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CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Control Policy



25 citations. January 2010 to present

Prepared: March 2012



Babor TF; Caetano R; Casswell S; Edwards G; Giesbrecht N; Graham K et al. Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity: A summary of the second edition. Addiction 105(5): 769-779, 2010. (64 refs.)

This article summarizes the contents of "Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity" (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence.

Copyright 2010, Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs


Bird MG. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: Why such divergent outcomes? Canadian Public Administration 53(4): 509-530, 2010. (32 refs.)

The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's "multiple streams decision-making model," to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as "historical institutionalism," to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

Copyright 2010, Wiley-Blackwell


Buettner CK; Bartle-Haring S; Andrews DW; Khurana A. Perceptions of alcohol policy and drinking behavior: Results of a latent class analysis of college student drinkers. Addictive Behaviors 35(6): 628-631, 2010. (19 refs.)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to extend the limited research on college student support for alcohol control policies by using a latent class analysis to examine the shared characteristics of drinking students who support or oppose such policies. Methods: We used data from a sample of 2393 students drawn from a larger study on high risk drinking at a mid-western university. Data was collected between October 2005 and May 2007. We conducted a latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of drinking students based on relevant variables. Results: The results of the latent class analysis yielded a model which could correctly classify 90% of the students taking the survey into one of four "classes" based upon their response to four items on the questionnaire. Conclusions: Interventions would benefit from approaches that target both student perceptions and specific policies that are most conducive to student support and engagement.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science


Garey L; Prince MA; Carey KB. Alcohol policy support among mandated college students. Addictive Behaviors 36(10): 1015-1018, 2011. (11 refs.)

Background: Alcohol consumption on college campuses is high, and often dangerous. College administrators have created policies to control alcohol consumption, but student body support or opposition of specific policies has been relatively unexplored. Method: The current study examined the relations of alcohol policy support with gender and alcohol consumption. Mandated students (N=229; 44% women) completed self-report assessments of alcohol policy support and alcohol consumption. Results: Women supported policies to a greater extent than did men, as did lighter drinkers relative to heavier drinkers. Drinks per drinking day fully mediated the relation between gender and alcohol policy support. Conclusion: While alcohol policy support differs by gender, this covariation is explained by differences in alcohol consumption. Findings have implications for addressing alcohol policy support among mandated college students.

Copyright 2011, Elsevier Science


Goldfarb A; Tucker C. Advertising bans and the substitutability of online and offline advertising. Journal of Marketing Research 48(2): 207-227, 2011. (48 refs.)The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising bans compared with states that do not. For consumers exposed to online advertising, this gap narrows to 3%. There are similar effects for four changes in local offline alcohol advertising restrictions when advertising effectiveness is observed both before and after the change. The effect of online advertising is disproportionately high for new products and for products with low awareness in places that have bans. This suggests that online advertising could reduce the effectiveness of attempts to regulate offline advertising channels because online advertising substitutes for (rather than complements) offline advertising.

Copyright 2011, American Marketing Association


Godlee F. Drinking at the last chance saloon. (editorial). British Medical Journal 340: e-article 394, 2010. (0 refs.)

Distinguished voices are lining up behind England's chief medical officer Liam Donaldson in support of a minimum price for alcohol. The BMJ supports calls for a minimum price on alcohol, as well as for a ban on alcohol advertising and sponsorship. It is evident that serious health and societal costs of alcohol misuse are best prevented through legislation on pricing and marketing. For obvious reasons the drinks industry is against this approach. It would like us to see alcohol misuse as a problem for individuals rather than society, and over the years it has successfully influenced government. In the first of our new Lobby Watch columns (doi:10.1136/bmj.b5659), there is examination of the Portman Group, a body funded entirely by drinks manufacturers whose stated aim is to promote social responsibility in the alcohol industry. The group has intervened at key stages in the debate on alcohol and public health: in 1994 it paid academics to write anonymous critiques of a World Health Organization report on alcohol controls, and in 2004 it was the only "alcohol misuse" group cited in the UK government's alcohol strategy. Home secretary Alan Johnson now admits that the voluntary code for alcohol retailers has failed and a mandatory code is needed. But he won't countenance an advertising and sponsorship ban, such as the one in France, or a minimum price, already successfully in place in Canada.

Copyright 2010, BMJ Publishing


Hahn R. Recommendations on maintaining limits on days and hours of sale of alcoholic beverages to prevent excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(6): 605-606, 2010. (5 refs.)

There are two major recommendation. The first focuses on limiting days on which alcoholic beverages are sold. The second focuses on limiting hours during which alcoholic beverages are sold. In respect to the first, there is strong evidence of effectiveness. Thus, the Task Force recommends maintaining existing limitations. Removal of limits on days of sale in off-premises settings results in small increases both in consumption of alcohol and in motor vehicle fatalities, there is a similar effect for on-premsise sales. Also, the Task Force recommends maintaining existing limits on the hours during which alcoholic beverages are sold at on-premises outlets as another strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. Studies that examined increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours found increases in vehicle crash injuries, emergency room admissions, and alcohol-related assault and injury. The Task Force found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of increasing existing limits on hours of sale at off-premises outlets, because no studies were found that assessed such evidence.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science


Hahn R; Kuzara JL; Elder R; Brewer R; Chattopadhyay S; Fielding J et al. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(6): 590-604, 2010

Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the "Guide to Community Preventive Services" were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science


Harper TA; Mooney G. Prevention before profits: A levy on food and alcohol advertising. (editorial). Medical Journal of Australia 192(7): 400-402, 2010. (17 refs.)

The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice.

Copyright 2010, Australasian Medical Publishiing


Hingson RW. Commentary on Nelson, Toomey, Lenk, et al. (2010): "Implementation of NIAAA College Drinking Task Force Recommendations: How Are Colleges Doing 6 Years Later?" (editorial). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 34(10): 1694-1698, 2010 , 2010. (43 refs.)

Kypri K; Jones C; McElduff P; Barker D. Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city. Addiction 106(2): 303-310, 2011. (18 refs.)

Aims: In March 2008 the New South Wales judiciary restricted pub closing times to 3 a.m., and later 3.30 a.m., in the central business district (CBD) of Newcastle, Australia. We sought to determine whether the restriction reduced the incidence of assault. Design: Non-equivalent control group design with before and after observations. Setting: Newcastle, a city of 530 000 people. Participants: People apprehended for assault in the CBD and nearby Hamilton, an area with a similar night-time economy but where no restriction was imposed. Measurements: Police-recorded assaults in the CBD before and after the restriction were compared with those in Hamilton. Cases were assaults occurring from 10 p.m.-6 a.m. from January 2001-March 2008, with April 2008-September 2009 as the post-restriction period. We also examined changes in assault incidence by time of night. Negative binomial regression with time, area, time x area interaction terms and terms for secular trend and seasonal effects was used to analyse the data. Autocorrelation was examined using generalized estimating equations. Findings: In the CBD, recorded assaults fell from 99.0 per quarter before the restriction to 67.7 per quarter afterward [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.80]. In the same periods in Hamilton, assault rates were 23.4 and 25.5 per quarter, respectively (IRR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79-1.31). The relative reduction attributable to the intervention was 37% (IRR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.47-0.81) and approximately 33 assault incidents were prevented per quarter. Conclusion: This study indicates that a restriction in pub closing times to 3/3.30 a.m. in Newcastle, NSW, produced a large relative reduction in assault incidence of 37% in comparison to a control locality.

Copyright 2011, Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs


Macdonald S; Stockwell T; Luo JS. The relationship between alcohol problems, perceived risks and attitudes toward alcohol policy in Canada. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(6): 652-658, 2011. (29 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Approval of alcohol policies by the public in democratic countries is critical for instituting social change. With respect to alcohol policies, mounting research indicates that a higher price per unit of ethanol is an effective approach for reducing alcohol-related problems, yet surveys have found this approach is usually unpopular. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between amount of drinking and support for various alcohol policies. Design and Methods. A secondary analysis was conducted on the Canadian Addictions Survey, a randomised telephone survey of over 10 000 Canadians. The relationship between the amounts of drinking reported by the respondents was examined in relation to the perceived seriousness of alcohol problems in their communities and the endorsement of several alcohol policies. Results. Increased amount of drinking was significantly related to lower perceptions of drinking-related risks. Furthermore, heavier consumers had less favourable attitudes than lighter drinkers and abstainers toward alcohol policies, such as increased taxation. Aggregated data across the 10 Canadian provinces showed a strong effect size (r = -0.515, P = 0.128) between endorsement of alcohol taxation and rates of hospital separations for alcohol. Discussion and Conclusions. Results from this study show that the more that people drink, the more they oppose taxation. The implications of these findings are that as alcohol problems in communities become worse, the population may become more resistant to effective alcohol policies. Strategies are suggested for implementing effective policies.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell


Lenk KM; Toomey TL; Erickson DJ; Kilian GR; Nelson TF; Fabian LEA. Alcohol control policies and practices at professional sports stadiums18. Public Health Reports 125(5): 665-673, 2010 , 2010. (18 refs.)

Objective. Alcohol-related problems such as assaults and drinking-driving at or near professional sporting events are commonly reported in the media. An important strategy to reduce such problems may be the use of alcohol control policies at sports stadiums. The objective of this study was to examine alcohol control policies and practices at professional sports stadiums in the U.S. Methods. We conducted a telephone survey of food/beverage managers from 66 of the 100 U.S professional sports stadiums that house a professional hockey, basketball, baseball, and/or football team. The survey consisted of 18 items pertaining to policies regulating alcohol sales and consumption. Results. Most managers indicated that their stadium had a range of alcohol control policies and practices. For example, all or nearly all reported their stadium allows no more than two alcoholic beverages per sale and their alcohol servers are required to check age identification of patrons who appear younger than age 30. In contrast, only about half prohibit servers younger than 21 years of age from selling alcohol both in seating areas and at concession booths, and approximately one-third designate sections of their stadiums as alcohol-free. Conclusions. Although we found that some alcohol control policies appear to be common across stadiums, others are uncommon, leaving room for potential areas of improvement in reducing or preventing alcohol-related problems at professional sporting events. The results provide an important starting point for identifying policies that can be evaluated to determine their effectiveness in reducing alcohol-related injuries and deaths at sporting events.

Copyright 2010, Association of Schools of Public Health


Macdonald S; Stockwell T; Luo JS. The relationship between alcohol problems, perceived risks and attitudes toward alcohol policy in Canada. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(6): 652-658, 2011. (29 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Approval of alcohol policies by the public in democratic countries is critical for instituting social change. With respect to alcohol policies, mounting research indicates that a higher price per unit of ethanol is an effective approach for reducing alcohol-related problems, yet surveys have found this approach is usually unpopular. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between amount of drinking and support for various alcohol policies. Design and Methods. A secondary analysis was conducted on the Canadian Addictions Survey, a randomised telephone survey of over 10 000 Canadians. The relationship between the amounts of drinking reported by the respondents was examined in relation to the perceived seriousness of alcohol problems in their communities and the endorsement of several alcohol policies. Results. Increased amount of drinking was significantly related to lower perceptions of drinking-related risks. Furthermore, heavier consumers had less favourable attitudes than lighter drinkers and abstainers toward alcohol policies, such as increased taxation. Aggregated data across the 10 Canadian provinces showed a strong effect size (r = -0.515, P = 0.128) between endorsement of alcohol taxation and rates of hospital separations for alcohol. Discussion and Conclusions. Results from this study show that the more that people drink, the more they oppose taxation. The implications of these findings are that as alcohol problems in communities become worse, the population may become more resistant to effective alcohol policies. Strategies are suggested for implementing effective policies.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell


Nelson TF; Toomey TL; Lenk KM; Erickson DJ; Winters KC. Implementation of NIAAA College Drinking Task Force Recommendations: How are colleges doing 6 years later? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 34(10): 1687-1693, 2010 , 2010. (20 refs.)

Background: In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) College Drinking Task Force issued recommendations to reduce heavy drinking by college students, but little is known about implementation of these recommendations. Current discussion about best strategies to reduce student drinking has focused more on lowering the minimum legal drinking age as advocated by a group of college and university presidents called the Amethyst Initiative than the NIAAA recommendations. Methods: A nationally representative survey of administrators was conducted at 351 4-year colleges in the United States to ascertain familiarity with and progress toward implementation of NIAAA recommendations. Implementation was compared by enrollment size, public or private status, and whether the school president signed the Amethyst Initiative. Results: Administrators at most colleges were familiar with NIAAA recommendations, although more than 1 in 5 (22%) were not. Nearly all colleges use educational programs to address student drinking (98%). Half the colleges (50%) offered intervention programs with documented efficacy for students at high risk for alcohol problems. Few colleges reported that empirically supported, community-based alcohol control strategies including conducting compliance checks to monitor illegal alcohol sales (33%), instituting mandatory responsible beverage service (RBS) training (15%), restricting alcohol outlet density (7%), or increasing the price of alcohol (2%) were operating in their community. Less than half the colleges with RBS training and compliance checks in their communities actively participated in these interventions. Large colleges were more likely to have RBS training and compliance checks, but no differences in implementation were found across public/private status or whether the college president signed the Amethyst Initiative. Conclusions: Many colleges offer empirically supported programs for high-risk drinkers, but few have implemented other strategies recommended by NIAAA to address student drinking. Opportunities exist to reduce student drinking through implementation of existing, empirically based strategies.

Copyright 2010, Research Society on Alcoholism


Osterberg EL. Alcohol tax changes and the use of alcohol in Europe. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(2): 124-129, 2011. (14 refs.)

Introduction and Aims. Different motives in determining the level and structure of alcohol taxes lead to greatly varying alcohol excise duty levels. The aim of this paper is to look at alcohol excise duty rates in European Union (EU) and the mechanisms affecting them. Also the trends in alcohol prices and alcohol consumption will be discussed. Material. Material concerning alcohol taxes and consumption comes from available statistics and published literature. Results. This paper shows that despite many attempts the EU has not been able to harmonise alcohol excise duty rates in its member states. The importance of alcohol taxes as an alcohol control measure has decreased as the real value of alcohol excise duty rates has decreased in most EU countries during the last decades. Discussion. In most European countries the share of alcohol taxes of the price of alcoholic beverages is quite low. Therefore, increasing alcohol excise duty rates would in most countries lead to increased alcohol tax revenues to the public sector. Consequently, increasing alcohol excise duty rates would serve both the fiscal and the health and social policy interests of the state.

Copyright 2011, Wiley-Blackwell


Peele S. Alcohol as evil: Temperance and policy. Addiction Research & Theory 18(4): 374-382, 2010 , 2010. (28 refs.)

Beverage alcohol has developed indelibly different footprints in different cultures. Research shows, indeed, that how a culture views and appreciates alcohol impacts people's very likelihood of being addicted to it. In this context, the US and other Protestant English-speaking nations, and particularly Nordic ones, are characterized by intense binge drinking - amidst overall low consumption - leading to both social and health problems (including higher levels of alcohol-related mortality). At the same time, these are the very nations that propose alcohol control policies worldwide, which they support with advanced epidemiologic research. Ironically, this same research has shown how peculiar Temperance cultures' drinking patterns are, particularly in contrast with those in Southern Europe. Yet superior-drinking cultures are ignored - even belittled - in formulating governmental alcohol policies. This paradox is explored and laid at the feet of ingrained anti-alcohol feelings that pervade Temperance cultures. One resulting subplot is the effort by leading Temperance journals and researchers to discourage alcohol producers and sellers from having any role in policy, and to punish and to ban researchers and social scientists in any way associated with producers and sellers.

Copyright 2010, Taylor & Francis


Pichainarong N; Chaveepojnkamjorn W. Youth and alcoholic beverages drinking patterns among high school students in central Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 41(6): 1467-1474, 2010. (22 refs.)

The objective of this study was to determine the drinking patterns of high school students in central Thailand. Eleven thousand three hundred sixty high school students from central Thailand were divided into 2 groups (drinkers and nondrinkers) according to their alcohol consumption Information was obtained by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts general characteristics, and characteristics of alcohol drinking behavior. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by a computerized statistical package. The socio-demographic factors related to the student's alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months were age > 15 years old, male sex, grades 9 and 11 education level, living in a private dormitory, staying with a relative or a friend, having a grade point average <2 0 or >30, having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems (p<0 05). Drinking patterns were classified into 5 categories life time drinking, drinking during the previous year, drinking during the previous 30 days, binge drinking during the previous 30 days and drinking until intoxication during the previous 30 days A higher proportion of drinking was reported by boys than girls The prevalence of drinking increased m proportion to the educational level. The 3 main drinking places were parties (48 5%), at home or in the dormitory (37 5%) and in shops around the school (12 4%) Boys drank alcohol on average 1-2 times per month in 59.8% and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 38.6%. Eighty point one percent of girls drank alcohol 1-2 times per month and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 55.6%. Drinking alcohol among high school students should be controlled by limiting access to alcoholic beverages in order to reduce accidents, injuries, violence and alcohol-related health problems among young people

Copyright 2010, Southeast Asian Ministers Education Organization


Purshouse RC; Meier PS; Brennan A; Taylor KB; Rafia R. Estimated effect of alcohol pricing policies on health and health economic outcomes in England: An epidemiological model. Lancet 375(9723): 1355-1364, 2010. (36 refs.)

Background: Although pricing policies for alcohol are known to be effective, little is known about how specific interventions affect health-care costs and health-related quality-of-life outcomes for different types of drinkers. We assessed effects of alcohol pricing and promotion policy options in various population subgroups. Methods: We built an epidemiological mathematical model to appraise 18 pricing policies, with English data from the Expenditure and Food Survey and the General Household Survey for average and peak alcohol consumption. We used results from econometric analyses (256 own-price and cross-price elasticity estimates) to estimate effects of policies on alcohol consumption. We applied risk functions from systemic reviews and meta-analyses, or derived from attributable fractions, to model the effect of consumption changes on mortality and disease prevalence for 47 illnesses. Findings General price increases were effective for reduction of consumption, health-care costs, and health-related quality of life losses in all population subgroups. Minimum pricing policies can maintain this level of effectiveness for harmful drinkers while reducing effects on consumer spending for moderate drinkers. Total bans of supermarket and off-license discounting are effective but banning only large discounts has little effect. Young adult drinkers aged 18-24 years are especially affected by policies that raise prices in pubs and bars. Interpretation Minimum pricing policies and discounting restrictions might warrant further consideration because both strategies are estimated to reduce alcohol consumption, and related health harms and costs, with drinker spending increases targeting those who incur most harm.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science


Room R. The long reaction against the wowser: The prehistory of alcohol deregulation in Australia. Health Sociology Review 19(2): 151-163, 2010 , 2010. (36 refs.)

The cultural and historical background of the substantial deregulation of alcohol sales in Australia in the last quarter century is described and discussed. Drinking and intoxication was contested ground in Australian history, stereotypically split between the heavy-drinking male world of primary industries and the more feminine world of the suburb. In the temperance era of the late 19th and early 20th century, restrictions on alcohol sales gained ground, epitomised by six o'clock closing adopted during World War I. Alcohol's cultural position shifted after World War II: alcohol problems were redefined in terms of alcoholism, a personal failing, and a cultural-political movement led by the Sydney Bulletin led a successful cultural-political movement to caricature and derogate 'wowsers'. Meanwhile, the alcohol industry moved to identify itself with high-valued features of Australian life. By the 1960s, a dynamic of relaxation of alcohol controls had started, starting with repeal of six o'clock closing and continuing to the present day.

Copyright 2010, Econtent Management


Saltz RF; Paschall MJ; McGaffigan RP; Nygaard PMO. Alcohol risk management in college settings the Safer California Universities randomized trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(6): 491-499, 2010. (20 refs.)

Context: Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention strategies are few in number and have been limited by their nonexperimental designs, inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur. Purpose: To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings. Design: The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half of which were assigned randomly to the Safer intervention condition after baseline data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after 1 year of planning with seven Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters (2003-2006). Setting/participants: Campuses and communities surrounding eight campuses of the University of California and six in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random samples of undergraduates (similar to 500-1000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public California universities. Intervention: Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations, minor decoy operations, driving-under-the-influence checkpoints, social host ordinances, and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies. Main outcome measures: Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting. Results: Significant reductions in the incidence and likelihood of intoxication at off-campus parties and bars/restaurants were observed for Safer intervention universities compared to controls. A lower likelihood of intoxication was observed also for Safer intervention universities the last time students drank at an off-campus party (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68, 0.97); a bar or restaurant (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.62, 0.94); or any setting (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.65, 0.97). No increase in intoxication (e. g., displacement) appeared in other settings. Further, stronger intervention effects were achieved at Safer universities with the highest level of implementation. Conclusions: Environmental prevention strategies targeting settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur appear to be effective in reducing the incidence and likelihood of intoxication among college students.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Science


Steen JA. A multilevel study of the role of environment in adolescent substance use. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 19(5): 359-371, 2010. (29 refs.)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between county-level characteristics and adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. The study consisted of a hierarchical generalized linear analysis of secondary data from the Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Variables on the county level included the percent of adolescents in the county reporting the presence of a Boys Girls Club, neighbors available to adolescents needing to talk, abandoned buildings, and easy access to the substance. The easy access variable explained a majority of the variance in the county-level log odds of use. The results provide support for policies that restrict access to alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana.

Copyright 2010, Haworth Press


Strasburger VC; Fuld GL; Mulligan DA; Altmann TR; Brown A; Christakis DA et al. Policy Statement. Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse, and the Media. Pediatrics 126(4): 791-799 , 2010. (129 refs.)

The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related ( tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.

Copyright 2010, American Academy of Pediatrics


van Amsterdam J; Opperhuizen A; Koeter M; van den Brink W. Ranking the harm of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs for the individual and the population. European Addiction Research 16(4): 202-207, 2010 , 2010. (8 refs.)

Drug policy makers continuously face a changing pattern of drug use, i.e. new drugs appear on the market, the popularity of certain drugs changes or drugs are used in another way or another combination. For legislative purposes, drugs have mostly been classified according to their addictive potency. Such classifications, however, lack a scientific basis. The present study describes the results of a risk assessment study where 19 recreational drugs (17 illicit drugs plus alcohol and tobacco) used in the Netherlands have been ranked by a Dutch expert panel according to their harm based on the scientific state of the art. The study applies a similar approach as recently applied by Nutt et al. [Lancet 2007; 369: 1047-1053], so that the results of both studies could be compared. The harm indicators scored are acute and chronic toxicity, addictive potency and social harm. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the legal classification of drugs in the Netherlands corresponds with the ranking of the drugs according to their science-based ranking of harm. Based on the results, recommendations are formulated about the legal classification of recreational drugs at national and international level which serves a rational approach for drug control.

Copyright 2010, Karger


Van Hoof JJ; Gosselt JF; de Jong MDT. Determinants of parental support for governmental alcohol control policies. Health Policy 97(2-3): 195-201, 2010 , 2010. (40 refs.)

Aim: To explore determinants that predict parental support for governmental alcohol control policies in the Netherlands. Method: A questionnaire was administered among 1550 parents, containing six possible predictors to explain support for alcohol control policies. Results: Parental support can be explained by five partly normative predictors (R-2 = .503). Parents with lower drinking frequencies are stricter and more supportive than parents who consume more alcohol. Higher-educated parents are stricter than lower-educated parents. Conclusion: In general, parents do support governmental alcohol control policies. Communication of the fact that youth alcohol consumption is problematic tends to increase parental support. Also, if policy makers are able to influence parents' opinions on the consequences of alcohol consumption, as well as the norm of not consuming alcohol before 16 years of age, then parental support increases. Parents' experiences with drunken youths also explain support. Factual knowledge does not influence support, so information campaigns alone do not increase parental support.

Copyright 2010, Elsevier Sciences


Wood DS. Alcohol controls and violence in Nunavut: A comparison of wet and dry communities. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 70(1): 19-28, 2011. (32 refs.)

Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine if communities in Nunavut that prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages have less violence relative to communities that allow alcohol importation. Study design. A retrospective cross-sectional study based on community-level records of violent crimes known to the police. Methods. Violence was measured using community-level records of homicide, assault and sexual assault as reported to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 23 communities in Nunavut for the years 1986 to 2006. Crude-rate comparisons were made between wet communities (which allow alcohol importation) and dry communities (which prohibit alcohol importation) and contrasted with national rates for context. Results. Wet communities in Nunavut recorded rates of violent crime that were higher than the rates recorded by dry communities. Relative to dry communities, wet communities' overall sexual assault rate was 1.48 (95% CI=1.38-1.60) times higher, the serious assault rate was 2.10 (95% CI=1.88-2.35) times higher and the homicide rate was 2.88 (95% CI=1.18-8.84) times higher. Although safer than wet communities, dry communities reported rates of violence that were higher than national rates including a serious assault rate that was double the national rate (3.25 per 1,000 vs. 1.44 per 1,000) and a sexual assault rate that was at least seven times as high as the national rate (7.58 per 1,000 vs. 0.88 per 1,000). Conclusions. As elsewhere in the Arctic, communities in Nunavut that prohibited alcohol were less violent than those that allowed alcohol importation. Even with prohibition, dry communities recorded rates of violence much greater than the national average.

Copyright 2011, International Association of Circumpolar Health Publlishing