-short term, but a reduction in health risk behaviors such as heavy drinking may result in lower healthcare costs and utilization in the long term.
Copyright 2005, Springer
Dickman F. Ingredients of an effective employee assistance program. IN: Emener WG; Hutchison WS. Jr; eds. Employee Assistance Programs: Wellness/Enhancement Programming (3rd ed.). Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd, 2003. pp. 47-56Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) are extensive and widespread. In addition, their goals, structures, and types of personnel vary extensively in order to meet the specific program needs for which they were developed. Yet, to reach a high degree of effectiveness, every EAP requires identifiable minimum ingredients. These necessary ingredients and their specific uniqueness comprise the primary thrust of this chapter.
Copyright 2003, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd
Elliott K; Shelley K. Impact of employee assistance programs on substance abusers and workplace safety. Journal of Employment Counseling 42(3): 125-132, 2005. (23 refs.)Businesses have dealt with substance abuse in different ways. Some organizations have established Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) to address these problems. One large national company chose to fire employees with positive drug screens, offer them EAP services, and then consider them for rehire after treatment. A study of performance records for 12,167 employees with safety incidents revealed that rehired employees had a significantly higher incident rate than the company's general population. Results indicated no difference in pre- and post-EAP incident rates for rehired workers, and the post-EAP incident rate fluctuated for 2 years. Implications of hiring/rehiring individuals who abuse drugs and alcohol are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research.
Copyright 2005, American Counseling Association
Ellis DM. Remedy: A decade of diversion: Empirical evidence that alternative discipline is working for Arizona lawyers. Emory Law Journal 52: 1221-1237, 2003. (45 refs.)A decade ago in Arizona, pioneering proponents of alternatives to traditional prosecutorial disciplinary proceedings said offering diversion - assistance rather than reprimands - is good common sense and makes good business sense. ... This statistical analysis of data from the time the State Bar of Arizona's Law Office Management Assistance Program (LOMAP) was established in April 1992 through April 2002, is, to the best of the researcher's knowledge, the only study of its kind to date. Archival data was collected and analyzed for all of the 661 charges that resulted in referral to a LOMAP diversion program, involving 448 separate lawyers. ... It is worth noting that, while 14.2% of informal charges that resulted in diversion were filed against female lawyers, females make up 15.4% of those who successfully completed diversion and only 10.6% of those who failed to complete their terms of diversion. ... Based on the data collected and analyzed, there is a statistically significant difference in the number and severity of subsequent disciplinary charges between lawyers who have completed a LOMAP diversion program and those who have not completed such a program. ... Periodic research should be conducted to determine when diversion "graduates" are receiving additional charges, and LOMAP should offer management or other appropriate assistance. ... Sound management know-how and know-when, however, are the building blocks of good client service. ... State Bar of Arizona's Law Office Management Assistance Program (LOMAP) was established in April 1992 through April 2002, is, to the best of the researcher's knowledge, the only study of its kind to date. Archival data was collected and analyzed for all of the 661 charges that resulted in referral to a LOMAP diversion program, involving 448 separate lawyers. More than 100 variables were tracked. The researcher utilized several statistical procedures, including correlation and regression analysis, to determine outcomes of the program. The researcher also interviewed a number of people, including founders of LOMAP, a lawyer who represents other lawyers in disciplinary proceedings, and a former Chief Bar Counsel who has evaluated lawyer regulation systems in more than twenty states and two foreign countries.
Copyright 2003, Emory University School of Law
Finnemore M. The faces of addiction: OSB members share their stories of dependency and addiction -- and recovery. The Oregon State Bar Bulletin 66(August/September): 17-, 2006. (0 refs.)This article provides first person accounts of lawyers problems with alcohol and other drugs, with mention of factors that were involved in the person's use, the nature of problems created, the factors that prompted treatment and facilitate recovery. The role of the Oregon Attorney Assistance Program is noted.
Copyright 2006, Oregon State Bar Association
Friedmanm PD; Lemon SC; Stein MD; D'Aunno TA. Community referral sources and entry of treatment-naive clients into outpatient addiction treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 29(1): 105-115, 2003. (21 refs.)Assessed the association of sources of client referral with enrollment of treatment-naive clients. Data from the 1995 (n=618) and 2000 (n=745) waves of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Survey (DATSS), a panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units (OSAT), were analyzed. Enrollment of treatment-naive clients was defined as the percentage of OSAT clients who entered treatment in the past 30 days with no prior treatment for substance abuse. A generalized estimating equation model simultaneously assessed the association of each referral source with the dependent variable, while controlling for potential confounding and accounting for correlation of unit-level responses over time. In the multivariable model, OSAT units with a greater proportion of treatment-naive clients had received more referrals from employee assistance programs and the criminal justice system, and fewer referrals from mental health agencies. No effect of referral from medical or social service agencies was observed. Results highlight the role of coercive community institutions in treatment outreach efforts to persons in earlier phases of the "addiction career."
Copyright 2003, Marcel Dekker Inc.
Ghodse H. Addiction at Work: Tackling Drug Use and Misuse in the Workplace. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Gower Publishing Company, 2005. (Chapter refs.)This edited volume with 17 chapters endeavors to assemble the range of issues pertaining to substance use and the workplace. The book is divided into three parts: 'Understanding the problem', 'Establishing a drug policy' and 'Tools for 'Managing the problem'. The first section provides a brief history of the concerns related to alcohol and drugs in the workplace, the effects and associated costs, and the role of the work culture. The second section deals with drug policies at work, legal aspects, and points to be considered in the design and implementation of a drug policy. The third section provides information on educational programs, practical and ethical issues associated with drug screening and the role of employee assistance and specialist care programs.
Copyright 2006, Project Cork
Lapham SC; McMillan G; Gregory C. Impact of an alcohol misuse intervention for health care workers. 2: Employee assistance programme utilization, on-the-job injuries, job loss and health services utilization. Alcohol and Alcoholism 38(2): 183-188, 2003. (15 refs.)Aims: We evaluated the effects of an enhanced substance misuse (SM) prevention/early intervention programme on referrals to an employee assistance programme, health care utilization rates, on-the-job injury rates and job termination rates among health care professionals employed in a managed care organization. Methods: The intervention was implemented at one site, with the remaining sites serving as the comparison group. Existing data from hospital databases were used to compare events occurring in the periods before and after initiation of the intervention. To account for baseline differences in age, gender and job class, logistic regression models produced adjusted means for events per employee month-at-risk. Results: We found that employee assistance referrals and non-SM-related in-patient hospitalizations increased significantly post-intervention, while rates of total out-patient SM-related visits decreased at both the intervention and comparison sites post-intervention. There was a small, statistically significant decrease in the monthly rate (OR = 0.92) of non-SM out-patient utilization at the intervention site, once the intervention was in place. No differences potentially attributable to the intervention were detected in job turnover or injury rates. Conclusions: We conclude that, while the intervention did not appear to affect health care utilization for SM-related problems, it was associated with increased referrals for employee assistance.
Copyright 2003, Medical Council on Alcoholism. Used with permission
McFarland BH; Lierman WK; Penner NR; McCamant LE; Zani BG. Employee benefits managers' opinions about addiction treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases 22(2): 15-29, 2003. (32 refs.)Employee benefits managers arrange addictive disease treatment insurance coverage for the majority of people in the United States but little is known about these decision-makers. Managers were surveyed to learn their opinions about addiction treatment. Subjects were 131 people (61 percent female, 94 percent white, average age 46, average of 14 years in the human resources field). Managers were asked to rank health benefits (physical health, dental, alcohol-drug, vision, mental health, employee assistance program, and pharmaceuticals) on 15 dimensions. Managers ranked alcohol-drug abuse treatment worst on five items and second to the worst on another four of the 15 dimensions. On the item considered most important by the managers, respondents noted that employees often (2.8) ask for improved physical health benefits but rarely do so for alcohol and drug (4.1) benefits (p <.001). Education of workers and payers will be needed, to change opinions about treatment of addictive disorders.
Copyright 2003, The Haworth Press, Inc.
McPherson TL; Goplerud E; Derr D; Mickenberg J; Courtemanche S. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study18. Drug and Alcohol Review 29(6): 641-646, 2010 , 2010. (18 refs.)Introduction and Aims. Substantial empirical support exists for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in medical, but not non-medical settings such as the workplace. Workplace settings remain underutilised for delivering evidenced-based health services. This research aims to translate medical research into behavioural health-care practice in a telephonic call centre acting as a point of entry into an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The goal of the study is to examine the feasibility of implementing routine telephonic alcohol SBIRT in an EAP call centre and assess whether routine SBIRT results in increased identification of workers who misuse alcohol. Design and Methods. The design was pretest-posttest, one-group, pre-experimental. An alcohol SBIRT program developed based on World Health Organization recommendations was implemented in one EAP call centre serving one large employer. Workers were offered screening using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) during intake, brief counselling using motivational interviewing, referral to counselling, and follow-up. Results. At 5 months, 93% of workers contacting the EAP completed the AUDIT-C: 40% prescreened positive and 52% went on to screen at moderate or high risk for an alcohol problem. Overall identification rate (18%) approached general US population estimates. Most agreed to follow-up and three-quarters set an appointment for face-to-face counselling. Discussion and Conclusions. Integration of routine alcohol SBIRT into EAP practice is feasible in telephonic delivery systems and increases identification and opportunity for brief motivational counselling. When SBIRT is seamlessly integrated workers are willing to answer questions about alcohol and participate in follow-up.
Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Molea J. Impaired professionals: Current concepts and program elements. IN: Emener WG; Hutchison WS. Jr; ed. Employee Assistance Programs: Wellness/Enhancement Programming. Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd, 2003. pp. 259-264. (42 refs.)Any discussion of impaired professionals must include a review of the current brain-based understanding of addictive disorders. Today, most neuroscientists agree that the route of action, the final common pathway, if you will, of all mood-alternating substances, including alcohol, is the mezzo limbic system of the brain. The fact that not all individuals exposed to mood-altering substances become addicted points to an underlying neurochemical mechanism that predisposes certain individuals to addictive behavior. This assertion is supported by both the genetic research, the familial nature of addictive disorders, and the simple fact, known since the late 1930s, that the underlying problem of chemically dependant individuals is the dysphoric restlessness, irritability and discontent they experience prior to the relief found when ingesting a mood-altering substance. This explains such seeming paradoxes as the progression of tolerance after abstinence and behavior states that lay between active use of the drug and recovery, such as the so-called "Dry Drunk" state and suicidality after abstinence is achieved.
Copyright 2003, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd
Osilla KC; dela Cruz E; Miles JNV; Zellmer S; Warkins K; Larimer ME et al. Exploring productivity outcomes from a brief intervention for at-risk drinking in an employee assistance program. Addictive Behaviors 35(3): 194-200, 2010. (64 refs.)Brief intervention (BI) research has traditionally examined alcohol and drug use outcomes; however it is unknown whether BIs can also impact on-the-job productivity. This exploratory study examines changes in workplace productivity and related costs for clients receiving a BI for at-risk drinking in the employee assistance program (EAP). Participants were 44 clients attending the EAP for behavioral health concerns, screened for at-risk drinking, assigned to BI + Usual Care (n = 25) or UC alone (n = 19). and who completed 3-month follow-up. Absenteeism, presenteeism, and productivity costs were derived as outcomes. At follow-up, participants in the BI + UC group had improved productivity when at work (presenteeism) compared to the UC group. The estimated cost savings from improved productivity for the BI + UC group was $1200 per client over the UC group. Groups did not differ by absenteeism (missed days of work). Preliminary evidence suggests the broad impact Bls may have. Implications for future BI research are discussed.
Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science
Osilla KC; Zellmer SP; Larimer ME; Neighbors C; Marlatt GA. A brief intervention for at-risk drinking in an employee assistance program. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 69(1): 14-20, 2008. (46 refs.)Objective: The current pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a brief intervention (BI) for at-risk drinking in an employee assistance program. Method: Clients (N = 107) entering the employee assistance program (EAP) for mental health services were screened and met criteria for at-risk drinking. EAP therapists were randomly assigned to deliver either the BI plus EAP services as usual (SAU) or SAU only. Participants in the final analyses consisted of 44 BI + SAU (30 women, 14 men) and 30 SAU (21 women, 9 men) EAP clients who completed a 3-month follow-up. Results: Results suggested that participants in the BI + SAU group had significant reductions in peak blood alcohol concentration, peak quantity, and alcohol-related consequences compared with the SAU group. Men in the BI + SAU group had greater reductions in alcohol-related problems compared with men in the SAU group. Groups did not differ by number of total EAP sessions attended or rates of presenting problem resolution. Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence to support the integration of alcohol screening and BI as a low-cost method of intervening with clients with at-risk drinking in the context of co-occurring presenting problems.
Copyright 2008, Alcohol Research Documentation Inc.
Raskin E; Williams L. A Sound Investment: Identifying and Treating Alcohol Problems. Washington DC: George Washington University Medical Center, 2003. (17 refs.)This report summarizes finding on the impact of alcohol treatment on health care utilization and costs. It presents information on the largest study of its kind, in which researchers tracked for14 years the healthcare utilization of nearly 4,000 white and blue-collar employees (or their family members) with alcoholism at a large Midwest manufacturing plant. They were enrolled in either a fee-for-service healthcare plan or a health maintenance organization. The study compared the medical costs of people who received treatment with the costs of those who did not. The study found that after six months, treatment had begun to reduce health care costs by as much as 55% from the highest pre-treatment levels, even when the cost of treatment was included, while the healthcare costs of those who were not treated continued to rise. Three years later, the employers continued to see a substantial return on their investment in treatment: the health care costs of people who received treatment were still 24% lower than those who did not. This landmark study analyzed healthcare costs only, and it did not measure the productivity benefits to employers or possible reductions in health care costs of dependents. Similar studies about the economic impact of alcohol on health care costs demonstrate that: (1) people with drinking problems use healthcare at twice the rate of people without drinking problems. (2) alcoholism treatment helps reduce healthcare costs as soon as it is initiated. (3) alcohol alcoholism treatment reduces healthcare costs for most problem drinkers, it results in greater reductions among young problem drinkers.
Copyright 2005, Project Cork
Reynolds GS; Lehman WEK. Levels of substance use and willingness to use the Employee Assistance System. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 30(2): 238-248, 2003. (38 refs.)Often, individuals with drinking and drug problems may become particularly reluctant to seek help. This study hypothesized that certain social psychological influences (attitudes, group cohesion, trust in management) might buffer a reluctance to use services provided by an external Employee Assistance Program (EAP). A random sampling of 793 municipal employees completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed willingness to use the EAP, individual drinking and drug use, attitudes toward policy, work group cohesion, and trust in management. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses to examine the interacting effects of substance abuse and proposed moderators (gender, race, awareness of the EAP perceptions of policy, cohesion) on willingness to use the EAP The results indicated that although substance abusers were less willing to use the EAP than were nonusers, substance abusers who were aware of the EAP, who had favorable attitudes toward policy, and who did not tolerate coworker substance abuse were as willing to use the EAP as were nonusers. These findings also suggest that employees with greater awareness of the EAP support for policy, and perceptions of work group cohesion reported significantly greater willingness to use the EAP than did employees with relatively less awareness of the EAP policy support, and less cohesion. Workplace prevention efforts that are designed to increase the use of EAP services should intentionally target the workplace environment and social context. Creating the awareness and favorability of the EAP policy, and work group cohesion might buffer substance abusers' reluctance to seek help.
Copyright 2003, National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare
Shumway ST; Wampler RS; Dersch C; Arredondo R. A place for marriage and family services in employee assistance programs (EAPs): A survey of EAP client problems and needs. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 30(1): 71-79, 2004. (39 refs.)Marriage and family services have not been widely recognized as part of employee assistance programs (EAP), although family and relational problems are widely cited as sources of problems on the job. EAP clients (N=800, 97% self-referred) indicated how much family, psychological/ emotional, drug, alcohol, employment-related, legal, and medical problems troubled them and the need for services in each area. Psychological/emotional (66%) and family (65%) problem areas frequently were rated "considerable" or "extreme." Both areas were rated as "considerable" or "extreme" by 48.6% of participants. In view of the evidence that marriage and family services can be effective with both family and psychological/emotional problems, professionals who are competent to provide such services have much to offer EAP programs.
Copyright 2004, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
Spell CS; Blum TC. Adoption of workplace substance abuse prevention programs: Strategic choice and institutional perspectives. Academy of Management Journal 48(6): 1125-1142, 2005. (41 refs.)We considered the role of strategic choice and institutional factors in influencing how managers have addressed workplace substance abuse. Substance abuse prevention program adoption was examined in a sample of 360 establishments. Normative pressure, reflected by changes in media discourse about substance abuse, was related to adoption of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and drug-testing programs. Institutional factors were relevant for adopters of EAPs, but strategic choice factors were more significant for drug testing in the earliest of the three periods of adoption examined here.
Copyright 2005, Academy of Management
White T. Drug testing at work: Issues and perspectives. Substance Use & Misuse 38(11/13): 1891-1902, 2003. (0 refs.)Over the past two decades there has been a significant rise in the number of employers requiring their staff or prospective staff members to undergo testing to determine whether they have been taking illicit drugs. Such testing usually takes place within the framework of broad employee-assistance programs and is underpinned by the wish to ensure public safety and corporate security, as well as achieving a "drug-free workplace" by helping staff who have drug-use-related problems. By whatever means these tests are conducted, though, issues of privacy raise a question mark against whether this is truly an area in which the interests of collective security should always override individual civil liberties.
Copyright 2003, Marcel Dekker, Inc.